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Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT), 2011 4th International Conference on

Date 6-9 July 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 348
  • Stationary and mobile battery energy storage systems for smart grids

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (571 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Renewable energy is a key technology in reducing global carbon dioxide emissions. Currently, penetration of intermittent renewable energies in most power grids is low, such that the impact of renewable energy's intermittency on grid stability is controllable. Utility scale energy storage systems can enhance stability of power grids with increasing share of intermittent renewable energies. With the grid communication network in smart grids, mobile battery systems in battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles can also be used for energy storage and ancillary services in smart grids. This paper will review the stationary and mobile battery systems for grid voltage and frequency stability control in smart grids with increasing shares of intermittent renewable energies. An optimization algorithm on vehicle-to-grid operation will also be presented. View full abstract»

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  • Load modeling practice in a smart grid environment

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 7 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper clearly demonstrates the process of load modeling. It contains basic load modeling terminology, the need for improved load model in smart grid environment, industry requirements for load models and load model methodology. The load modeling process is introduced in three parts: data collection, load aggregation and load model validation. Typical load models and parameter estimation techniques are reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability analysis of distributed system with DGs

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 14 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With distributed generation technologies becoming more and more sophisticated and the progressive development of distribution automation technology, the application of distributed generation in distribution power system is gradually broad and diverse. This paper first lists the common operation modes of distributed energy sources, then analyzes the different characters of distributed generation running either as backup energy sources or as part of a microgrid, and finally develops a reliability evaluation method for distribution network containing distributed generation running in two different modes separately. The application on RBTS system shows the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Research on coordinated dispatch of PEV charging and wind power in regional grid

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 18 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It's a long-term task to improve the ability of wind power accommodation for power grid. With PEVs' (Plug-in Electric Vehicle) rapidly development, the potential coordination between PEVs charging and wind power provides a possibility of multi-resource coordinated utilization on intelligent grid platform. PEVs charging load profile and impacts of different charging modes on grid are studied in this paper. On this basis, multi-time scale coordinated dispatch model of PEV-wind power is established. Based on the plan data and actual measurement data of north China and northwest China grids, the feasibility that PEVs are dispatched to smooth equivalent load fluctuation and accommodate excessive wind power is analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • Small hydro power plant analysis and development

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 25 - 30-
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Small Hydro Power (SHP) plants have many advantages over large scale hydropower generation. SHP has been identified as a good alternative to conventional electricity generation for many developing countries around the world. Run-of-the river type SHP plants contain considerable economic advantages. However these are affected by various technical and economic challenges. In this paper an economic analysis and development of a small hydro power plant is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Power systems transient stability preventive control incorporating network series compensation with the aid of If-Then rules extracted from a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 31 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (814 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power system preventive control is dominated by generation rescheduling. Other preventive control actions are rarely mentioned in the literature. This paper presents a transient stability preventive control design that takes series compensation into account. The design methodology is aided with the `If-Then' rules extracted from a trained multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network (ANN). Characteristic of this paper is twofold. We may have one more degree of freedom by incorporation of series compensation when designing preventive control, and we may have additional flexibility in deploying preventive control actions by means of the proposed methodology. Two preventive control schemes are presented and applied to 39-bus power system. Extensive computational studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposal. View full abstract»

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  • Study of the impact of wind generation on voltage stability in transmission networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 39 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (581 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years wind generation penetration level in both transmission and distribution networks has been increasing. The increase in integration is mainly due to environmental concern and the push for carbon-free power generation. In some remote areas economic factor could also be a major one. The size of wind turbines and wind farms are increasing and the influence of wind generation on voltage stability is slowly becoming a major concern. In this paper the P-V curve is studied at different penetration level of wind for investigating the impact of wind generation on voltage stability in transmission network. The study is concentrated at the voltage collapse point and the margin between it and the current operating point is used as a proximity indication. In addition, the impact of different penetration level on total real power losses based on system loadability is also investigated. In the simulation, we used a one month measured wind data. The IEEE 118-bus system is used as a sample test system using recorded and generated wind data and the wind sources are connected at different network locations. The commercial software Powerworld®Simulator is used to obtain simulated results. View full abstract»

