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Integration Issues of Miniaturized Systems - MOMS, MOEMS, ICS and Electronic Components (SSI), 2008 2nd European Conference & Exhibition on

Date 9-10 April 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 105
  • European Research in Micro-Nano-Technology and Systems: Opportunities in Framework Programe 7

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (135 KB)  

    The European Research Programmes in the area of Microsystems started in the early 90's with a focus on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems. Since then, the interest has grown into more complex systems combining sensing, processing and actuating, involving different disciplines and integrating different technologies, and making Microsystems technology expand to the field of 'Smart Integrated Systems'. Today the attention is focused on the increasing complexity and miniaturization of the systems, networking capabilities and autonomy. The recently launched 7th Framework Programme and the coordination of national and regional research initiatives will help to realize the research agenda for this strategic field for Europe. This paper will give some results of ongoing initiatives, some visions and an outlook for the future with an emphasisfocus on Micro and nanosystems. View full abstract»

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  • Recent advancements on semiconductor radiation sensors for digital mammography

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (822 KB)  

    The possibility of imaging the interior of the body has had a big impact in medicine. Among the many different techniques existing today, X-ray radiography still plays a very important role in the diagnose of many diseases. Radiographic screen films are being used since the invention of the technique in 1896, and are still in use in many hospitals. Their characteristics have been improved with time, and the performances nowadays are very good. Nonetheless they are intrinsically limited and inefficient and there is room for improvement both in image quality and in radiation dose for the patient thanks to electronic technology. The first step in digital radiology was the use of fluorescent films read by a laser system. Full digital systems were developed using scintillator materials and CCD or amorphous silicon TFT imagers. One-way to improve the efficiency is to choose a good X-ray absorber and hence this will lead to a better signal to noise ratio. For example instead of using phosphorus plate as an absorber, CsI can be used. Nevertheless this is an indirect x-ray photon capture. X-ray photons are first converted to visible photons, and then to electric charge inside the semiconductor. View full abstract»

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  • From MEMS to Smart Systems Integration

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (403 KB)  

    The first MEMS devices have been introduced into the market only about 20 years ago, but during these past two decades we have witnessed a tremendous success story of MEMS for sensor applications. Up to now, the progress in MEMS technology was mainly driven by the automotive market. MEMS sensors have prevailed in automotive applications because they offered significant advantages compared to conventional solutions based on fine mechanical or ceramic technologies. First of all, the MEMS technology enables miniaturized, highly precise sensor elements at much lower cost compared to conventional solutions, especially for high volume production. Furthermore, the integration of the sensor element with an ASIC drastically reduces the number of connections and external components and thus allows a higher reliability of the sensors. Additionally, the implementation of self-test, accuracy check and calibration in the ASIC improves reliability and preciseness. Due to these advantages, a modern European car is equipped with more than 50 MEMS sensors on average. They are enablers for e.g. airbag systems, vehicle dynamic control or motor management systems with low emissions. In total, the world market for automotive MEMS sensors has a volume of 1.5 Billion Euros in 2008 and it will even grow over the next years. The most important representatives are pressure, flow, acceleration and angular rate sensors. These sensors are more or less commodity nowadays. In the near future these sensors will become smarter: Multi axis sensors and sensor units comprising different measurands will be developed and sensors will be combined with actuators in one common unit. The sensors will be integrated and evolve into smart systems due to additional intelligence and functionality. Examples out of the automotive world will be shown below. Besides the automotive market, MEMS actuators for inkjet heads and micromirrors have gained a quite impressive market volume. However, these applications are bey- - ond the scope of this paper. In addition to these existing products, market studies (Fig. 1) predict promising new opportunities for microsystems and smart systems with very high growth rates: Consumer and medical applications offer high volumes for sensors, actuators and smart systems within the next years. View full abstract»

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  • MEMS based inertial measurement unit for attitude and heading reference systems

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB)  

    Attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS) provide pitch and roll angles relative to the earth gravity vector, and heading (azimuth) angle relative to north. Such systems are critical for aircraft that fly during darkness or under other conditions of reduced visibility. AHRS systems require an inertial measurement unit (IMU) capable of measuring angular rate and acceleration in three orthogonal axes. Magnetometer augmentation may be employed to improve long term stability. To date, angular rate measurement is typically realized using mechanical, fiber-optic or ring laser gyroscopes. While all three technologies are capable of providing the performance required for AHRS systems, they all have limitations in realizing low production cost solutions. In contrast Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), produced using batch processes, have the potential to substantially lower the cost of an AHRS system. For more than a decade MEMS sensors capable of measuring acceleration and angular rate have been very common in many other fields of application such as automotive safety systems and consumer electronics. However, while MEMS accelerometers have been successfully used in AHRS systems this field has to date remained a challenge for MEMS gyroscopes. AHRS utilizing MEMS gyros have been presented and are commercially available. To our knowledge none of these systems have been qualified according to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Standard Order C5e (TSOC5e) for the directional gyro (DG) mode of operation. Such MEMS AHRS typically require the addition of a magnetometer to ensure the required long term stability. DG mode is required for many applications including large commercial aircraft, flights close to the magnetic north pole and helicopter flights to and from oil rigs or other large metal structures. IMUs used for DG mode operation require that the overall error should not exceed 5 ï¿¿ï¿¿/h. In contrast, typical automotive sensors are specified in degree- - s per second. AHRS accelerometers require an overall error not exceeding 2.5 mg. View full abstract»

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  • New High Resolution Optical Incremental Rotary Encoder

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1059 KB)  

    At HSG-IMAT a new concept for an incremental encoded optical encoder has been developed. Key element of the sensor concept is a disc with a high precision solid measure, which is fabricated using the manufacturing process for compact discs. Using this process, it is possible to fabricate a high precision solid measure in high quantities and at low manufacturing costs. For detection of the solid measure, a laser beam is focused onto it and the beam is deflected by the diffractive gratings of the solid measure, whereupon two different first orders fall onto separated photodiode elements. Intensive calculations were done to design the solid measure and estimate the signal modulation. To verify the principle of operation, a small size demonstrator device was designed and assembled. The experimental results with this demonstrator device show the large potential of this new sensor concept for different applications. View full abstract»

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  • Fully-Integrated wireless CMOS smart sensor

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (469 KB)  

    IDE (interdigitated electrodes) or 4 electrode arrangements can be used as impedimetric sensors when placed in an appropriate medium. This kind of sensors can be used to monitor transient food condition by measuring the impedance changes. Other applications can be found in the biomedical field such as monitoring the ischemia injury or the concentration of certain ions. Most of these impedimetric sensors are passive, but in some applications can be interesting to integrate an intelligent circuit to measure the real or imaginary part of the impedance in a frequency range. The more typical configuration to measure impedance of a media is the 4-electrode method, in which 2 electrodes inject the current into the media and the other 2 measure the voltage drop. An instrumentation amplifier that register a differential signal (voltage drop) and an AC coupling to eliminate any offset from the sensor must be implemented to obtain the measure. Additionally, in some applications when the sensor is not accessible, i.e. in a biomedical implant, inside a package or in a dangerous environment, it is important to consider the power supply mechanism. A remote powering using an inductive link [6] can be an alternative, nevertheless in this case it is important to consider that the efficiency in the energy transmission is low. For this reason, power consumption is the most important parameter to be optimized in the design. View full abstract»

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  • A readout circuit for remote interrogation of capacitance transducers

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (342 KB)  

