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Date 12-15 Sept. 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 78
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Copyright notice]

    Page(s): ii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): iii - xii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Front matter]

    Page(s): xiii - xxviii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • ATE and TPS management

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (995 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of this paper to discuss Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) and Test Program Set (TPS) management strategy efforts to improve support and reduce logistics costs within the Air Force. The emphasis of this paper will be on two subtopics; efforts to reduce proliferation of unique Automatic Test Systems (ATS) and the impact of technology and software advances as they relate to how the Air Force (AF) works to standardize the TPS process. Both subtopics have a focus on standardization and reduction in life cycle costs for the Air Force. View full abstract»

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  • Modernizing a DoD ATS family - part II

    Page(s): 8 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (926 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper follows up the paper “Modernizing a DoD ATS Family” by William A. Ross that was published in the Proceedings of IEEE AUTOTESTCON 2005. That paper reviewed the Navy's CASS modernization planning, including the requirements leading to a need to modernize CASS, the goals and objectives of the modernization program, identification and evaluation of alternatives, and major issues to be addressed. It concluded with the Navy's vision for the modernized CASS. This paper reviews the activities and events that actually happened between the initial planning through award of the eCASS System Design and Development contract in March 2010. It compares the current objectives and expectations of the program with those listed in 2005. It details exactly which configurations of the CASS family will be replaced by eCASS, and it describes the eCASS mission areas and how they will be addressed through the implementation of Mission Equipment Kits. It describes the initial architecture and instrumentation of the eCASS station and discusses the migration of test program sets to eCASS from mainframe CASS. It describes the plans for taking eCASS into production and fielding, and for sustaining mainframe CASS during the fielding process. View full abstract»

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  • Future logistics approaches

    Page(s): 12 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (914 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Moving towards the future in government testing is challenging yet very exciting. With newer platforms, Built in Test (BIT) and Built in Self Test (BIST) are used much more extensively than with legacy platforms. Additionally, some of the old design philosophies we once put aside have become new again, and have gained a much wider acceptance. This includes ensuring systems, including test systems, are supportable for life without being tied to the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) for every hardware and software change. The Department of Defense (DoD) and the Air Force are actively involved in developing logistics capabilities to provide better approaches to platform systems support. View full abstract»

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  • The Vector Network Analyzer - an essential tool in modern ate measurements

    Page(s): 16 - 21
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (877 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) is a modern piece of test gear that was once relegated to specialized measurements in the RF lab. The instrument was large, expensive, and primarily used by the designers of the lower level RF modules. It really didn't offer a reasonable performance advantage that would justify the increased cost to have it added to the standard ATE system. Older VNAs were often delicate and larger than the balance of the RF test gear. View full abstract»

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  • Rapid development and porting of new waveforms for Synthetic Instrumentation

    Page(s): 22 - 25
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Changing standards and newly defined waveforms make keeping up with test requirements without the purchase of new, expensive measurement systems or software is desirable. The Long Term Evolution (LTE) Advanced, Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials Project 25 (APCO-25 or P25), and TErrestrial Trunked RAadio (TETRA) standards are a few examples of developing standards changing requirements for test equipment. With the move to digital communications, test systems are faced with additional new test requirements and methods of measurement. Instead of implementing independent specific waveform options into the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) algorithms of the synthetic instrument a more generic algorithm design method is implemented and described in this paper. With the development of generic digital modulation and demodulation algorithms, rapid development and porting of new waveforms becomes possible. View full abstract»

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  • Scalable benchtop test system applying IEEE-P1693 MIPSS standard

    Page(s): 26 - 34
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3001 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses Modular Integration Packaging for Scalable System (MIPSS) being developed under a preliminary standard IEEE-P1693 and describes a benchtop application of the new architecture design. The building block approach segments a test system into core and augmented elements as illustrated in Figure 1. MIPSS defines the electrical and mechanical specifications of a modular interconnect packaging system design for Automatic Test System (ATS) that can be applied in portable/benchtop and rack mounted versions. It specifically, describes a building block approach based upon the integration of four elements: (1) the mechanical chassis that forms the mechanical structure of the building block with alignment features to mate with other enclosures [building blocks], optional test interface choice emulating DOD Interface Standards [1] [2]; (2) merging of VXI/PXI/M-Module [3] [4] [5] multi-standard instrumentation under a single plug&play platform along; (3) mechanical/electrical extension that couples the instrumentation directly to a pluggable test interface panel of choice that connects to the Unit-Under-Test (UUT); and (4) a new pluggable virtual power source. These elements serve to significantly downsize footprint, reduce costs, reuse existing VXI inventory and integrate multi-standard instruments in a common platform, improve maintainability, support organic plug&play integration and enhance current VXI-based DOD ATS (Fig.1), or commercial ATS applications. View full abstract»

