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Communications and Signal Processing (ICCSP), 2011 International Conference on

Date 10-12 Feb. 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 135
  • [Front and back cover]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • ICCSP 2011 author index

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): i - v
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  • ICCSP2011 Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): i - xv
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  • Address generation for DSP Kernels

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 112 - 116
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1281 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Performance of Signal Processing Algorithms implemented in hardware depend on efficiency of datapath, memory speed, and address computation. Pattern of data access in signal processing applications is complex and it is desirable to execute the innermost loop of a kernel every clock. This demands generation of typically three addresses per clock: two addresses for data sample/coefficient and one for storage of processed data. Presence of a set of dedicated, efficient Address Generator Units (AGU) helps in better utilization of the datapath elements by using them only for kernel operations; and will certainly enhance the performance. This paper focuses on design and implementation of Comprehensive Address Generator Unit (CAGU) for complex addressing modes required by DSP Kernels used in Multimedia Signal Processing. An 8 bit CAGU has been implemented using UMC 0.18 micron, 6 metal layers process, that occupies 21802 sq microns, consuming 2.95 mW and works with a clock period of 6 ns. View full abstract»

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  • A simple and cost-effective scheme to deploy connection-restoring nodes for disconnected WSNs

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 117 - 121
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (772 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a simple scheme for computing the locations of restoration sensors for a disconnected WSN to recover the network's connectivity to a certain level, while keeping the number of restoration nodes as few as possible. Since an accurate, optimal solution to the problem is NP-hard, we resort to tackling the problem in a greedy and heuristic manner. We just deploy enough new nodes to establish k disjoint paths between disconnected components, where k is the network's original connectivity. That is, the scheme just grants the minimally necessary condition for restoring k-connectivity. The extremely time-consuming task of “making sure” the result is indeed a k-connected network will not be carried out. Empirical study has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless Geophone Network for remote monitoring and detection of landslides

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 122 - 125
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent years have shown an alarmous increase in rain fall induced landslides. This has facilitated the need for having a monitoring system to predict the landslides which could eventually reduce the loss of human life. We have developed and deployed a Wireless Sensor Network to monitor rainfall induced landslide, in Munnar, South India. A successful landslide warning was issued in June 2009 using this system. The system is being enhanced by incorporating a Wireless Geophone Network to locate the initiation of landslide. The paper discusses an algorithm that was developed to analyze the geophone data and automatically detect the landslide signal. A novel method to localize the landslide initiation point is detailed. The algorithm is based on the time delay inherent in the transmission of waves through the surface of the earth. The approach detailed here does not require additional energy since the geophones are self excitatory. The error rate of the approach is much less when compared to the other localization methods like RSSI. The proposed algorithm is being tested and validated, in the landslide laboratory set up at our university. View full abstract»

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  • IMM - Unscented Kalman Filter based tracking of maneuvering targets using active sonar measurements

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 126 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (707 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In underwater scenario, algorithms that assume constant velocity model are suitable for tracking non maneuvering targets but fail if target is maneuvering. The Interacting Multiple Model algorithm is a widely accepted state estimation scheme for solving maneuvering target tracking problems. This paper presents the IMM method of tracking under water maneuvering targets using active sonar measurements. UKF is used throughout the process and the simulation results for two scenarios are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-track association and fusion

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 131 - 135
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (529 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper emphasizes nearest neighbourhood approach for data association, which is carried out after target motion analysis (TMA) solution stabilizes. Parameterized Modified Gain Extended Kalman Filter (PMGEKF) has been used to carry out TMA. Having done, association, fusion with state vectors is carried out. View full abstract»

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  • Identification of nasal bone for the early detection of down syndrome using Back Propagation Neural Network

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 136 - 140
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (319 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Down Syndrome is characterized by the absence of nasal bone during the late first trimester of pregnancy. Presently Downsyndrome is identified by visually examining the ultra sonogram of foetus of 11 to 13 weeks of gestation for the presence of nasal bone. Nasal bone is visually identified by differentiating the change in the contrast of nasal region of ultrasonogram. This method is prone to operator error as the nasal bone is a very small physical structure during the first trimester of pregnancy. Noise also introduce error during visual identification. This paper presents a new approach for the detection of nasal bone for ultrasonogram of foetus of 11 to 13 weeks of gestation. The proposed method is based on the extraction of image texture parameter of nasal bone region of ultra sonogram and their subsequent classification using Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). The features in the nasal region are extracted in the Spatial domain and Transform domain using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Daubechies D4 Wavelet transform. These features are extracted from images with nasal bone and images which don't have nasal bone. The extracted data is normalized and used to train Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). The trained BPNN is used to classify random ultrasonograms. The result shows that the proposed method can detect down syndrome with higher degree of accuracy. This method combined with the present detection methods can reduce operator error and overall enhance the down syndrome detection rate by analysing ultra sonogram. View full abstract»