    Continuous wireless data gathering systems have the potential to provide new insights in a variety of applications including security, health care, automotive and house automation. Looking at wireless sensing technology both active and passive telemetry are described in [1]. Active telemetry systems provide relatively long range bidirectional sensor data transfer, but with increased size and decreased lifetime due to their internal batteries. Passive telemetry systems significantly reduce transmission distances but allow the implementation of battery-free devices with indefinite lifetimes and maintenance-free operation. There are currently two methods for implementing passive telemetry systems. One method is established on radio frequency identification (RFID) devices principle. It uses micromachined sensors with built-in signal conditioning units and analog-to-digital converters. The whole system is monolithically integrated on a single chip with a dedicated telemetry circuitry which implements backscatter modulation to provide a reflected impedance change at the remote powering transceiver. Another approach is to use fully passive sensing devices allowing minimally invasive and low cost sensors since they can be fabricated using printed circuit technology. Low-power system design is essential when integrating sensors in passive telemetric apparatus in order to maximize the wireless range. Thus, capacitive embedded sensors are preferred over their piezoresistive counterparts since no power consumption is needed. These structures are LC-tank based sensors which are embedded or implanted in the system to be monitored. The resonant frequency of the embedded sensor changes in respect with the capacitance, resistance or inductance through the physical parameter of interest. Consequent changes in the resonant frequency are then wirelessly and remotely monitored through a wireless link. The LC sensor design depends on the environmental parameter to be measured, the value - - of the parameter to be measured, the range of values to be measured and sensitivity. Depending on whether the LC tank circuit is used to monitor pressure, strain, food quality, temperature or environmental gases, the sensor design is chosen. Then its behavior can be remotely figured out towards a frequency spectrum study. Although a lot of research effort has already been done in the development of suitable sensors, the main problem remains the wireless readout. Geometrical constraints required by the measurement setup, such as smallest and non invasive coils cause poor magnetic coupling between the sensor and the readout coil. A highly sensitive external readout circuit, e.g. an impedance analyzer, is thus required. This paper reports a novel readout system reliable and low-cost. It offers a platform allowing inductive telemetry of remote passive queried capacitive sensors. Suitable for continuous and real-time measurements of physical parameters, this architecture opens a wide range of instrumentation applications. View full abstract»

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  • Cost-Driven Design of Smart Micro Systems

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB)  

    The market of micro systems with advanced data processing functionality is permanently growing due to the declining costs of the fabrication technologies. That cost development is mainly driven by the reduction of manufacturing costs in the field of microelectronics. The prices of digital integrated circuits (IC) decline by approximately 30% per annum. The reasons for these cost advantages are basically the steady reduction of feature sizes and the higher yield of increasing wafer area. The annual cost reductions of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) are mostly lower compared to integrated circuits due to the high technological diversity and the smaller market volume. The packaging technologies for dense module integration accompany the development of a permanent cost reduction. As a result, the area of the printed circuit boards (PCB) declines by 15% and the costs fall by 25% in the field of mobile phones each year. View full abstract»

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  • Approaches of local stress measurement on microsystem devices

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB)  

    Integration of micro and nano devices causes several new reliability issues to be analyzed and solved. Among them mechanical stresses between and in structural components covering some dimensional magnitudes are one of the concerns. The latter appear as residual stresses resulting from a multitude of different component processing steps manufacturing micro and nano components, as wells as stresses introduced by the nano-to-micro integration, e.g. by the component packaging, or by environmental loads. Unfortunately, stress determination in MEMS/NEMS and their packaging is everything else as a simple task. Finite element simulations should include modeling of complete production steps, having impact on final stress profiles. Realistically, this approach cannot be realized for complex devices. Experimentally, the choice of available stress measurement methods with micro- or even nanoscopic spatial resolution is rather limited. The authors developed a new promising stress measurement technique allowing access to stresses in microscopic and nanoscopic system areas. This method bases on the specific testing feasibilities provided by focused ion beam (FIB) equipment. Ion milling is utilized to release very locally residual stresses on components of interest. Generated this way surface deformations around the milled area are measured by digital image correlation (DIC) algorithms. As a result originally existing residual stresses are computed from measured stress release deformations. The method is being applied to semiconductor structures, MEMS components and packaging materials. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Stress Measurement System for Evaluation of Package Induced Stress

    Page(s): 1 - 8
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    Increasing demands on accuracy and reliability of micro-system (MST) devices like inertial and magnetic sensors require to account for the impact of mechanical stress. Stress is induced by the packaging process as well as by package modifications due to the influence of environmental conditions. Micromechanic comb structures are widely used in inertial sensors. Their capacitance is a measure for inertial quantities like acceleration or yaw rate. If this structure is mechanically stressed it will be deflected by rotation and translation with 6 degrees of freedom. For a random choice of deflections we have calculated the capacitance change and achieved a functional description. So we were able to simulate the over all capacitance change of a complete sensing structure. As this change of capacitance directly corresponds to an offset of the sensor signal, the sensing accuracy of the device is reduced. By this evaluation of the impact of stress on the signal offset of inertial sensors we obtained the result that the sensor performance will be significantly decreased by package induced stress. View full abstract»