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  • Relays fail - test systems don't have to

    Page(s): 35 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (890 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the trend in automated test continues toward hardware standardization, engineers increasingly rely on large switch architectures to customize the connectivity in their applications. When designed correctly, these switch systems route signals almost transparently between instruments and test points, improving measurement repeatability and reducing test time. Unfortunately, while these switches maximize flexibility, the number of potential failure points increases with each new relay in the system. Switching considerations are often overlooked during development, and the resulting automated test equipment (ATE) performance is frequently diminished. To successfully integrate switching, engineers need to design systems to avoid, anticipate, and resolve system failures. This paper examines some techniques to effectively manage the risks associated with large switching systems. View full abstract»

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  • Common RF test platform

    Page(s): 40 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1551 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wide range of Radio Frequency (RF) assemblies require testing during their development and production. These include amplifiers, mixers, filters, up converters, down converters, antennas, phase shifters, power dividers, power combiners, Integrated Master Assemblies (IMAs), Weapons Replaceable Assemblies (WRAs), Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) and radio subassemblies. Though there are many differences between the RF assemblies, they all require a test system that is accurate, reliable and traceable while simultaneously minimizing test times. Other important attributes of a test platform for RF assemblies are that it must be calibrated, fully-characterized and incorporate self-test functionality. The test platform must also include a digital control solution for triggering, communicating with Units Under Test (UUT) and interfacing with handlers, fixtures, etc. Finally, the software for the test equipment must also be considered. Typical software functionality would include sequencing, reporting, testing, calibration, and self-test. While it is certainly possible to develop a test system specific to each type of RF assembly; there are many benefits to developing a common RF test platform that includes the functionality listed above. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a business case template for organizational-level testers

    Page(s): 47 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Interim results of ongoing research and analysis required to develop a template or analytical tool for business case analysis, (BCA) are presented. This paper provides the results of numerous queries of F-15A/B/C/D maintenance database and difficulties encountered while attempting to obtain maintenance and logistics data that could be used to both validate anecdotal evidence from the field and assess the total (enterprise) cost savings that are generated when an advanced O-level test capability is provided to the maintainer. It also provides a comparison between the F-15E (with full BIT capability) to the F-15A/B/C/D test approach that uses ATE for test and diagnostics. Lastly, it discusses the critical need and salient characteristics of a more advanced analytical tool that could be used by the sustainment engineer in the preparation of a business case for a proposed CBM+ project. View full abstract»

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  • When should intermittent failure detection routines be part of the legacy re-host TPS?

    Page(s): 54 - 59
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Intermittent failures are failures that do not manifest themselves all the time. The fact that they are sometimes there and sometimes aren't can make them very difficult to analyze.1 Some of the most difficult to diagnose faults are intermittent. It is very difficult to isolate intermittent faults which occur with low frequency.2 Intermittent electrical faults, as a rule, are notoriously difficult to detect. Sometimes an intermittent short or open circuit may leave visible signs of overheating or micro-arcing on a printed circuit board or a connector, but at other times damage may be on such a microscopic scale that it is likely to go undetected.3 The inability to find anything wrong by trying to reproduce the incident is no guarantee of the detection of an intermittent fault. This paper will discuss various ways to detect intermittent failures. The paper will discuss the root causes of intermittent failures. Also, a discussion will take place that addresses why we must pursue new techniques, methods and technologies to detect elusive failures. View full abstract»

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  • A transportability microcosm as an enabler for a family of testers

    Page(s): 60 - 65
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (733 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper will analyze a single simple instrument type to focus on ensuring transportability across a family of automated test equipment (ATE) testers. Transportability analysis and multiple hosting across a family of testers are important topics in advanced test and diagnosis of electronic assemblies. The ATE instrument type selected is direct current (DC) power supplies, where application of a DC voltage is complicated by impedance, transient and load characteristics. The ideal condition of a test program set (TPS) is the ability to tolerate the conditions described, but that condition is rarely achieved. Therefore, the family of testers must exhibit consistent behavior regardless of instrument manufacturer. View full abstract»

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  • A statistical approach to TPS transport optimization

    Page(s): 66 - 69
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the statistical challenges of TPS Transport. A TPS is not considered fieldable until all tests are passing. Based on the number of tests in a TPS and the inherent complexity of the transport process, the probability exists that less than 100% of all tests will pass the first time they are tested after undergoing the transport process. Optimizing what types of tests are transported significantly improves the probability that the next TPS will be successfully transported. This paper illustrates that prioritizing which functions to focus on can greatly improve the probability of success while reducing the overall characterization effort. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated model-based and data-driven fault detection and diagnosis approach for an automotive electric power steering system