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  • Heraclitus: A LFSR-based stream cipher with key dependent structure

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 141 - 145
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (215 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe Heraclitus as an example of a stream cipher that uses a 128 bit index string to specify the structure of each instance in real time: each instance of Heraclitus will be a stream cipher based on mutually clocked shift registers. Ciphers with key-dependent structures have been investigated and are generally based on Feistel networks. Heraclitus, however, is based on mutually clocked shift registers. Ciphers of this type have been extensively analysed, and published attacks on them will be infeasible against any instance of Heraclitus. The speed and security of Heraclitus makes it suitable as a session cipher, that is, an instance is generated at key exchange and used for one session. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum design of axial mode helical antenna with nonlinear pitch profile modeled using Catmull-Rom spline and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 146 - 150
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1133 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel method for design of circularly polarized axial mode helical antenna with maximum directive gain. In this work helical antenna is compactly modeled by the following parameters - helix radius (a), number of turns (N) and nonlinear pitch profile represented by a Catmull-Rom spline curve. This spline curve consists of six pitch angles α1, α2, α3, α4, α5 and α6 at six equidistant points along the axial length of the helix. For a given number of turns, optimum values of radius and pitch profile are determined for maximizing the gain subject to unity axial ratio. The gain and axial ratio are determined using NEC2 (Numerical Electromagnetics Code) simulation and optimization is performed using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The original NEC2 source code has been modified to incorporate Catmull-Rom spline modeling and PSO to suite the requirement of this work. Simulated and experimental results show that there is significant improvement in gain characteristics compared to design based on Kraus method which uses constant pitch profile. View full abstract»

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  • A subspace-based multi-view face clustering and recognition approach

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 151 - 154
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper a clustering algorithm has been presented for data sets having faces with large variations in pose. Disjoint clusters are created from low-dimensional subspaces of the data set. Partitioning is carried out in the form of a tree-like structure. The subspace-based linear recognition algorithm, Subclass Linear Discriminant Analysis (SLDA) has been employed for recognizing the faces. The training set for recognition purpose is formed using the group of clusters obtained. The quality of clusters generated by the proposed grouping scheme is compared with the ones generated from K-means clustering algorithm. Experimental results on recognition show that the proposed grouping scheme yields quality clusters compared to K-means. View full abstract»

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  • Enhancement of noisy speech signal based on variance and modified gain function

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 155 - 159
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (965 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Single-channel Speech enhancement algorithms are widely used to overcome the degradation of noisy speech signals. Speech enhancement gain functions are typically computed from two quantities, namely, an estimate of the noise power spectrum and of the noisy speech power spectrum. The variance of these power spectral estimates degrades the quality of the enhanced signal and smoothing techniques are, therefore, often used to decrease the variance. In the proposed method Adaptive threshold is estimated using the variance in the time index. Using this threshold the gain and the speech spectrum are updated. Further the gain is modified based on the adaptive threshold estimated in the frequency bins and Enhanced signal is obtained from the product of modified gain function and the updated speech spectrum. By this method definite improvement in SNR can be obtained. Compare to the conventional method Mean square error (MSE) is much reduced in the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Improving bitrate in detail coefficient based audio watermarking using wavelet transformation

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 160 - 164
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1008 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the development in communication technology over the past few decade, the usage of multimedia contents have increased progressively. Multimedia data protection has become a very important issue which needs to be addressed at the earliest. In this paper we have proposed a multimedia data protection technique for audio files. There exists various audio watermarking techniques in the literature. In this paper we propose a wavelet based watermarking technique where embedding is performed on the third level detail wavelet coefficients. The robustness of the scheme is found to be at an acceptable level with respect to some of the existing techniques in wavelet domain. The proposed method is essentially an improvement of the works reported in [1], [2], where the bit rates of the watermark data are enhanced with modest degradation in robustness. Subjective tests have been performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of adaptive puncturing schemes for OFDMA system in multi-cell scenario