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  • Study on load-shedding model based on improved power flow tracing method in power system risk assessment

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 45 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An improved method of load-shedding model based on power flow tracing is proposed in this paper. When the electric power system is in the process of over limit because of some faults or in the emergency situation, cutting part of load will make the system back to stability. This improved method provides a strategy for the load shedding procedure. Contribution factors and distribution factors between loads and generators are introduced in this paper. Those nodes with larger contribution factors and distribution factors will be selected to be adjusted. By this means it ensures that the adjustment on the overload lines is the most effective, while having little impact on the non-overload lines. By this way, it decreases the number of the nodes which should be regulated, which can improve the calculation speed and accuracy. The suggested method can be useful in the risk assessment of generation and transmission system for regulating power flow. In order to verify the algorithm proposed in this paper, the IEEE24-bus system is used and the result shows its validity, efficiency and accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Coordinated FACTS damping controller design based on a trajectory optimization method

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 51 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (774 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a trajectory-based optimization method to design FACTS in power systems is proposed, in which both the quality of transient process and the investment cost of FACTS devices can be judiciously considered. To solve this high nonlinear optimization problem, an improved differential evolution (DE) method is proposed. In the DE evolution, a chaotic operation is introduced in the algorithm when there stagnation symptom occurs. The proposed method is investigated on a 10-machine and 39-bus New England test system and the primary studies have shown its effectiveness and potential. View full abstract»

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  • Extensions of power system early-warning defense schemes by integrating wide area meteorological information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 57 - 62
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (540 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to cope with extreme natural disasters which appear more and more frequently, it is necessary to extend the data acquisition range from traditional electric quantity of power systems to macroscopic and microcosmic meteorology data, such as those on thunderstorm, typhoon, ice and snow, as well as pollution flashover, etc. Due to the mechanisms' differences, the data needed for early-warning might be different for various types of natural disasters. Taking thunderstorm as an example, this paper analyzes the mechanisms of natural disasters affecting power systems. The required data are discussed and an early-warning method is proposed based on data provided by a lighting location system. Firstly according to the proposed criteria, the thunder locations detected within the current interval are grouped into areas; secondly the results are matched with those of the previous interval; finally the most possible thunder areas can be estimated for the next several intervals. Unlike traditional models with annual average probability of thunder-striking faults, the proposed real-time probability model which considers real-time information is space dependent, as well as time dependent. Instead of being fixed, the list of preassigned faults to be on-line assessed is time varying. Thus, the task of online security analysis is adaptive and more efficient. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic contingency re-definition in power system security analysis

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 63 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The contingency analysis (CA) has been an important tool in power system planning and security analysis for decades. CA studies the impact of equipment outage on the system. This paper presents the dynamic contingency redefinition in power system security analysis. Contingency definition is usually accomplished in an off-line development environment. The pre-defined contingency cases are studied in the off-line or on-line contingency analysis program. Usually the contingency definition defines hypothetical equipment outage or fault. It does not explicitly specify the isolating breakers of the fault. The dynamic contingency re-definition takes into account the actual response of protection subsystem to the equipment outage. It identifies the breakers required for isolating the contingency equipment. This provides additional accuracy of post contingency results to ensure the analysis accuracy and the remedial action schemes emulated correctly. Each re-defined contingency is simulated in CA by opening these breakers to evaluate their impact on the system. The ability to respect the status of manually operated switches is important to ensure the simulation mimics protection schemes. Any non-contingency equipment forced out as a result of these breaker openings will be added to the contingency equipment list. All outage equipment and breakers will be listed on the contingency definition display for each contingency case. The contingency re-definition function has been integrated into power system security analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage sags mitigation with feeder fast-tripping overcurrent protection