    Page(s): 70 - 77
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (836 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Integrity of electric power steering system is vital to vehicle handling and driving performance. Advances in electric power steering (EPS) system have increased complexity in detecting and isolating faults. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model-based and data-driven approach to fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) in an EPS system. We develop a physics-based model of an EPS system, conduct fault injection experiments to derive fault-sensor measurement dependencies, and investigate various FDD schemes to detect and isolate the faults. Finally, we use an SVM regression technique to estimate the severity of faults. View full abstract»

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  • A non-destructive high-voltage low-energy intermittent fault location system

    Page(s): 78 - 86
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    The practical implementation of a high voltage/low energy portable tool is discussed to address the need for intermittent fault diagnostic solutions. Recent results from aircraft testing are reported, safety validation is discussed and future system upgrades are addressed to support ease of use as a field diagnostic tool. View full abstract»

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  • BIT/BITE/ED/EP/IVHM and ATE in DA

    Page(s): 87 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (598 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Automatic test equipment (ATE) in the Department of the Army (DA) finds itself in an ever challenging and changing role in an effort to support the Future Force of the 21st century. Challenging in that the ATE today must combat obsolescence while supporting both the legacy and future systems; and changing in that Army Transformation is transitioning from four (4) to two (2) levels of maintenance support. Advances in technology in the areas of built-in-test (BIT), built-in-test equipment (BITE), embedded diagnostics (ED), embedded prognostics (EP) and integrated vehicle health management (IHVM) have been the primary enablers allowing the DA to make major changes in maintenance, test philosophy and logistics in order to reduce cost, schedule and time. BIT/BITE/ED/EP/IVHM and ATE complement one another and each play a valuable and vital role in the maintenance and logistics support of the Future Force. View full abstract»

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  • Improving Electrical Ground Support Equipment development for satellite testing

    Page(s): 92 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1070 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines the basic test method employed with Electrical Ground Support Equipment; evaluates the technical merits associated with enhanced capabilities and compares the relative cost of these enhancements. In addition, the paper explores the pros and cons of replacing current manual operations with integrating automated test methods. This study is not intended to be a precise cost analysis but is intended to provide a comparison of technical enhancements along with a basic measure of cost. This paper will provide some practical examples to support the premise that automated test methods give rise to a more thoroughly tested spacecraft, reduced test times and potential cost savings. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a command and telemetry processing interface to be independent of ground control systems

    Page(s): 102 - 108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has developed numerous spacecraft for national security and civilian space applications that have used varied flight computers and ground control systems. On missions that have utilized different ground control systems, the command and telemetry (C&T) database development has been unique to the specific mission. On missions that have utilized a common ground control system, APL has leveraged a limited extent of commonality in the development of the C&T databases, which has shown promise in development, schedule, and cost efficiency and has improved the quality of the early C&T database deliveries. On its recent Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission (RBSP), APL developed a set of C&T tools to tackle the challenge of developing a common C&T database across multiple satellites, over full mission life cycles, that minimizes coupling with the core ground control system such that the use across different ground systems is maximized. This paper discusses the specific approach taken in evaluating the C&T database development for APL's past missions and the shortfalls that were encountered. Lessons learned were evaluated and decisions were made in implementing the RBSP C&T databases. The tool development is briefly discussed with an emphasis on the engineering use during satellite subsystem development. Recent successes during the testing are also presented. Finally, plans are described for continued improvement to the approach and tools for subsequent APL spacecraft so that the C&T database can be ported to other missions of interest. View full abstract»

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  • Cost impact of automated acceptance testing of Electrical Ground Support Equipment for spacecraft testing

    Page(s): 109 - 116
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2760 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In today's environment, building a reliable and cost-effective spacecraft is perhaps emphasized more than ever before. Sponsors are looking for the same high-quality products but at lower costs and with shorter schedules. Whether it is a spacecraft for the Department of Defense (DoD), a research observatory for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), or a commercial communications satellite, total cost is a significant factor. One of the areas where costs can escalate is in the integration and test (I&T) phase of the spacecraft life cycle. The I&T phase begins when the first component or subsystem is ready for integration into the spacecraft structure. As I&T progresses with additional subsystems (and associated test staff for those subsystems), scheduling tests becomes more complex because certain tests depend on other tests or tasks being completed. Because the large test team is on standby, any delays in testing can result in a substantial impact on cost. A way to help mitigate cost overruns is to incorporate automated testing. This paper is a follow-on discussion of a previous paper entitled "Reliability and Efficiency of Electrical Ground Support Equipment through Automation, Modularization, and Standardization" [1]. An enhancement proposed in this previous paper to automate the electrical ground support equipment (EGSE) acceptance testing has now been implemented, and the successes, as well as lessons learned, from this implementation are being presented here. As in the previous paper, the umbilical ground support equipment is the focus of the discussion. The design and implementation to automate the acceptance testing is described. Test durations of the automated and manual test cases are compared. To see the impact on cost of acceptance testing EGSE during the I&T campaign, the results are then extrapolated to include the typical set of EGSE used at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). View full abstract»

