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Biomedical Engineering (MECBME), 2011 1st Middle East Conference on

Date 21-24 Feb. 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 116
  • [Front and back cover]

    Page(s): c1 - c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Front matter]

    Page(s): 1 - 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1 - 9
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • CAN breathing oscillations reduce asthma medication?

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (125 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Airway hyperresponsiveness and obstruction are the major characteristics of asthma. Current asthma treatments using anti-inflammatory agents and airway smooth muscle (ASM) relaxants are expensive, variable in effectiveness and are associated with several cardiovascular side effects. ASM behaviour in vitro has been studied by various researchers to possibly provide an explanation of its mechanical properties. Previous in vitro experiments conducted on ASM tissues suggest that length perturbations applied to contracted muscle result in a reduction in the contractile ability of the tissue. This study focuses on investigating the combined effects of bronchodilators and length oscillations on the dynamics of contracted ASM. Isolated porcine tracheal smooth muscle tissues are contracted using Acetylcholine. Isoproterenol (Iso), a β-agonist, is used as a bronchodilator to relax the contracted ASM. Our results suggest that the combined effect of Iso and breathing oscillations is noted to be greater than the added effects of Iso and breathing alone. We speculate that, when breathing is combined with Iso, breathing facilitates the detachment of actomyosin bridges, while Iso prevents further phosphorylation of myosin heads, inhibiting the binding of myosin to actin. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless bioinstruments for telecare

    Page(s): 5 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (413 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although telemedicine or telehealth can potentially affect all medical specialties, the greatest current applications are found in radiology, pathology, cardiology and medical education. This paper is arranged in such a manner as to follow a patient's cardiac signal from its initial detection by the ECG amplifier, its progression through the various subsystems of figure below, and ultimately culminating in its final wireless transmission to a PC for patient who is receiving rehabilitation care at home, and then connects to an IP-based wireless WAN for medical-data transmission. Also this paper discusses a telemedicine market for homecare in the world generally and especially developing nations (Arab countries, Africa and other regions). The main advantage of the system is to provide an ECG transmitter, with which the patient can transmit ECG data 24 hours a day, and to be a part of homecare service center for telehomecare provided by nurses, and another wireless circuit used by nurses for consultation with physicians in the event that an anomaly is found in the patient. The proposal project is of vital importance to our country (Iraq) and surrounding Arab countries as it will help raise the standard of the health profession education. It should promote sharing medical consultation in the field of cardiology between medical centers in different governorates inside the country, and also between centers of other countries. View full abstract»

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  • A wireless home safety gas leakage detection system

    Page(s): 11 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (116 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wireless safety device for gas leakage detection is proposed. The device is intended for use in household safety where appliances and heaters that use natural gas and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) may be a source of risk. The system also can be used for other applications in the industry or plants that depend on LPG and natural gas in their operations. The system design consists of two main modules: the detection and transmission module, and the receiving module. The detection and transmitting module detects the change of gas concentration using a special sensing circuit built for this purpose. This module checks if a change in concentration of gas(es) has exceeded a certain pre-determined threshold. If the sensor detects a change in gas concentration, it activates and audiovisual alarm and sends a signal to the receiver module. The receiver module acts as a mobile alarm device to allow the mobility within the house premises. The system was tested using LPG and the alarm was activated as a result of change in concentration. View full abstract»

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  • A model of object localization during sensing: Application to the rat somatosensory whisker system

    Page(s): 15 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (227 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sensory systems in mammals and humans are tuned to localize object in the environment in an accurate and behaviorally independent manner. While many engineering approaches can be used, it is less clear how nature solves the problem of object localization. In this regards, the rat somatosensory system is a well-studied experimental model in which rats actively use their whiskers to sense and navigate their surrounding for food. We investigate in this paper how the rat neocortex could obtain an object-localizing signal that is independent of the speed at which whisking occurs. Based on various detailed accumulating neurophysiological evidence in the rat barrel (whisking) cortex, we propose a preliminary mathematical model which describes the neural population activity observed over multiple stages in different cortical layers. It is suggested that interacting sensory input streams provide a speed-independent reference signal in the form of activity levels in cortical layer 5a neurons. View full abstract»

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  • Low-power amplifier for in-vivo EEG signal recording