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 67 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (177 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since voltage sags are mainly caused by distribution system faults, it is rational to design the sag mitigation schemes from the point of relay protection performance. This paper evaluates the voltage sag mitigation capability of definite-time overcurrent protection by introducing the protection characteristics into the CBEMA curve and analyzing the essence from the point of energy balance. The result proves the validity of sag mitigation with overcurrent protection. It is also showed that the only effective improvement measure is the available extension of the instantaneous relay protection zone. To achieve it, a non-selective fast-tripping overcurrent scheme is proposed. Cost analysis and case simulations demonstrate that the transient voltage quality can be improved considerably without any cost increases using the novel scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Realization scheme of directional unit protection based on travelling wave integral

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 73 - 77
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (671 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A set of scheme of directional unit protection based on travelling wave integral is designed. For main components in this scheme, such as fault phase selection component, fault direction discrimination component, lightning stroke and circuit breaker operation verification, etc., the theoretical analysis and criterion construction and simulation test are all carried out. Simulation data demonstrate that the fault conditions hardly have any influence on the performance of proposed discrimination principle for fault direction; the identification criterion for different signals can correctly distinguish fault signals from various disturbance signals and fault phase selection criterion can precisely choose fault phase. This protection technique has clear principle and simple construction, which is promising to be used in practical power engineering. View full abstract»

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  • A new method for identifying the fault location on series compensated lines based on transient fault information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 78 - 82
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (738 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on the transient circuit model of series compensated line, a new method for identifying the fault location relative to series capacitor (SC) is proposed. Comparing the transient model of series compensated line when fault occurs before the SC and the one when fault occurs after the SC, it is found that the only difference is the value of a model-parameter: it respectively equals 0 and a large value under the two circumstances. This method using transient data at several sample points after fault occurs calculates the model-parameter to identify the fault location. Since only the transient information before MOV operation is used, MOV's nonlinear characteristic needn't to be considered. The method is applicable to both single phase to earth fault and phase to phase fault. Moreover, communication channels can be saved for only locally derived information is used. The validity of the method is proved by simulating results. View full abstract»

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  • Performance testing of complete digital relays based on ATP-EMTP and IEC61850-9-2

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 83 - 87
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (937 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The complete digital relays are used increasing widely in recent years, where the traditional analog, hardwired and interface have been replaced by non-conventional instrument transformers and the digital communication link (process bus) based on IEC 61850-9-2 standard. It is shown that these new techniques will make a strong impact on relay performance testing. General methods of testing protective relays will be reviewed, including static characteristics testing, dynamic simulation and real time digital simulator (RTDS). Approaches for testing IEC 61850 compatible relays based on RTDS offer significant advantages when compared with other methods. However, the RTDS simulator is designed with powerful software and expensive hardware, which is not convenient enough to test complete digital relays. This paper presents the design of new relay performance testing scheme, especially for complete digital relays. At first, power system model is established in ATP-EMTP and fault transient data in accordance with COMTRADE will be obtained by offline simulation. Subsequently, transient data are converted to IEC 61850-9-2 format through the static relay testing instrument. Finally, the complete digital relays directly receive the fault sampled value by process bus and Ethernet switcher, and relays will act or not. The new testing scheme will be applied more efficiently to researching the complete digital relays, as the scale of testing is out of the limitation of simulator's hardware. A brief example by the new testing system is presented at the end of the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Research and application of the control and protection strategy for the ±500kV Xiluodu-Guangdong double bipole HVDC project

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 88 - 93
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (865 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ±500kV Xiluodu-Guangdong HVDC system in China is a 6400MW HVDC transmission in double bipole scheme. It is the new HVDC project designed in the scheme of two bipoles with common earth electrode and four DC transmission lines erected on the single tower. In contrast to the traditional bipole HVDC project, this double bipole project obviously has further requirement for the control and protection system. First, a detail research on operating modes is presented in this paper which fulfills both the flexibility and reliability requirements of the double bipole scheme. Then, the well-designed hierarchical configuration of the control and protection system is put forward, as well as the control function configuration which based on this system configuration. A complete backup control concept is introduced in this paper which substantially increases the reliability of the DC transmission. The two bipolar coordinated control strategies and the proper protection strategies are studied carefully and the effective principles are proposed. Some simulation results are presented to confirm the conclusion using the closed-loop simulation system which consists of the real-time digital simulator (RTDS) and the control and protection equipment that applied in site for this project. View full abstract»