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 165 - 167
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (970 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper proposes two puncturing schemes, namely PDI and IntP for coded OFDMA. In the proposed structure, the data is encoded with the lowest available code rate and it is divided among different resource blocks(tiles), where it is punctured adaptively based on some measure of channel quality for each tile. The effect of adaptive puncturing is analysed in multi-cell scenario also. The results are compared with that of normal coded OFDMA system. Simulation results show that puncturing schemes provide significant performance improvement for coded OFDMA systems. View full abstract»

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  • Improving speech intelligibility in an adverse condition using subband spectral subtraction method

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 168 - 170
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many people have great difficulty in Understanding speech with background noise. Speech Enhancement plays a vital role in such situations. The background noise has to be removed from the noisy speech signal to increase the signal intelligibility and to reduce the listener fatigue. In this paper, a novel approach is used to enhance the perceived quality of the speech signal when the additive noise cannot be directly controlled. The proposed approach is a speech enhancement method based on the preprocessed sub band spectral subtraction method, and the preprocessing is done by using partial differential equation. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of single patch and patch antenna array for a microwave life detection system

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 171 - 174
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1139 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the rescue operation during natural calamities to be done efficiently, there must be a life detector that can provide reliable determination of a live person's presence in a place of search. Microwave sensors could bring some specific advantages for the detection of living victims. Primarily, microwaves are sensitive to small movements which are distinctive signs of life, independently of a possible loss of consciousness. It is at this juncture that microwave life detectors gain their significance. The antenna system is an integral part of microwave life rescuing system. The compactness and portability of a microwave life detection system depend largely on the miniaturization the antenna used which could be realised using micro strip patch antenna. The efficiency of the existing microwave life detection system can be raised by increasing the transmitted power and implementing appropriate digital signal processing techniques. Rapid developments in wireless communication go in parallel with advancements in compactness and efficiency of antennas. This work proposes the design of a single element microstrip patch antenna and a 1×4 microstrip patch antenna array for a microwave life detection system at 1.150 GHz. Also the directivity of the simulated patch and 1×4 patch antenna array are compared. The simulations are done in AWRDE Microwave office. View full abstract»

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  • Enhancing communication system efficiencies by wavelet implementation

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 175 - 178
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (849 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper highlights the improvements that can be realized in various performance parameters in a digital communication system using wavelets. Parameters like spectral efficiency, bandwidth utilization and bit error rate are found to improve with the help of wavelets. Daubechies system of wavelets is used as a case study. View full abstract»

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  • Memory based architecture to implement simplified block LMS algorithm on FPGA

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 179 - 183
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1253 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm is undoubtedly the most resorted to algorithm in diverse fields of engineering. Due to its simplicity it has been applied to solve numerous problems including side lobe reduction in matched filters, adaptive equalization, system identification, adaptive noise cancellation etc. In this paper we present a simple architecture for the implementation of a variant of Block LMS algorithm where the weight updation and error calculation are both calculated block wise. The algorithm performs considerably well with a slight trade off in the learning curve time and misadjustment, both of which can be adjusted by varying the step size depending on the requirement. The architecture can be further modified to perform the variants of LMS algorithm such as sign-sign, sign-error and sign-data algorithms. The performance of the Simplified BLMS and LMS algorithms are compared in MATLAB simulations and the hardware outputs from the FPGA are verified with the simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of coupling efficiency between two holey fibers using a holographic coupler

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 184 - 187
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (822 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an approach for calculating coupling efficiency in a holey fiber holographic coupler system. There are two main contributions of this work. First, the current work is an attempt to analyze the coupling efficiency between two holey fibers for the first time using a holographic coupler. Second, our numerical analysis provides some insight for optimizing the coupling efficiency between two holey fibers by changing the relative hole size, diameter of the core of the fiber. Further our results are found to be in good agreement with results of coupling efficiency due to splicing in literature qualitatively. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of OMP and SOMP in the reconstruction of compressively sensed hyperspectral images

