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Fly by Wireless Workshop (FBW), 2011 4th Annual Caneus

Date 14-17 June 2011

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  • [Title page]

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Copyright notice]

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Design methodology of a high power RF MEMS switch for wireless applications

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1142 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In modern telecommunication and space electronic applications, RF-MEMS snitch components offer great potential benefits such as high isolation, low insertion loss, low power consumption, and excellent linearity characteristics. However, the high power MEMS RF switch capability remains the key problem for high power amplifiers within the system. This paper presents the development of a systematic and generic design methodology for high power RF MEMS switch. The methodology is followed by a chip layout design. In this research, the switch is designed to handle a minimum 1W incident RF signal power from 3 to 12 GHz with acceptable insertion and return losses of better than -0.1 dB and -17 dB respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Improving TCP congestion control for wireless sensor networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1947 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The development of wireless technologies makes it necessary to find a way of improving Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) efficiency with regards to optimal utilization of wireless channel capacity. This paper describes a modification to the TCP congestion control for use in wireless sensor networks. It shows that by slightly modifying the algorithm of the TCP, it can be made to respond better to wireless links, while maintaining its advantages on the wired networks at the same time. This is certainly a very desirable feature as the conventional TCP in most cases contradicts the demands of the wireless links of the network. Our simulation results indicate that the modified TCP gives better performance in terms of higher throughput, delay, retransmission, and energy consumption than conventional TCP protocol. View full abstract»

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  • Airborne-ViFi™: Airborne V-band wireless network structure

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1958 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a system architecture for an Airborne Wireless Network that utilizes the unlicensed Y-band (60 GHz) Spectrum while resolving the propagation challenges that exist in this band. This architecture can support variety of waveforms, including 802.11 and Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) and provides anti-shadowing capability to provide mobility throughout the network coverage area. A gigabit implementation of the system for delivery of high resolution real time video and data in an aircraft cockpit to the pilot is shown and design considerations are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Emerging in-flight end-user needs for entertainment, computing and communications

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1367 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Next generation technological infrastructure development requires an understanding of the emerging user needs discerned from trends in technology adoption and development. This paper explores a number of emerging needs in in-flight entertainment, computing and communications services (IFEC). These services are mostly value-adds that are more likely to succeed than just pure internet access, and some of the services also enable better in-flight service, thus reducing operating costs. View full abstract»

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  • Review of recent passive wireless SAW sensor and sensor-tag activity

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (609 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During the past several years, work has been ongoing at corporate, government laboratory', and university research groups to develop passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and sensor-tags. These efforts have led to SAW sensors that operate wirelessly in environments considerably more extreme than those in which silicon-based sensors can operate. Advances have also been made in sensor coding, allowing production of small sets of sensors that can be individually read. The use of SAW devices as wireless interfaces to external impedance varying and voltage producing sensors and devices has also been demonstrated. This article provides a brief overview of recent advances made in this technology by several companies. View full abstract»

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  • More wireless systems onboard of aircraft with metallic nanoparticles

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    Nowadays using Polymer Matrix Composites is the general direction in aeronautic industry. This approach has many advantages like. multi-functionality, simplicity and particularly weight issue. But these materials do not perform as metals in terms of electromagnetic shielding. Co-cured expanded metal (e.g. copper) foil inside composite has been chosen as the standard solution for mitigation. However composites with extended metal foil will loose the performance dramatically starting from a few GHz in HIRF environment. Studies done by RTCA. EUROCAE and certification authorities show the significant effects of wireless interference on avionic system of composite aircraft. Moreover front door coupling has been observed. The back door coupling is solved through HIRF certification but front door remains. Studies done by NIST show the low protection of composite aircraft against electromagnetic energy particularly in HIRF environment. Light weight EM shield for composite aircraft particularly in frequency range of concern (possibility of replacing the expanded metallic foil in certain zones by Nanotechnology solution) is needed because it appears to be the solution for limiting the risks related to the usage of wireless systems. Using the metallic nanoparticle inside the aircraft structure will provide more protected composite fuselage for a few GHz range of frequency and applying more wireless systems onboard of aircraft which has been studied in this work. View full abstract»