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  • Operation and evaluation of the coordinated HVDC damping control system of China Southern Power Grid

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 94 - 98
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (968 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Summarizing and analyzing the response of the coordinated HVDC Damping Control System of China Southern Power Grid since it was in operation, this paper discusses how to explore the potential of the control system, gives the outlines of operating the control system in both normal and accident cases in point of dispatching and control, and puts forward suggestions to consummate a part of parameters and logic setting of the control system. View full abstract»

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  • Faults predictions and analysis on reliability of the ±660kV Ningdong HVDC power transmission system

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 99 - 103
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (513 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Common faults of HVDC power transmission systems are summarized. From the project experience and with reality the faults on Ningdong HVDC power transmission system which are prone to happen are predicted and the preliminary suggestions to prevent and solve them are given. Based on the analysis on reliability of HVDC power transmission systems of State Grid Corporation of China in 2009, the predictions and suggestions on the indices of scheduled energy unavailability and the forced energy unavailability as well as monopole and bipole forced outage times of Ningdong HVDC power transmission system are given. The predictions and analysis results given are available for reference in the decision-making of enhancing production management level of Ningdong HVDC power transmission systems and improving the operational reliability. View full abstract»

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  • Research on transmission congestion of power system containing wind farms based on genetic algorithm

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 104 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With large-scale integration of wind power, load flow distribution is highly uncertain. It is unrealistic to adopt traditional deterministic load flow calculation for system operation. What is more, load flow in some transmission lines may be increased to a level where a random event could cause the network collapse. A method of combined cumulants and Gram-Charlier expansion (CCGCE) to calculate probabilistic load flow distribution and a research on relieving transmission congestion by FACTS are proposed in this paper. On the basis of a thorough analysis of the international and domestic researches, this thesis firstly introduces mathematical models, including wind power, FACTS and system models. There are two typical FACTS instruments. One is the SVC, modeled with two ideal switched elements in parallel: a capacitance and an inductance. The other is the TCSC, modeled with three ideal switched elements in parallel: a capacitance, an inductance and a simple wire, which permits the value zero. Secondly, it discusses the procedures of Genetic Algorithm, which includes forming initial population, defining fitness function, and application of crossover, mutation and so on. Thirdly, it carries out two simulations. The first simulation demonstrates the accuracy and computational efficiency of CCGCE method by comparing to Monte Carlo method. The second simulation is composed of two parts. The first part is to find out the appropriate location and capacity of FACTS, and the second part is to check the congestion relieving after the installment of FACTS by CCGCE method. Finally, it suggests that the CCGCE method can significantly reduce the computational time, while maintaining a high degree of accuracy on probabilistic load flow calculation, and concludes that after the installment of FACTS, the transmission congestion of power system containing wind farms can be relieved well. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage balancing control of a novel modular multilevel converter

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 109 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3246 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is an emerging and highly attractive multilevel converter topology for medium and high voltage applications. In this paper, the equivalent circuit and power transmission model of MMC is proposed, based on which, the idea that control the current of positive leg and negative leg independently is brought up and a new multi-hierarchy method to balance the capacitor voltages is deduced. First, the average voltage of all submodules in a phase leg is got as a feedback to regulate the dc component of current command, which controls the average voltage of capacitors in a phase leg. Second, by adding active current to the positive leg current command and reverse phase active current to the negative leg can balance the average voltage of the capacitors in positive leg between negative leg. Third, a compensate signal which is added into the PWM control signal of each submodule makes each capacitor voltage in a leg balanced. The feasibility of independent leg current control, as well as the effectiveness of voltage-balancing control is verified by simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and practice on ancillary services compensation mechanism in China Southern Power Grid