    Page(s): 19 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (172 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is an increasing demand for more advanced and effective medical devices due to the interest on real-time personal home health monitoring. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a common noninvasive method for various applications, such as the prediction of epileptic seizure and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). A key component of an EEG monitoring systems is the acquisition circuitry with ultra low-power dissipation. This paper presents the implementation of an EEG signal amplifier. The presented amplifier has been designed and simulated in 90nm 1P9M CMOS technology, consumes 3.6 μW from a 1.2 V supply voltage and occupies an active area of 0.048 mm2. The bandwidth widens from a low-frequency cutoff of below 0.1 Hz to a high-frequency cutoff of 10 kHz which is suitable for EEG signals. The amplifier is simulated using the real EEG signal recorded using EEG-1100 machine in Emam Reza hospital. View full abstract»

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  • Effect assessment of Parkinson disease on default mode network of the brain with ICA and SCA methods in Resting State FMRI data

    Page(s): 23 - 27
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    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, and slowness of movements. Determining changes of spontaneous activity and connectivity of the brain is a critical step towards treatment of PD patients. Resting State functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RS-fMRI) is a non-invasive method that we use in this work to investigate changes of default mode network of the brain in PD. To this end, we apply two methods, Seed Correlation Analysis (SCA) and probabilistic independent Component Analysis (PICA). The results of advanced statistical group analysis on SCA values show that there is negative significant correlation between motor cortex and cerebellum in healthy, while this connection in PD is positive and not significant. This result implies the disturbance of equilibrium function of the brain in resting. Moreover, in both groups, there is significant positive correlation between areas located in basal ganglia. The results show that in healthy, there is not significant correlation between motor areas and basal ganglia, while in PD there are significant negative correlations between motor cortex and cerebellum with areas located in basal ganglia. The comparison of five ICs extracted by PICA showed lower DMN activation in basal ganglia. Finally, The result of our study show that the functional correlations between ROIs are more affected in PD than pattern maps of activity by PICA. View full abstract»

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  • Biological cell electroporation using nanosecond electrical pulses

    Page(s): 28 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (199 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanosecond electroporation has a range of applications including gene therapy and treatment of melanoma tumors. On applying a nanosecond high voltage pulse, potential differences are generated across the membranes of the internal organelles resulting in its electroporation. This paper investigates the effect of nanosecond high voltage pulses simulated on a biological cell placed in a conductive medium (water). The effect of cell size, shape (spherical and elliptical) and membrane thickness on electroporation is investigated. Significant difference in the field was observed indicating the importance of these factors in the success of electroporation in the event of application of external nanosecond high voltage electrical pulse. View full abstract»

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  • SVD analysis of dynamic properties for fatigue loaded intervertebral disc

    Page(s): 32 - 36
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper uses singular value decomposition (SVD) for studying the dynamic properties of fatigue-loaded intervertebral disc. Previously, this problem had been addressed using mathematical models of using mass, spring and damper or based on poroelastic theory. This paper utilizes the signal processing approach and attempts to describe SVD based feature that can be an indicator for change in behavioral performance of the intervertebral disc warning the occurrence of temporary or permanent change in the structure or abnormality in behavior. The results are encouraging; however, further validation is required with more data. View full abstract»

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  • Sleep spindles analysis using sparse bump modeling

    Page(s): 37 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (131 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sleep Spindle is the hallmark of the second stage of sleep in EEG signal. It had been analyzed using different methods, including Fourier transform, parametric and non-parametric models, higher order statistics and spectra, and also time-frequency methods such as wavelet transform, and matching pursuit. In this study, bump modeling has been used to analyze sleep spindle. Bump modeling is a method which represents the time-frequency map of signals with a number of elementary functions. Results of this work demonstrate that bump modeling is capable of analyzing different sleep spindle patterns in sleep EEG signals successfully. View full abstract»

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  • A shape memory alloy actuated anthropomorphic prosthetic hand: Initial experiments

    Page(s): 41 - 44
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (139 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents the design and implementation of an anthropomorphic prosthetic hand actuated using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. SMAs were chosen as the actuator for their advantages over conventional motors. The prosthetic hand has articulated fingers with torsion springs embedded within the joints. These springs provide the necessary bias force for SMA contraction as well as open the hand for relaxation. Thin SMA wires were selected for fast cooling and a bundle of eight wires was constructed to provide sufficient force and excursion for grasping. The actuator design using cables, SMA wires and springs has the advantage of providing actuation with a fewer number of cables and separate SMA wires thus requiring a simpler control scheme with fewer control inputs as well as less power consumption. The SMA wires were heated using a square pulsed input with a 71% duty cycle. Initial experiments show promising results for response, flexion and recovery times. View full abstract»

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  • Mesenchymal stem cell differentiation by nano-engineered Si columns