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  • An overview of the ATML family and related standards

    Page(s): 117 - 123
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The “IEEE Full-Use Standard for Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML) for Exchanging Automatic Test Equipment and Test Information via XML” (IEEE Std 1671™-2010) and all its `dot' standards have been published and are available from the IEEE. The ATML standards working group are currently revising these trial use `dot' standards to match their current development eXtendable Markup Language (XML) schemas in line with the full use IEEE Std 1671. The “Common” ATML XML schemas are posted to an IEEE download site on the World Wide Web, available for download and use. In short, the ATML standard and it's `dot' companions are now published, available, and their associated XML Schemas are downloadable from the Web, and in use across industry. View full abstract»

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  • Software tools: A key component in the successful implementation of the ATML standards

    Page(s): 124 - 129
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (900 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines the IEEE Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML) family of standards and some of the impediments which must be overcome to successfully implement these standards. The paper specifically focuses on how software tools can help alleviate these issues and increase the benefits of using these new standards in Automatic Test System (ATS) related applications. The ATML standards provide a common exchange format for test data adhering to the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard. ATML promises to provide interoperability between tools and multiple test platforms through the standardization of common test related data. The ATML standards have now been published through the IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 20 (SCC20) committee and are beginning to exhibit considerable interest in the ATS community and are now a requirement on some new Department of Defense (DoD) ATS programs. Different aspects of ATML related tools shall be discussed such as ATML Development tools which assist in the generation of ATML compliant instance files, new ATS related tools which use ATML data in their applications and the modification of existing ATS tools to utilize ATML Data. This paper also examines the work in progress of a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) sponsored program to develop ATML and test diagram tools. Utilizing ATML standards without the benefit of tools can be a labor-intensive, error-prone process, and requires an intimate knowledge of the ATML and XML standards. Employing the ATML standards on ATS programs promises to significantly reduce costs and schedule; the use of software tools are a key component in the success of these implementations and will help promote the use of ATML throughout the test industry. View full abstract»

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  • Achieving optimum test by applying standardization

    Page(s): 130 - 134
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (674 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Over the past two decades, the US Department of Defense (DoD) has seen the introduction of weapon systems that do not meet their diagnostic requirements when initially fielded. Some suffer false alarm rates over eighty percent [1]. During a product's lifecycle, the ability to determine how well it performs is based on the capability to test and the evaluation of those tests. Different tests and evaluations are required throughout the product's lifecycle. These tests must, therefore, have the standards that define parameters, techniques and procedures for measurements that present an accurate and precise communication of information. In order to effectively accomplish this task, the development of quality tests capable of supporting these tasks must be defined and documented for the design, production, and operations-and-support phases of a system's lifecycle. As a product proceeds through its life cycle, the information collected at each phase must be used for the support of subsequent phases. Demonstrations of avionics system and subsystem diagnostic capability are performed before a system or subsystem is verified. This ordinarily happens during the System Design and Demonstration phase of a program. In the case of aircraft orground vehicles, there are several subsystem demonstrations, followed by a single system-level event. A major issue plaguing the development of aircraft avionics systems is the lack of standardized methods to demonstrate full testability in a scientific and efficient manner before an aircraft is fielded. This is usually due to budgetary, schedule and knowledge constraints. Shannon and Knecht [1] surveyed diagnostic managers in government and Industry regarding the current state of test on major aircraft acquisition programs. The authors reported that there was "agreement that current guidance was insufficient to prevent erroneous, incomplete or insufficient testing at the system or subsystem level" before an aircraft was fielded. Each phas- - e of the acquisition process can be decomposed into a set of processes that can be grouped together. These groups can be further decomposed until there is sufficient information to completely describe the process. Using this technique, a hierarchical set of data items and their associated processes can be defined. From this group, the processes involved in testing can now be identified and used in activities that have multiple applications. In this paper, the authors present the process flows associated with the development and testing of a system. The authors identify where those processes typically break down "in the real world", due to constraints such as budget, schedule, lack of training/guidance for those involved, and other factors. The authors then recommend use of existing standards, at appropriate "break points", and suggest where new industry wide standards need to be developed if one does not currently exist. View full abstract»

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