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Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion (MedPower 2010), 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on

Date 7-10 Nov. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 113
  • Cover

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (135 KB)  

    The following topics are dealt with: power systems planning; power markets; islanded systems; renewable energy sources; energy storage device; greenhouse gas emission; distributed generation; microgrids; power systems reliability; risk analysis; security assessment; smart grids; power supply quality; energy efficiency; electromagnetic transients; FACTS; power cables; insulating material; high voltage engineering; electric machines; electric drives and power system protection. View full abstract»

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  • List of papers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 11
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  • Direct drive synchronous generator wind turbine models for power system studies

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (727 KB)  

    The large-scale integration of wind power into modern power systems has set novel challenges for wind turbine modeling and analysis. Accurate modeling of different wind turbine technologies is becoming a necessity as wind turbines replace conventional units in the production side. This paper describes models for two major variable speed wind turbine types namely Electrically Excited Synchronous Generator (EESG) and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). Steady state principles of both types are analyzed and mathematical modeling of crucial components is described. The behavior and operation of the system during stochastic wind speed series is simulated using software tools Matlab and PowerFactory. The two configurations are accessed based both on the steady state characteristics and the control system designs. The paper covers a wide range of control methods, which are implemented in both wind turbine schemes. Regarding the PMSG scheme, an advanced damping controller to damp possible oscillations excited in the drive train is presented and its contribution to the safe operation of the wind turbine is explained. In the alternative direct drive scheme (EESG) three different control methods applied in the electrical system are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Wavelet-neuro-fuzzy approach for predicting short-term electricity prices in a competitive market

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (611 KB)  

    In a competitive framework, producers and consumers require short-term electricity prices prediction to derive their bidding strategies to the electricity market. Accurate forecasting tools are required for producers to maximize their profits and for consumers to maximize their utilities. In this paper, a wavelet-neuro-fuzzy approach is proposed for short-term electricity prices prediction. Results from a real-world case study based on the electricity market of mainland Spain are presented. Finally, conclusions are duly drawn. View full abstract»

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  • Building generation expansion plans - A decision aid approach to use in competitive electricity markets

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)  

    Generation expansion planning gained a new dimension with the advent of electricity markets. It is now an activity decoupled from transmission and there are several agents competing to generate electricity and aiming at maximizing their individual profits. In view of this, it becomes more important to develop tools to help generation agents to build their expansion plans, internalizing several uncertainties in the model, an being able to simulate different possible reactions of the other competitors, given their impact in the profits of the agent being modelled. In this paper, we present a long-term decision aid tool that uses System Dynamics to model the long run of electricity markets together with Genetic Algorithms to solve the individual expansion problem of generation agents given their mixed-integer nature. Apart from the detailed description of the developed approach, the paper also includes a Case Study based on a four generation agent system to illustrate its application. View full abstract»

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  • Preventive generation maintenance scheduling - A simulated annealing approach to use in competitive markets

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (589 KB)  

    The scheduling of preventive maintenance actions of generators is not a new problem but gained in recent years a new interest with the advent of electricity markets. In this paper we report the research on this topic developed during the preparation of the MSc Thesis of the second author. In this paper we formulate the problem as a mixed integer optimization problem and we describe the use of Simulated Annealing to solve it. Simulated Annealing is a very appealing metaheuristic easily implemented and providing good results in numerous optimization problems. The paper includes results obtained for a Case Study based on a realistic generation system. This research work was proposed and developed with the collaboration of the third and fourth authors, from EDP Produção, Portugal. View full abstract»

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  • Modelling of Distribution Network Cell based on grey-box approach

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (515 KB)  

    The paper presents the modeling of Distributed Network Cell (DNC) based on grey-box approach. The equivalent model of DNC comprises of a converter-connected generator and a composite load model in parallel. The detail development of the equivalent model is described in this paper. The grey-box approach is chosen based on the fact that it offers possibility to incorporate some prior knowledge about DNC structure into model development, make developed model more physically relevant and intuitive compared to black box model and potentially improve the accuracy of the model. The dynamic equivalent model is presented in the form of sixth-order nonlinear state space format and developed from the algebraic and differential equations describing assumed typical components of DNC. View full abstract»