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  • Optical true time-delay beam-forming for phased array antenna using a dispersion compensating fiber and a multi-wavelength laser

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1699 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have proposed optical true-rime delay beam-forming system using a DCF and a multi wavelength laser for phase array antenna. Total time delay for each wavelength band originated from group delay of a DCF and the fixed delay line. As a result, a DCF for 80 km NZ-DSF could be used to obtain the radiation angle of 180° by tuning the multi-wavelengths of laser in the proposed optical true-time delay. View full abstract»

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  • SHM implementation

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1833 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    After labor and fuel, maintenance represents the third costly expense in operational support of both regional and national carriers. These maintenance cost generally represent 15-18% of the operational costs and are estimated to be approximately 67% of the total ownership cost. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), a subset of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM), is seen as an approach to decrease operation and support costs down to a more desirable 50%. For the past several years, several organizations have been investigating and conducting research in the area of SHM with an end objective of conducting fall scale SHM demonstration activities to enhance platform availability through the adoption of advanced maintenance concepts, technologies and methodologies. This document provides an overview of structural health monitoring technology. It introduces the development of emerging concepts and technologies and it discusses several implementation challenges within the aerospace field. View full abstract»

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  • Design, construction and fly-by-wireless control of an autonomous Quadrotor helicopter

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    Abstract-This paper describes the design, development and analysis of an autonomous Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is controlled using fly-by-wireless technology. A communication protocol between the UAV and a Ground Control Station (GCS) is established to continuously send information from the on-board sensors to the GCS. There, a controller computes the control signal in real-time and sends it back to the UAV to act upon the actuators. An Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a sonar are used as sensors to determine the attitude angles and the height of the UAV, respectively. A state-feedback controller is designed by pole placement. Considering the delays of the wireless network, a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is used to determine if the stability of the system is affected by the delay. Some results are presented from initial flight experiments in which attitude angles and altitude are stabilized. View full abstract»

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  • Interference reduction in Wireless Passive Sensor Networks using directional antennas

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1242 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we study a Wireless Passive Sensor Network (WPSN) that employs binary coded differential delay line surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices to monitor temperature in a harsh conditioned environment. The sensors are individually addressed by different reflector patterns. The number of sensors in the system is related to the coded reflectors pattern length which itself is limited by the size constraint of sensors. We propose a new sectorized system model for the WPSN by utilizing a phased circular antenna array to increase the number of sensors in the system that yields higher sensing spatial accuracy. Moreover, the sensing accuracy is further improved by a new two-step detection procedure that purifies the response signal and removes the interference of undesired sensors. View full abstract»

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  • Emerging wireless applications in aerospace: Benefits, challenges, and existing methods

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    Wireless communication is being considered to replace various wired connections in the aerospace industry as it promises a multitude of advantages such as low weight, robustness, ease of system maintenance, modularity, expandability, and low cost Despite popular belief, wireless links can be very secure and reliable too. Wireless applications in aerospace vary from in-flight-entertainment (IFE) that requires huge multiuser, multimedia grade bandwidth to wireless sensing, command, control, and prognostics health monitoring (PHM) applications that require high reliability but low bandwidth. In addition, non interference with aircraft electronics, anti-jamming property, high level of security and a dedicated reserved frequency band are among critical requirements needed for emerging wireless applications in aerospace. Therefore, existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) wireless solutions are not suitable for direct use in the aerospace industry, and specialized solutions need to be developed. The objective of this paper is to provide a review of existing wireless connectivity methods for various applications, their diverse requirements and shortcomings, and report ongoing research efforts. View full abstract»

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  • Low-power wireless sensor network with compressed sensing theory