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 188 - 192
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel method for the acquisition and compression of hyperspectral images based on two concepts - distributed source coding and compressive sensing. Compressive sensing (CS) is a signal acquisition method that samples at sub Nyquist rates which is possible for signals that are sparse in some transform domain. Distributed source coding (DSC) is a method to encode correlated sources separately and decode them together in an attempt to shift complexity from the encoder to the decoder. Distributed compressive sensing (DCS) is a new framework suggested for jointly sparse signals which we apply to the correlated bands of hyperspectral images. We compressively sense each band of the hyperspectral image individually and can then recover the bands separately or using a joint recovery method. We use the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) for individual recovery and Simultaneous Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (SOMP) for joint decoding and compare the two methods. The latter is shown to perform consistently better showing that the Distributed Compressive Sensing method that exploits the joint sparsity of the hyperspectral image is much better than individual recovery. View full abstract»

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  • A novel multistage classification and Wavelet based kernel generation for handwritten Marathi compound character recognition

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 193 - 197
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (748 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel approach for recognition of unconstrained handwritten Marathi compound characters. The recognition is carried out using multistage feature extraction and classification scheme. The initial stages of feature extraction are based upon the structural features and the classification of the characters is done according to their parameters. The final stage of feature extraction employs generation of kernels using Wavelet transform. A single level Wavelet decomposition is used to generate the approximation coefficients. These coefficients are stored as kernels for matching. A modified wavelet based kernel generation method is also implemented. The recognition is done by template matching in both the cases. The results are analyzed using both the kernel generation techniques for varying resize factors. The recognition rate achieved from the proposed method is 95.89% and 96.00% for 16×16 and 32×32 resize factors respectively with wavelet based kernels and 96.41% and 97.94% for 16×16 and 32×32 resize factors respectively with modified wavelet based kernels. View full abstract»

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  • Speaker independent continuous speech and isolated digit recognition using VQ and HMM

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 198 - 202
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The main objective of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of perceptual features for performing isolated digits and continuous speech recognition. The proposed perceptual features are captured and code book indices are extracted. Expectation maximization algorithm is used to generate HMM models for the speeches. Speech recognition system is evaluated on clean test speeches and the experimental results reveal the performance of the proposed algorithm in recognizing isolated digits and continuous speeches based on maximum log likelihood value between test features and HMM models for each speech. Performance of these features is tested on speeches randomly chosen from “TI Digits_1”, “TI Digits_2” and “TIMIT” databases. This algorithm is tested for VQ and combination of VQ and HMM speech modeling techniques. Perceptual linear predictive cepstrum yields the accuracy of 86% and 93% for speaker independent isolated digit recognition using VQ and combination of VQ & HMM speech models respectively. This feature also gives 99% and 100% accuracy for speaker independent continuous speech recognition by using VQ and the combination of VQ & HMM speech modeling techniques. View full abstract»

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  • 3D facial model construction and animation from a single frontal face image

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 203 - 207
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1636 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we present a system which automatically generates a 3D face model from a single frontal image of a face with the help of generic 3D model. Our system consists of three components. The first component detects the features like eyes, mouth, eyebrow and contour of face. After detecting features the second component automatically adapts the generic 3d model into face specific 3D model using geometric transformations. Our system allows the rotation and zooming of 3D model and generation of texture. Animation is produced using 3D shape morphing between the corresponding face models and blending the corresponding textures. Our system has the advantage that it is fully automatic, robust and fast. It can be used in a variety of applications for which the accuracy of depths are not critical such as games, avatars, face recognition etc. We have tested and evaluated our system using database BU-3DFE. View full abstract»

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  • GMSK modulator for GSM system, an economical implementation on FPGA

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 208 - 212
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper demonstrates an economical implementation of Gaussian Minimum shift keying (GMSK) modulator for Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) system using the basics of direct waveform synthesis. This method makes use of pre-calculated filter response of Gaussian filter for pulse shaping and Phase concatenation circuit for accumulation. Baseband in-phase and quadrature-phase component generation using quarter Sine or Cosine waveform LUT. (Further these signals are given for up-conversion.) Hardware realization is done using VHDL; circuits are synthesized. Prototyped our design in Altera Cyclone-3 FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), verified using R&S (Rhode and Schwarz) Vector signal analyzer. The design and hardware implementation of this modulator was done for indigenous GSM BTS (Base transceiver station) project. View full abstract»

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