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  • Validation of developed grey-box model of Distribution Network Cell

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (575 KB)  

    The paper presents detail parameter identification procedure and validation of dynamic equivalent model of Distributed Network Cell (DNC) developed based on grey-box approach. The aim is to demonstrate that the equivalent model based on grey-box approach has the potential to significantly improve the modelling capabilities and model accuracy compared to the black-box modelling. The equivalent model consists of a converter-connected generator and a composite load model in parallel. It is presented in six-order nonlinear state space form. The model is evaluated by comparing the responses of case study DNC obtained using non linear simulations in DigSILENT and those obtained by the model. View full abstract»

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  • Advantages of P-I-N Photovoltaic structures

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (597 KB)  

    Direct conversion of solar energy into electricity using the photovoltaic effect suffers of low efficiency. Thus, increasing the efficiency conversion becomes the major goal of solar cells manufacturers. One way to increase efficiency is by applying intrinsic semiconductor widening layer in the depletion zone of a P-N junction. P-I-N based Photovoltaic structures on single-crystalline silicon were built using "Sheet Plasma" sputtering method. Intrinsic silicon films and indium oxide films were grown in series on a conventional p-type silicon wafer. Optical and electrical properties of the deposited films were investigated using laboratory equipment. It was found that the bandgap of the intrinsic silicon layer equals to 1.3 eV and the bandgap of the emitter layer (In2O3) equals to 3.04 eV. Resistivity of the obtained emitter layer was equal to 5.24-10-3 Ω·cm. Efficiency of the photovoltaic structures was no more than 2%. This paper proves feasibility of growing photovoltaic devices using Sheet Plasma sputtering methods. View full abstract»

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  • A constrained hybrid state estimator including pseudo flow measurements

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (591 KB)  

    Synchronized measurement technology (SMT) is increasingly deployed in modern power systems. Although it can be used in many applications in modern energy management centers, the most natural application of SMT is in the area of state estimation. The incorporation of synchrophasors provided by the Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), in the state estimation process has improved many aspects of the state estimation procedure, such as the accuracy, observability and convergence. In this paper, a hybrid state estimator that incorporates pseudo power flow measurements is presented. The performance of the estimator is assessed and compared to the conventional state estimator. View full abstract»

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  • Parametric comparative study for the installation of solar dish technologies in Cyprus

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB)  

    In this work a feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate whether the installation of solar dish technologies for power generation in Mediterranean regions is economically feasible. The study takes into account the available solar potential for a typical Mediterranean country, such as Cyprus, as well as all available data concerning the current renewable energy sources policy of the island, including the relevant feed-in tariff of 0.26€/kWh. In order to identify the least cost feasible option for the installation of the solar dish plant a parametric cost-benefit analysis is carried out by varying the solar dish plant capacity, the solar dish plant capital investment and the CO2 emissions trading scheme price. The results indicated that the installation of solar dish plants in Mediterranean regions is economically feasible only in some cases, when a feed-in tariff incentive scheme exists, and that the size and the capital cost of the solar dish power plant are critical parameters affecting the economic viability of the technology. View full abstract»

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  • Techno-economic analysis of CSP plants for isolated Mediterranean power systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    In this work, a technical and economic analysis concerning the integration of parabolic trough concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies, with or without thermal storage capability, in an existing typical small isolated Mediterranean power generation system, in the absence of a feed-in tariff scheme, is carried out. In addition to the business as usual (BAU) scenario, five more scenarios are examined in the analysis in order to assess the electricity unit cost with the penetration of parabolic trough CSP plants of 50 MWe or 100 MWe, with or without thermal storage capability. Based on the input data and assumptions made, the simulations indicated that the scenario with the utilization of a single parabolic trough CSP plant (either 50 MWe or 100 MWe and with or without thermal storage capability) in combination with BAU will effect an insignificant change in the electricity unit cost of the generation system compared to the BAU scenario. In addition, a sensitivity analysis on natural gas price, showed that increasing fuel prices and the existence of thermal storage capability in the CSP plant make this scenario marginally more economically attractive compared to the BAU scenario. View full abstract»