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1032 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have application in a variety of fields including inhospital locations, military purposes, transportation automation, home and industrial automation. WSNs also are used in monitoring synchronous or asynchronous events that require periodic data collection. WSNs consist of a large number small device or Wireless Nodes (WNs) and are responsible for sensing, collecting, processing and monitoring information of real world environments. WSNs consist of a Data Acquisition Network (DAN) and a Data distribution Network (DDN) which monitored and controlled by a management center. The primary limiting factor for the lifetime of a WSN is the power supply. Regarding the applications of WSNs it is often impossible to obtain physical access to replace or charge battery. Therefore we can design low power WSNs. In WSNs, the events are sparse signal compared with the number of sources. That is why; the compressed sensing theory holds promising to reduce power consumption. Compressed Sensing shows that spars signals such as signals of WSNs can be exactly reconstructed from a small number of random linear measurements. Compressed Sensing theory can reduce number of bits information through whole of the network and consequently decrease amount of current that drawn from power supply. With this in mind, we introduce a new mechanism to design low-power WSN with compressed sensing theory. This paper gives a background of compressed sensing theory, and then describes important concepts in wireless sensor networks, and finally our simulation by applying compressed sensing in WSNs theory is described. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission delay in wireless sensing, command and control applications for aircraft

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1295 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless sensing, command, control and prognostics health monitoring (PHM) solutions provide the promise of ease of system maintenance and upgrade, reduced life-cycle cost and could significantly improve system safety, security and overall comfort On the contrary, utilizing wireless connectivity introduces a number of challenges such as resilience against anti jamming and interference avoidance. In this paper, we particularly discuss the problem of varying time delays for a wireless link. An exemplary application is elaborated as case study for wireless transmission of PHM for a more-electric aircraft (MEA) where transmission delay has to be extremely small. The discussion is continued with some delay measurements to highlight the current limitation of some of the existing wireless solutions. It is concluded that existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) wireless solutions are not suitable for direct use in this type of applications, and specialized solutions need to be developed. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of orientation and obstacles on the RFID performance

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    The impact of environmental configurations on the characteristics and performance of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) passive Ultra High Frequency (UHF) tags was presented. Orientation and obstacle effects on the performance of an RFID system were investigated. The range detection sensitivity, the tag orientation sensitivity, as well as the RFID system reliability to the presence of obstacles have been evaluated and reported. Improved system reliability and range of detection were achieved in the absence of obstacles (free space) and degraded exponentially in the presence of such obstacles, with zero detection for metallic films. A tag orientation of 90° increased the sensitivity range by two folds while the same reliability was maintained. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-channel routing algorithm for cluster-tree wireless sensor networks in aerospace applications

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (926 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless sensor networks can effectively reduce complexity, weight, and costs of aerospace onboard communication systems. However, it is necessary to optimize these networks in order to extend their autonomous lifetime. The use of a multi hop communication strategy in a cluster-tree network is a useful mechanism to reduce the energy per packet. In this paper, a distributed method based on joint channel and delay allocation is proposed to reduce the collision probability in this kind of networks. It allows us to increase the spectral efficiency of the network using many channels simultaneously. Furthermore, it coordinates the nodes to avoid beacon collisions, which is one of the main issues in this topology when the beacon enabled mode of IEEE 802.15.4 is used. This distributed strategy not only reduces the installation costs of networks with manually allocated resources, but also outperforms their performance since it adapts, both the packet routing and the resource allocation according to the channel conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Compact wireless GPS/inertial system

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports the state of works in the development of a wireless, low-cost, inertial georeferencial system, designed to evaluate the obtainable performance in aerial photogrammetry direct georeferencing applications. It integrates an advanced tri-axial inertial-sensor with a GPS and a wireless module. A low-cost camera has been also interfaced. The information management is carried out by two 8bit microcontrollers; synchronization, data handling and communication between them and the functional blocks is managed in order to optimize the data transmission throughput. In building the prototype, particular effort has been spent to minimize size and weight and to increase battery autonomy. A PC interface, allowing for parameters control and data logging, completes the system. The reported preliminary testing results point out the system potentialities and let to foresee a wide field of applications. View full abstract»