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  • Long-Term Performance of Ultrasonic Transducers Used for Energy and Data Transmission

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (217 KB)  

    In this work, we present experimental results on the long-term performance of ultrasonic transducers elements. For aeronautic applications these devices are targeted for the wireless transmission of energy and data to and from sensor elements placed inside of hermetically sealed metal envelopes, typically used e.g. for hydraulic accumulators, oxygen bottles, fuel tanks etc. By exciting the transmitter piezo in resonance, acoustic waves are generated traveling through the metallic body and are reconverted to electrical energy on the receiving side. Commercially available cylindrically shaped piezoelectric elements have been selected in order to build up an energy and data transmission system. In a test arrangement for preevaluation purposes both piezoelectric elements are arranged on opposite sides of a metal wall, fixed by using an electrically conductive epoxy and exposed to ambient temperatures up to of 100 deg C. Furthermore, a concept is presented how to integrate the complete system in a compact way in a hydraulic accumulator. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability Improvement in Smart Systems Integration

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (733 KB)  

    Today developers in the field of smart integrated systems are facing reliability demands from customers asking for zero defect quality. Besides increasing costs and efforts to achieve this reliability level, even the classical technologies for reliability assessment are challenged. The current experimental failure characterization technologies all follow a post-mortem approach: Technologies like xray imaging (XCT) or scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) only detect failure modes where the sample is already physically damaged. Thus with decreasing failure probability, a lot of time and effort is wasted in waiting for the manifestation of failures that are supposed not to happen. View full abstract»

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  • Microsecurity and Nanosecurity ¿ Security Research Using the Advantages of Smart System Integration

    Page(s): 1 - 2
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    Progress in security technology will be possible only on the basis of miniaturized components applying modern microsystem technology, micromechatronics and nanotechnology as well. The importance of these technologies for security research and manufacturing will grow considerably within the coming years. The terms "microsecurity" and "nanosecurity" today have been more and more widely used because they are exactly able to characterize this trend. Distributed sensors, autonomous sensors, energy autarkic sensors, ubiquitous sensors etc. are words which can be referred to when discussing miniaturization in the important field of sensorics and actorics applied to safety and security purposes. View full abstract»

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  • Application of high-resolution X-ray microscopy to image backend-of- line structures

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (377 KB)  

    One of the challenges to process control and failure analysis in semiconductor industry is the nondestructive visualization of sub-50nm features and defects. The availability of high-brilliance X-ray sources, high-precision X-ray focusing optics and very efficient CCD area detectors have contributed essentially to the development of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) and X-ray computed tomography (XCT) to reach a spatial resolution of 50nm and below. High-resolution X-ray microscopes with rotating anode X-ray sources that can be installed in an analytical lab next to a semiconductor fab have been developed recently. These unique TXM/XCT systems provide an imporlant new capability of nondestructive 3D imaging of internal circuit structures without destructive sampie preparation such as crosssectioning. In this paper, the potential of TXM/XCT lab systems for failure localization in micro- and nanoelectronic structures and devices is discussed. Applications to backend-of-Iine structures seem to be realistic in near future, e. g., to visualize voids and residuals in on-chip metal interconnects without physical modification of the chip. View full abstract»

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  • Smart Micromachined Ultrasonic Probe with advanced imaging performances

    Page(s): 1 - 8
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    Generation of acoustic waves though capacitive effect is known for a long time. In the mid 90s, the very first demonstrators of electrostatic ultrasonic transducers were disclosed by B. Khuri-Yakub (Stanford University) and Siemens, and have been called CMUT standing for ï¿¿ï¿¿ï¿¿Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducersï¿¿ï¿¿ï¿¿. This was followed during the last ten years by a ramp-up of scientific and research and development activities through large increase of scientific articles and patents. Since CMUT devices are based on independently functional small membranes (few hundred of micrometer(exp 2)), flexibility of topology and surface design are provided accordingly. Other advantage relating to these characteristics is that membrane surface and thickness govern directly the command voltage necessary for the vibration of membrane. Such high dielectric field combined with highly damped membrane in immersion operation, induced high electromechanical coupling coefficient and broad bandwidth response compatible with high resolution ultrasound imaging. The basic building block for a CMUT elementary cell is basically a capacitor with a free metallized membrane suspended over a fix bottom electrode. When a DC voltage (VDC) is applied to the parallel gap capacitor (membrane/cavity cell), an electrostatic force occurs between the opposite electrodes and causes deflection of the membrane ï¿¿ï¿¿ï¿¿ which presents a limit known as collapse. At this stage, if an alternative impulse (VAC) is added, the membrane will vibrate accordingly and then, generation of acoustic pressure is possible. Reversely, when a DC biased membrane is facing acoustic pressure impact, the output current due to capacitance variations is measured and the membrane is then operated as acoustic receptor. According to the above principle, the combination of a large number of elementary membranes connected together will form a transducing surface. There are typically hundreds of membranes on the surface of Megahertz r- - ange transducer element. View full abstract»