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  • Contribution of distributed generators to the harmonic distortion in low voltage power network

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (553 KB)  

    In the last 20 years immense efforts have been made to utilize renewable energy sources for electric power generation. This paper investigates some aspects of integration of the distributed generators into the low voltage distribution network. An assessment of impact of the distributed generators on the voltage and current harmonic distortion in the low voltage network is performed. Results obtained from a case study, using real-life low voltage network, are presented and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Utilisation of solar/thermal power plants for hydrogen production and application in the transportation sector

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (768 KB)  

    Wider use of fossil fuels is prohibited by unfavourable recent climate change phenomena as well as constraints from greenhouse gasses emissions, regulated strictly by the European Union. Fuel demanding sectors, such as transportation, impose utilisation of environmentally friendly technologies which will contribute in increased hydrogen production, which is considered as energy carrier for future applications. The state-of-the-art of solar/thermal power plants, and technologies for hydrogen production, storage and application are briefly reviewed. The utilisation of solar/thermal power plants from technical and economical point of views, for electricity production which will subsequently be exploited for hydrogen production is examined. It is argued that use of hydrogen to empower internal combustion engine vehicles, as well as fuel cell vehicles, can extensively satisfy the energy requirements of the transportation sector in the near future. Hydrogen usage can subsequently decrease the dependency on fossil fuel imports of local economies of southern Mediterranean insular areas with high solar radiation. Recent statistical data both for fuel demands for transportation, as well as pertinent CO emissions are illustrated for the case study of the island of Cyprus. In the case study, the energy requirements for the transportation sector are used and the exploitation of solar/thermal power plants is analysed. From the case study results and findings, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are provided for the type and size of solar/thermal power plants, and the appropriate hydrogen technologies to be adapted in the near future for limiting dependency on fuel imports and largely decreasing CO2 emissions. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient identification of synchronous machine parameters through the finite elements method

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (674 KB)  

    This work proposes a methodology to identify the parameters of a synchronous machine based on the finite element method (FEM). Several offline real-time tests to identify SM parameters are reproduced on a digital platform of a FEM based solver. The proposed methodology is divided into three basic steps: creation of the basic physical geometry of the synchronous machine, development and execution of parameter estimation tests on the digital platform, and post-processing to calculate the parameters from the test results. Simulations are shown for a salient-pole synchronous machine. The proposed method is envisioned to replace the real-time offline tests. View full abstract»

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  • Deriving loss profiles for market purposes

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (877 KB)  

    This paper describes the methodology and results obtained in the studies developed for deriving loss profiles for the Portuguese electricity market. For each voltage level (LV, MV, HV and VHV) the losses were distributed by the corresponding global load diagram, proportionally to the square of the hourly consumption. Transformer losses are assigned to the consumers of voltage levels equal or smaller to the secondary voltage. Loss profiles (like load profiles) were developed for each specific year, with its calendar particularities, and the global energy balance expected for that year. A subsequent product of the adopted methodology is the set of loss factors, which are directly driven from these profiles. The methodology was developed in a project with EDP (the Portuguese distribution system operator) and the result was approved by the regulatory authority that adopted the proposed loss profiles for market use. View full abstract»

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  • Load profiles and peak loads growth in typical consumption areas - Possibilities of their recording by remote metering system

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (859 KB)  

    In recent distribution practice in Serbia in the peak load forecasting and network planning, a specific problem occurred: intensive and durable peak load reduction. Significant electricity price increase and other changes of Tariff System led also to different consumer behaviour and daily load profiles "freezing". Therefore, investigation of modified load profiles in typical consumption areas has become necessary. On the other side, in some electricity distribution companies in Serbia, installation of systems for remote meter reading of customer consumption currently is under way. Such systems can be used also for other data acquisition. By proper selection of areas and data, they could be relevant for investigation of typical load profiles. Such system components, data selection, their transmission and analysis are presented in the paper. It also proposes the methodology for using load profiles and peak load values, after several years of their acquisition, for making accurate peak load forecasts as the first step in optimal network planning. View full abstract»