    Page(s): 45 - 48
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (941 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We successfully engineered Si nano-columns with different cross-sectional geometries by e-beam evaporation with an angle between source and substrate. The Si nano-columns were grown as pillars with square, triangle and linear cross sections in in-plane. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from the bone marrow stroma of young adult rats were cultured on these different Si nanosurfaces. We found that the behaviour of MSCs highly depended on the geometry of nano-topography so that mesenchymal stem cells were differentiated and induced CaP precipitation on square-cross-sectional Si nano-columns without growth factor in the culture medium. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical analog model of arterial compliance during reactive hyperemia

    Page(s): 49 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (145 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Flow mediated dilation (FMD) measurement using ultrasound imaging (FMD-US) has been established as a standard method for assessing the endothelial function. Recently, a less skilled-operator demanding method has been proposed based on the photoplethysmogram (PPG) changes during reactive hyperemia. It was shown that the amplitude of the PPG pulse (FMD-PPG) changed in a quite similar manner to that of the artery diameter in the method of the FMD-US i.e. increases following releasing the cuff and then gradually returns to baseline. In this study PPG changes following reactive hyperaemia were modelled using time-varying passive electrical elements (R, L and C). The output of the electric analog model matched relatively well (fitness of 82.47%) the PPG-AC signal. View full abstract»

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  • Anchoring percutaneous heart valves

    Page(s): 54 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (205 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Percutaneous heart valve replacement is an exciting and innovative technology which provides new treatment options for previously untreatable patients. Despite promising clinical results for the currently available prostheses by Edwards Lifesciences and Medtronic, these devices still require improvement in order to represent a true alternative to conventional heart valve replacement surgery. One of these challenges is the safe and effective anchoring of the catheter-delivered devices. This paper describes the development of an anchoring technique and highlights the key anatomical influence factors to be considered when designing percutaneous heart valve prostheses. View full abstract»

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  • The extent of the online presence of health authorities, hospitals and available online health services in the United Arab Emirates

    Page(s): 57 - 62
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (153 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examined the online presence of the health authorities and hospitals in the seven Emirates of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the available online health services in this country. The study looked at the web presence of health authorities and then searched for the websites of hospitals in UAE using different sources. We calculated the number and percentages of hospitals that have online presence. Then we visited the website of each hospital to check if they offer online health services. Thus we were able to present quantitative findings of the extent of the web presence of health authorities, government and private hospitals, and also the types of online health services available in this country. We found that out of the 7 Emirates, only 2 have health authorities with online services and only 4 Emirates have hospitals that offer online health services. The online health services available in UAE are: Make an Inquiry, Book an Appointment, Find a Doctor and Ask a Doctor. We also provide at the end of this paper, the complete list of all hospitals in the UAE with an online presence with their website links since this information was not present collectively anywhere. View full abstract»

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  • Mammogram image retrieval via sparse representation

    Page(s): 63 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years there has been a great effort to enhance the computer-aided diagnosis systems, since proven similar pathologies, in the past, plays an important role in diagnosis of the current cases, content based medical image retrieval has been emerged. In this work we have designed a decision making machine in which utilizes sparse representation technique to preserve semantic category relevance among the retrieved images and the query image, this machine comprises optimized wavelets (adapted using lifting scheme) to extract appropriate visual features in order to grasp visual content of the images, afterwards by using some classical methods, Raw data vectors become applicable for sparse representation. We implemented our algorithm on the DDSM database which consists of 2500 studies and their annotations provided by specialists. View full abstract»

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  • Porous tricalcium phosphate scaffold for bone substitute

    Page(s): 67 - 68
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    The aim of this study was to obtain a new porous tricalcium phosphate as a synthetic bone scaffold. Porous bioceramic was fabricated by a foam-casting method. By polyurethane foam and slurry containing Hydroxyapatite/Dctacalcium phosphate anhydrous (HA/DCPA) powder, water and additives a high porous structure with 66±5% was created. The porous bioceramic possesses a compressive strength of (10.7±1.7) MPa and E-modulus of (2.3±0.3) GPa. Regarding these properties this synthetic samples could be used as a cancellous bone scaffold. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic detection of abnormalities in lung radiographs caused by planocellular lung cancer

