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2011 IEEE 57th Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts (Holm)

Date 11-14 Sept. 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 62
  • HOLM 2011 - Title Page

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s): i
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  • HOLM 2011 [Copyright page]

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  • HOLM 2011 Conference Supporters

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s): i
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  • HOLM 2011 Steering Committee

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  • HOLM 2011 Conference Officers

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  • HOLM 2011 Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):i - v
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  • HOLM 2011 Foreword

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s): i
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  • HOLM 2011 In Memoriam

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):i - ii
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  • HOLM 2011 Morton Antler Lecture

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s): i
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (72 KB)

    The 2011 Morton Antler Lecture "Modern Design of Experiments (DOE) After 75 Years of Advancements in Multifactor Test Methods" was presented by Mark Anderson, Principal and General Manage, Stat-Ease, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA. A record of the lecrture was not made available for publication as part of the conference proceedings. The Morton Antler Lecture is an annual technical presentation given a... View full abstract»

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  • HOLM 2011 Erle Shobert Prize Paper

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):i - ii
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  • HOLM 2011 Armington Recognition Award

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s): i
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  • HOLM 2011 Author Index

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):i - ii
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  • Low-Voltage Arc Simulation with Out-Gassing Polymers

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1568 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Polymer walls and inserts are an important design criterion in low-voltage switching devices. Besides their good insulation properties they are used to influence the switching arc. An important part of the energy dissipated in the arc is absorbed by the walls of the arc chamber. This leads to degradation and evaporation of the polymer and subsequent impact on and interaction with the switching arc... View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Investigation of the Interaction of Interrupting Arcs and Gassing Polymer Walls

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1473 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Gassing polymer walls are used in circuit breakers to improve their interrupting and current limiting performance. The energy of the arc will be partially absorbed by the polymer walls, causing chemical degradation and evaporation. The evaporated gas reaches the arc plasma changing its composition and influencing its burning conditions. The resulting increase on pressure and arc voltage contribute... View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Voltage and Current on Arc Duration and Energy of DC Electromagnetic Contactor

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1083 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In this paper, experimental results were described for a general DC electromagnetic contactor switching under a permanent magnet for arc extinguishing. The experiment circuit was a series circuit of source voltage E, resistive load R and DC electromagnetic contactor. The closed contact current Io was adjusted by R. The influence of E and Io on arc duration ta and arc energy Ea of break arc were ex... View full abstract»

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  • A Preliminary Investigation of Graphite, Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes (CNT's) as Solid State Lubricants

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1460 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Graphite is well known and has been extensively characterized in its performance as a solid state lubricant, but has not typically been successfully implemented for low voltage/current electrical contacts. Recent advances have shown that both graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNT) exhibit novel properties and could find potential use as solid state lubricants. A comparison of various properties inclu... View full abstract»

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  • Contact Resistance with Dissimilar Materials: Bulk Contacts and Thin Film Contacts

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (630 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Contact resistance is important to integrated circuits and thin film devices, carbon nanotube based cathodes and interconnects, field emitters, wire-array z-pinches, metal-insulator-vacuum junctions, and high power microwave sources, etc. In other applications, the electrical contacts are formed by thin film structures of a few microns thickness, such as in micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) re... View full abstract»

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  • Arc Fault Model of Conductance. Application to the UL1699 Tests Modeling

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Differents types of arc faults can be responsible for the start of an electrical fire. Depending on the power system and the application (photovoltaic, vehicule, aircraft, residential wiring) the arc fault may involve contact or non-contact arcing with eventually semi-conductive materials in the vicinity. Other characteristics such as the gap distance or the electrode material and geometry may als... View full abstract»

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  • High Current Arc Erosion on Copper Electrodes in Air

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1 - 6
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (442 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    An arc fault inside metal enclosed switchgear will cause the pressure to rise and vaporization of electrode material may contribute to the pressure rise. An experimental study of high current arc erosion on copper electrodes in air has been performed, with an evaluation of fraction lost by gross melting and vaporization. All experiments were performed at NEFI High Voltage Laboratory in Skien, Norw... View full abstract»

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  • Whisker Growth under Controlled Humidity Exposure

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4800 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Studies of Sn whiskers under controlled, calibrated humidity conditions shows that the highest whisker densities occur for ~85% RH. The whisker specimens were 1500 Å Sn films sputtered under compressive stress conditions on silicon and electrochemically polished brass. Subsequently, the samples were exposed to a series of saturated aqueous salt solutions (which generated calibrated relative... View full abstract»

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  • The Effects of Current Density Variations in Power Contact Interfaces

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1424 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Greenwood's approach to interaction between current carrying contact spots was used to analyze the degradation of single spots. The degradation is assumed to occur from electro-migration which causes a non-uniform increase in the effective resistivity across each contact spot. The latter results were used to evaluate the degradation of a simulated multi-spot interface to demonstrate the cascade fa... View full abstract»

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  • Direct Observation of Current Density Distribution in Contact Area by Using Light Emission Diode Wafer

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (817 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Theoretically the Laplace equation can be used to calculate the current constriction behavior in electrical contacts. On the actual behavior of current constriction, although there are many reports on the contact resistance measurement, not many reports on the detailed behavior of current density distribution in the contact area experimentally. Therefore, we attempted to observe the behavior of th... View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Contact Parameters on Current Density Distribution in a Contact Interface

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The distribution of individual current paths within a smooth mated surface contact interface results in the areas of highest current density being located at the outer rim of the contact interface. As contact surface roughness increases, the areas of highest current density become more evenly distributed across the contact interface, though still biased toward the outer rim. This effect can be pre... View full abstract»

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  • Fretting Behavior of Nickel Coatings for Electrical Contact Applications

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1514 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Fretting remains a major cause of connector failure and can impair reliability in complex systems. Oxidizable metals such as tin, copper and nickel are particularly prone to fretting degradation. We report here the first results of an investigation on fretting of nickel contacts with two types of deposits. Sulfate nickel layers are electrodeposited in different conditions and show very different b... View full abstract»

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  • Research on Fretting Resistance and Fretting Wear Property of Ni-Au Contact Pair

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (691 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Au-Au plated contact pairs have long been the most frequently used in electrical and telecommunication system due to their outstanding electrical, physical and chemical properties. However, the increasingly high cost of gold plated connectors forces the manufacturers to seek some inexpensive substitution due to serious global competition. Ni and/or Ni alloy are naturally chosen to make Ni-Au conta... View full abstract»

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