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  • Biomass and electrical energy

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (506 KB)  

    Biomass is a broad term, which is used to describe material of biological origin that can be used as a source of energy. As such, it includes trees, crops and other plants as well as agricultural residues. It also includes many materials that are considered wastes by our society, including industrial wastes, sludge, manures and the organic fraction of household waste. Biomass can be readily converted into solid, liquid or gaseous fuels and thereafter can be used to generate electricity. One form of biomass is industrial and household waste, which can be cut or chopped into fuel pieces or pellets and be used as a solid fuel in a boiler to raise steam, which can be used to turn a steam generator and produce electricity. Another form of biomass is the daily manure of swine and cattle farm. The manure is collected and by means of anaerobic digestion, biogas (composed mostly of methane) is produced, which can be used as a fuel to drive a gas engine to produce electricity. The biogas used as a fuel for generating electricity can also be produced by means of other methods, such as combustion and pyrolysis. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of transient events using the Hartley Phase Cepstrum for improved power quality

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (551 KB)  

    In Electric Power Quality (PQ), transient disturbances of short duration in the voltage or current waveforms supplied by the Utility have a severe impact on the operation and safety of both the user equipment and the total energy network. Advanced signal processing methods are currently being developed and employed for the detection of transient PQ events. The Phase Cepstrum of the waveform data is proposed here as a tool for the detection and localization of such PQ transients. Specifically, the Hartley Phase Cepstrum is employed thanks to certain advantages it bears as to its conventional Fourier counterpart. These stem from the properties of the corresponding Hartley Phase Spectrum, which carry over to the cepstral domain because of the analytic relation that holds between the two domains. Unlike the Fourier Phase Cepstrum, the Hartley Phase Cepstrum does not suffer from ambiguities introduced by the phase 'unwrapping' processing step; therefore, the evaluation of the Hartley Phase Cepstrum is an invertible process. For the same reason, the Hartley Phase Cepstrum offers improved detection and localization of a sequence of transient events. View full abstract»

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  • On the use of time-frequency distributions for the power quality problem of harmonics

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB)  

    The presence of harmonics in the electric voltage or current waveforms constitutes a steady-state type of Power Quality event Harmonics are sinusoidal components at frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz, in the electric power systems). These are produced by the non-linear characteristics of the devices and loads, causing Power Quality disturbances. In this work signal processing methods are developed or appropriately adapted in order to detect harmonics and to estimate their frequency and power relative to that of the fundamental frequency. A practical problem is that neither are harmonics continuously present in the waveforms nor is their relative powers constant. For the spectral analysis of signals whose statistical properties vary in time (non-stationary signals), time-frequency distribution methods, rather than Fourier analysis based methods, are pertinent. Indeed, time-frequency distributions allow us to observe the evolution of the signal frequency content in time. The most popular time-frequency distribution is the Fourier magnitude spectrogram (squared magnitude of the Short-Time Fourier Transform, STFT). However, for applications such as signal variations detection, where increased time and frequency resolutions are required, the Choi-Willians Distribution (CWD), a member of the Cohen-class distributions family, is preferable. Its efficiency for harmonics detection and estimation is shown here by simulations on synthetic signals with satisfactory results. View full abstract»

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  • The role of an aggregator agent for EV in the electricity market

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (573 KB)  