    Page(s): 69 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (770 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose in this paper automatic algorithm for early planocellular lung cancer detection in lung X ray images. Considering the fact that lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers and that it is usually diagnosed too late, the solution is to attempt early diagnosis at general practitioners level, using cheapest diagnostic tools, chest radiography. The proposed algorithm determines and segments the suspected area in lung X ray images. It consists of two steps: comparison between extracted planocellular lung cancer structure and the analyzed lung X ray image by calculating similarity coefficients and finding the maximum similarity coefficient which will indicate the suspected cancer affected area in the lung image. The obtained results are promising and confirm that the proposed algorithm should serve as the foundation for future research in this area. View full abstract»

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  • Fractional order calculus-based filters for biomedical signal processing

    Page(s): 73 - 76
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (126 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The goal of this paper is to give a review of some applications of fractional order calculus to biomedical signal processing with emphasis on the ability of this mathematical tool to remove noise, enhance useful information, and generate fractal signals. Three types of digital filters are considered, namely, lowpass differentiation filter, smoothing filter, and 1/fβ-noise generation filter. The filter impulse responses are function of the fractional order and the sampling period only, and thus can be computed easily. Application examples are presented for illustrations. View full abstract»

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  • Casecube: An internet-based, intercultural, interprofessional master's curriculum Biomedical Engineering

    Page(s): 77 - 79
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    An internet-based, intercultural and interprofessional 2 years Master's curriculum Biomedical Engineering was developed by a joint effort of 3 Asian and 3 European Universities. The curriculum consists of a mixture of face-to-face and e-learning courses (`blended learning') and was developed and taught by teachers from all participating institutes. The internet based courses are supported by chat sessions and annual summer schools where all students and teachers meet. To test the curriculum 13 students with different cultural (Asian - European) and educational (health care - engineering) background enrolled, of which 8 graduated so far. External and internal evaluations were conducted and showed that the developed curriculum can be implemented with some adaptations in course contents and in the management and organization. View full abstract»

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  • Speckle noise reduction method combining total variation and wavelet shrinkage for clinical ultrasound imaging

    Page(s): 80 - 83
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (226 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ultrasound imaging is a widely used and safe medical diagnostic technique; however, the usefulness of ultrasound imaging is degraded by the presence of signal dependant noise known as speckle. In this paper, we propose a new speckle reduction method and coherence enhancement of ultrasound images based on method that combines total variation (TV) method and wavelet shrinkage. In our method, a noisy image is decomposed into subbands of LL, LH, HL, and HH in wavelet domain. LL subband contains the low frequency coefficients along with less noise, which can be easily eliminated using TV-based method. More edges and other detailed information like textures are contained in the other three subbands, and we propose a shrinkage method based on the local variance to extract them from high frequency noise. The proposed method has been compared with Median, Anisotropic diffusion filtering, Geometric, Mean and variance local statistics, Wavelet and Total variation filter using quantitative parameters. It has been found that quality evaluation metrics the proposed method performs better than all other methods while still retaining the structural details and experimental results show that this method retains the edges and textures very well while removing noise. View full abstract»

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  • High-resolution quantitative ultrasound imaging for soft tissue classification

    Page(s): 84 - 87
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mouse models have been widely used in cardiovascular research when investigating the progression or treatment of various diseases. It is always challenging to find non-invasive tools for early detection of diseases. This led us to the development of small animal models for diagnostic imaging techniques, such as high-frequency quantitative ultrasound imaging. This work describes the development of an ultrasound tissue classification technique that could be used to quantitatively assess atherosclerotic plaques in mouse heart. Signal and image processing of radiofrequency ultrasound data have been performed in time, frequency, and wavelet domains to quantitatively assess the severity of atherosclerosis in an APOE-KO mouse model fed with high fat diet. Multiple in vitro experiments were conducted, and ultrasound images of high contrast-resolution were obtained using parameters from various domains. For example, images reconstructed using the time variance (Tσ2), and frequency skewness (PDskew) parameters showed high-contrast resolutions of approximately 17.95±2.98 dB, and 9.67±0.24 dB (n=4) between normal tissue and atherosclerotic lesions. The technique is integrated with a custom-designed high-frequency ultrasound imaging system and is able to provide parametric images of high contrast and special resolution down to 24 microns. View full abstract»

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  • A novel approach for wave segments in ECG by wavelet analysis

    Page(s): 88 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (104 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wavelet transform based ECG analysis for precise location of P wave, QRS complex and T wave is presented. Detection of such waves in an ECG is difficult due to the time varying morphology of the signal in addition to the presence of various noise factors. The results of reliable location of P, QRS and T wave of a hypertensive ECG using continuous Wavelet transformation (CWT) which is more appropriate and accurate measure of the ECG pattern is presented and the salient features are discussed. View full abstract»

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