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  • Improved methods of system integration for MEMS-based laser projection systems

    Page(s): 1 - 8
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    Ultra-compact laser projection systems based on a single two-dimensional micro scanning mirror are a very promising candidate for personal and mobile display solutions in infotainment. Fraunhofer IPMS' resonant micro scanning mirror in combination with lasers as light sources allows a degree of miniaturization that the integration of such projectors into mobile appliances will become possible. Content stored on the device can be consumed and presented anytime. The authors have already presented first demonstrators of ultra-compact laser projection system that utilize that principle. These systems use the Flying Spot approach: the image area is scanned by a single laser beam at such a high frequency that every virtual pixel of the image is hit at least once within the time of one image frame and image information is generated by modulation of the laser beam that is deflected by the micro scanning mirror. By driving of the mirror and modulation of the lasers in a strictly synchronous manner, the impression of a stable image can be generated. View full abstract»

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  • Monolithic integration of MEMS resonators in a 0.35µm CMOS technology for gravimetric sensor and radiofrequency applications

    Page(s): 1 - 8
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    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology started at the end of 70¿s and early 80¿s as an extension of microelectronics technology, which added to processing and memory functionalities of Integrated Circuits (IC) sensor and actuation functionalities that allows the IC to interact with the environment. Since then, and especially in the last decade, MEMS technology has reached a maturity level high enough to introduce products into a continuously growing market. One of the key points of this evolution is the possibility to integrate both MEMS elements together with CMOS circuitry. The most important strategies to integrate MEMS with CMOS circuitry (MEMS-CMOS) are monolithic integration and hybrid integration. The advantages of monolithic integration are integration area compactness, interconnection parasitics minimization and integration costs reduction, but the main drawback is that structural materials and processes for MEMS elements fabrication are strongly limited by CMOS technology restrictions. On the other hand, hybrid integration relaxes these MEMS structural materials restrictions, but increases integration costs due to the complexity of the assembling processes. View full abstract»

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  • MEMS Package in a Harsh Environment for Aeronautic Applications

    Page(s): 1 - 8
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    In special helicopter flight situations the main rotor blades frequently generate impulsive noise signatures resulting from the interaction of turbulence vortices and rotor blades. This happens e.g. often during descent helicopter flight situations where the blades also descent together with the helicopter and hit the downwashed vortices from preceding blades. This process is commonly called Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI). It is characterized by high noise levels and structural vibrations that can be reduced with active control devices at the blade root or at each blade individually. In closed-loop state, these devices react to a measured BVI characteristic value which is identified and evaluated with an appropriate sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced Adhesives based on Carbon Nanotube Technology

    Page(s): 1 - 4
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    For microsystems packaging and system integration new processing techniques are being developed on the basis of advanced composites using nanoscale building blocks - here carbon nanotubes - incorporated in relevant interconnect materials, such as metallic solders and highly conductive polymer based adhesives. View full abstract»

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  • Integration of optical and microfluidic functions in a hollow waveguide platform

    Page(s): 1 - 8
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    The application of micro/nanotechnology (MNT) in emerging markets, such as biomedical, healthcare and environmental monitoring requires increasingly complex levels of functional integration across multiple physical domains, such as fluidic, optical, mechanical, electrical and biological. The significant challenges facing developers of such microsystems include multi-domain interfacing and multitechnology integration. In this context, the combination of optical and microfluidic functions in a hollow waveguide platform, ¿BioCanal¿, is being investigated as part of the INTEGRAMplus EUROPRACTICE programme. The ability to embed optical functions within the fluid core offers significant potential for bio-sensing with appropriate detection chemistries. The hollow waveguide with a fluid core offers good optical performance over a wide waveband (UV-IR) with appropriate coatings and design. Microfluidic channels are simultaneously formed by bonding the lids to the substrates containing etched waveguides and strategies for external optical and fluidic interfacing have been developed. View full abstract»