    An aggregator agent for electric vehicles is a commercial middleman between a system operator and plug-in electrical vehicles (EV). For the system operator perspective, the aggregator is seen as a large source of generation or load, which could provide ancillary services such as spinning and regulating reserve. Generally these services will be provided in the day-ahead and intraday electricity markets. In addition, the aggregator also participates in the electricity market with supply and demand energy bids. In this paper, the integration of these concepts in an electricity market environment is discussed through proposing a framework for the information characterization (and availability) between aggregator, system operators and clients. A specific market (the Iberian Market MIBEL) is discussed. In the sequence, the different degrees of availability of the relevant information are identified and characterized, including the variables that are necessary to forecast. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of probabilistic and deterministic approaches for setting operating reserve in systems with high penetration of wind power

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1745 KB)  

    The increasing levels of wind power penetration motivated a revisitation of methods for setting operating reserve requirements for the next and current day. System Operators (SO) are now moving from deterministic intro probabilistic approaches, and including wind power forecasts in their decision-making problems. In this manuscript, a probabilistic approach that evaluates the consequences of setting each possible reserve level through a set of risk indices is compared with frequently used deterministic rules and a probabilistic rule where wind power uncertainty is described by a Gaussian distribution. The comparison is performed over a period of five months for a realistic power system, using real load and wind power generation data. Results highlight the limitations of deterministic rules, challenge the Gaussian assumption and illustrate the usefulness of risk indices derived from the probabilistic forecast and using a full probabilistic methodology. View full abstract»

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  • Maximum efficiency of a Wind Energy Conversion system with a PM Synchronous Generator

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (476 KB)  

    In this paper, a control strategy for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) is introduced aiming in both maximum power operation of the wind turbine and minimum power loss of the electrical generator. The conventional configuration of ac-dc-ac topology for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) is used. The PMSG is driven by a Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) rectifier, an intermediate delink circuit and a PWM inverter for the connection to the utility grid. Field oriented control technique is applied at the rectifier for the separate control of d- and q-axis stator current components of the PMSG. For this purpose, two search controllers are utilized. One search controller regulates the q-axis stator current and through this the generator speed. Thus, the reference speed of the generator is dynamically modified according to the wind speed in order to maintain the wind turbine at its maximum power operating point. The second search controller regulates the d-axis current component for controlling the excitation flux of the generator, and therefore for minimizing the electrical loss of the PMSG. For the implementation of the above control method, the knowledge of neither the wind turbine parameters nor the generator loss model is required. The proposed control method has been simulated in Matlab/Simulink software, and several simulation results are presented in order to validate its effectiveness and the operational improvements. View full abstract»

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  • Investigating the optimal separation point approach for optimization of distribution power system

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)  

    The distribution networks are actually growing with complexity, due to the gradual increase of power demand and the existence of customers with more sensitive loads. An interruption has nowadays more severe impact in load equipment than in loads existing a few years ago. This fact combined with the analysis of customer failure statistics, causing also financial loss for utility companies, reinforces the need to be concerned with reliability evaluation of distribution network. An efficient operation of distribution networks can, therefore, be achieved by using reconfiguration techniques. The network reconfiguration is carried out by changing the on/off status of the switches. Obviously, the greater the numbers of remote control switches, the greater are the possibilities for reconfiguration and better are the effects. The automation implementation will be technically advantageous as well as economical for the utilities and the customers, in terms of the variable costs reduction and better service quality. This paper discusses some important aspects related to Optimal Separation Point in distribution network. Some techniques previously studied in the literature are analyzed and a critical evaluation of Optimal Separation Point Approach is presented. The effectiveness of the analyzed methods is demonstrated through numerical studies in test systems. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling wind generators with full-scale frequency converters: Stability and passivity properties

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (92 KB)  

    State-space models of wind generators connected to the grid through full-scale converters that are suitable for advanced variable speed applications and stability/passivity analysis, are obtained. Two different concepts, namely the induction generator and the PM synchronous generator concept, are addressed. The dynamic models obtained are of 8th-and 6th-order respectively and contain as variables in their state vector the ones that advanced control methods, such as vector control techniques, require. Applying on these models a Lyapunov-storage-function based analysis, it is proved that the fundamental property of passivity holds true independently from the selection of the converter control. Thus, one can effectively exploit this fact in the control design in order to achieve further improvements in the wind system performance. View full abstract»

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