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 115 - 118
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the ancillary services compensation mechanism in China Southern Power Grid(CSG), explains the relevant measurement algorithm and compensation standard, analyzes the operation status and existing problems based on the actual data, and discusses some recommendations. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid simulation of generation and transmission planning in market environment

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 128 - 133
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (750 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In market environment, the decisions of generation and network planning are made by separate economic entities, rather than one integrated utility. Because of the physical connection between generation and network, it is necessary to coordinate the two kinds of planning and solve the conflicts between the subjective individual game actions in economic and the objective law in physical. The current researches on the coordination between the two kinds of planning are reviewed and their shortages are indicated. The interactive influence between generation planning and network planning is discussed. Power trading is constrained by network congestions, and the competitive forces of the generators in congested areas are relatively lower. Constructing new lines and other relevant infrastructures can relieve congestions and reduce operation risks. Meanwhile, the competitive forces of the generators are affected differently. The newly-built generating capacity may enlarge the investor's market share and profitability. At the same time, it may influence the grid congestion situation and grid operation risks. The influences of the investors' planning to the economic efficiency of the power industry are also analyzed based on the hybrid simulation. On the basis of a discussion about the regulator's responsibilities in system planning, a preliminary regulation or coordination mechanism is suggested. After all the market entities submit their planning, regulator will issue audit opinions and modify the information on generalized congestions resulting from simulations. All investors can adjust their own decision under the guidance of the new constraints and submit their planning again. The tentative process would be iterated until satisfactory results are achieved. The experiments based on DSPMPS (Dynamic Simulation Platform for Power Market and Power System) analysis the interaction between the two kinds of planning and the influence of the two kinds of planning to the whole s- - ystem. View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent systems for power system dynamic security assessment: Review and classification

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 134 - 139
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Intelligent System (IS) technologies have shown encouraging potential in facilitating very fast power system dynamic security assessment (DSA) in recent years. In general, the development of the IS consists of four stages. This paper conducts a comprehensive and detailed review on each stage and classifies the methods involved in the stages. The classification highlights the differences between the methods and show their advantages and deficiencies. The value of this paper is that it can serve as a useful and practical guideline to assist in developing ISs for very fast DSA. Moreover, the proposed classifications can provide deep insight into the enhancement of the IS towards improved DSA performance. View full abstract»

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  • Economic dispatch considering volatile wind power generation with lower-semi-deviation risk measure

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 140 - 144
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (571 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Renewable and low carbon electricity resources have become increasingly popular all over the world. Traditional Economic Dispatch models generally only pursue the minimum of operation cost in a deterministic way, which cannot take the most essential features of these non-dispatchable electricity generations such as WPG (wind power generation). In order to take WPG's uncertainty into account, scenarios are generated where LHS (Latin hypercube sampling) method is adopted, and scenario reduction is applied to reduce the computational burden. Taking advantage of MLASD (mean lower-semi-absolute-deviation) model which can be transformed into simple format and reflects investors' downside loss aversion, the ED model proposed in this paper deals with the trade-off between expectation and risk of the total thermal units' operation cost. Numerical results show that the proposed model can well reflect the essential characteristics of economic dispatch with WPG, and the optimization problem can be solved with fast speed. The proposed model provides a new idea for economic dispatch considering volatile wind power and other kinds of renewable electricity resources. View full abstract»

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  • An overview on peak regulation of wind power integrated power systems

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 145 - 150
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (889 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Peak regulation capability is commonly regarded as the bottleneck of the integration of wind power to the system. This paper focuses on peak regulation related issues for wind power integrated systems, makes a survey on state-of-the-art achievements in each relative field, and proposes some suggestions. The peak regulation related issues for wind power integrated systems are categorized into four groups in this paper: i) load demand forecast and analysis; ii) comparison of different generating units' regulation capability. The pumped storage plant is especially mentioned due to its good regulating capability; iii) peak regulation capacity determination; iv) peak regulation scheduling, which gives some practical suggestions of scheduling variable peak regulation capacities to meet the requirements of security and economy from systematic standpoints. The whole functional schematic figure is given finally, and some further researches are indicated. View full abstract»

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