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  • 3D Wafer Level System Integration ¿ Requirements & Technologies

    Page(s): 1 - 8
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    3D integration is a fast growing field that encompasses different types of technologies. The paper addresses one of the most promising technology which uses Through Silicon Vias (TSV) for interconnecting stacked devices on wafer level to perform high density interconnects with a good electrical performance at the smallest form factor for 3D architectures. Fraunhofer IZM has developed a post front-end 3D integration process which allows stacking of functional and tested FE-devices e.g. sensors, ASICs on wafer level as well as a technology portfolio for passive silicon interposer with redistribution layers and TSV. View full abstract»

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  • Ultra small system-in-package for medical applications

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB)  

    The fantastic development of the components interconnection allows to imagine « Systems in Package » of around a few mm3, which opens new perspectives for medical applications. Since the use of hybrid modules, then Multichip Modules « MCM » which were identical to the previous ones but named differently, the coming of the interconnection in 3-D allowed to divide both the volume and weight of a module by a factor comprised between 25 and more than 100. View full abstract»

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  • Batch Fabrication Methods for Active Polymer Microsystems

    Page(s): 1 - 3
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    A batch compatible process flow to overcome the costly piece by piece assembly of hybrid microsystems is shown. As demonstrator device, a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated polymer microvalve is introduced. The valve concept, fabrication technologies and device characteristics are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Implantable Packaging Technique Featuring Through Wafer Interconnects and Low Temperature Direct Bond

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB)  

    A novel packaging method is presented for an implantable, biocompatible smart system to provide through wafer interconnects to a CMOS chip encapsulated with a vacuum compatible low temperature silicon-silicon direct bond carried out at 200?? thus avoiding damage to the chip. The application for which this system is proposed is an implantable multi-contact active nerve electrode for the treatment of epilepsy via vagus nerve stimulation. Although intended for implanted integrated systems, this technology may be applied across a range of devices requiring hermetic or vacuum sealing and through wafer interconnection. The proposed embodiment of this method features a 2-channel mixed signal ASIC (records and stimulates neural activity), bump bonded directly onto solid gold electroplated through wafer interconnects on a carrier wafer. The silicon encapsulation wafer is bonded to the carrier wafer using a direct bond for which strength and hermeticity are achieved by activating surfaces with free radicals prior to bonding. This bond is annealed to full strength at 200?? ensuring no damage to the ASIC. Onto the back of the packaged wafer, a layer of PDMS is spin coated and flexible, low resistance active circuits and electrodes are metallised using excimer laser ablation and selective plating in an autocatalytic platinum bath. The circuits are encapsulated in a further layer of PDMS before dicing. Solid electroplated through wafer interconnects (aspect ratio 5) enable hermetic interconnection of direct bonded packages with low connection impedance, offering benefits across a range of packaging applications. Many of the processes used in this construction will have wider applicability in wafer level packaging. View full abstract»

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  • Waferbond technologies and quality assessment

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (395 KB)  

    A well established technology for the fabrication of 3D devices is wafer bonding. Several technologies like direct and anodic bonding without intermediate layer or thermocompression wafer bonding with intermediate layers like low melting frit glasses, eutectic materials or polymers were developed during the last years and are nowadays extensively used in industrial applications. Within the paper we will address some important aspects of the different bonding techniques like substrate requirement, treatments for the modification of material surfaces, various bonding methods as well as some quality aspects. The main method to evaluate the bond strength is the micro chevron test. This test requires special designed test samples and is destructive. For anodic bonding between transparent glass and silicon a non destructive bond strength test structure can be used. This non-destructive test structure based on structure fabricated on one surface of the bond. The leak tightness can be tested by using the standard He leak test, if low requirements to the leakage rate exist or with the help of a resonant structure inside of the cavity if a very low leakage rate should be controlled. View full abstract»

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