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  • A novel scheme for predictive channel access in wireless sensor networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1163 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper outlines a novel scheme for predictive channel access methodology to enhance medium access reliability and reduce probability of interference in case of using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant WSN nodes under co-existence of communications for FBW applications. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated using real-world IEEE 802.11g traffic, and the results show that free channel access rates of WSN nodes can be significantly improved. View full abstract»

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  • A low-complexity short-distance IR-UWB transceiver for real-time asynchronous ranging

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1805 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper conceptualizes an integrated clock less and multipath-robust Impulse Radio-Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) transceiver for communication and localization purposes. The ranging scheme is based on the use of the same transceiver installed both in the anchor and in the mobile nodes, for a Two-Way-Ranging (TWR) Time of-Flight (ToF) estimation. The transmitter and receiver are implemented in a 130 nm RFCMOS technology. This paper presents the block scheme of the transmitter and the receiver, as well as the ranging scheme, prior to the chip validation and test. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of wireless technologies on launch vehicles

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1005 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless technologies provides unique advantages in their implementation on launch vehicles in two major areas, Low Cost Drop-in wireless telemetry systems and Stage to stage wireless communication. Low-Cost Drop-in wireless telemetry systems provide engineers the ability to easily integrate new sensors in the later stages of vehicle development with minimal changes to vehicle configuration. Statge to stage wireless communication systems provide a risk mitigating alternative to traditional break away umbilicals between stages. View full abstract»

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  • Technological foundation for future intra-aircraft wireless applications: Technology assessment

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the results of an assessment process carried out in the department of Safety Critical Systems & Systems Engineering inside the Institute of Flight Systems of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) for selecting the technological foundation to be used on future airborne intra-aircraft wireless applications. This paper summarizes the requirements imposed by the applications to be implemented wirelessly onboard an aircraft and introduces the benchmark criteria selected for comparing the various wireless standards. Finally, it describes the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) and sensitivity analysis methods used for supporting the objective selection processes of the most suitable wireless technologies for different sets of requirements. The work presented here as a part of the research work accomplished in DLR has determined that fundamental parameters for the design of real-time, deterministic data communication systems, like jitter among others must be defined before their technology foundation can be accurately selected. It has also identified some of the technology gaps which limit the implementation of wireless technologies for supporting airborne applications. View full abstract»

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  • Technological foundation for future intra-aircraft wireless applications: State of the art of wireless data transmission

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (645 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Presents the results of an assessment process carried out in the department of Safety-Critical Systems & Systems Engineering inside the Institute of Flight Systems of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) for selecting the technological foundation to be used on future airborne intra-aircraft wireless applications. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in wireless data transmission technologies by describing the different physical principles which enable transmitting data without the need of wires or fibers; as well as by providing a summary of the wireless data communication standards currently available. The work presented here as a part of the research work accomplished in DLR has determined that a more in depth analysis of the airborne applications and of the wireless technologies must be made before their technology foundation can be accurately selected. View full abstract»

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  • Automated charging system for mobile phones

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1391 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this modern society each one of us do have a mobile phone with us and some have more than one. This fast growth in cell phone usage symbolifies utilization of energy in a vast scale. This enhances the speed of depletion of energy resources. The advancements in technology have gifted us mobile phones that are capable of functioning for months without charging. This was considered as a great achievement at the time of launch, still engineers are working on mobiles that are capable of functioning with renewable energy. In our paper we have proposed an eco friendly technique that could be imparted in mobile phone, so that device would be charging around the clock. We have devised our project in such a way that it makes efficient usage of renewable resources from which power is being harvested. View full abstract»

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