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Recent Advances in Space Technology Services and Climate Change (RSTSCC), 2010

Date 13-15 Nov. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 107
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  • Scope and consequence of fertilizer on global emissions and its effect on climate change

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (363 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Intensive agriculture is the only way to feed the projected 9 billion people on the planet (FAO, 2002) by the end of this century. Agriculture is a major contributor of 10-12% of total global anthropogenic Green House Gases (GHG) to the atmosphere, but the emissions vary depending on the land use and the way that the land is managed. Fertilizer, energy - and chemical-intensive farming also contribute to the increased levels of greenhouse gas emissions, primarily as a result of the overuse of fertilizers, land clearance, soil degradation, and intensive animal farming. The Green House Gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture are (i) Nitrous oxide (N2O) resulting from excess fertilizer, results emissions from soil contributing to climate change (ii) Methane (CH4) from rice fields and enteric fermentation of cattle constitute emissions from agriculture (iii) Annual exchanges of CO2 between the atmosphere and agricultural lands, the net flux is estimated to be approximately balanced, with CO2 emissions. Assessing GHG emissions on laboratory, field and large scale is tedious, time consuming and laborious. This paper discuss about the activities and its consequences around the globe. View full abstract»

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  • Accumulation of heavy metals by freshwater zooplankton - a toxicological study

    Page(s): 7 - 14
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    So far many toxicologic studies are made earlier; we studied the acute toxicity estimation related to some specific identified freshwater zooplanktons of Paradip (Harbour City) area of Jagatsingpur District, Orissa, India which is situated on the bank of Mahanadi River. The study area is prone to heavy metal pollution because mineral based industries in relation to zinc, lead and cadmium are common in and around. Heavy metal pollutants are affecting aquatic life in their surrounding waters. Water quality analysis of sampling location has shown concentration of lead as 0.06-0.55 ppm, zinc 0.04-0.35 ppm and cadmium 0.00-0.01 ppm which are beyond the BIS permissible limit for drinking water. As many people depend upon the fisheries from this area and public health is concerned, acute toxicity to zooplankton was estimated as it is in the middle of food chain. So, after conducting static bioassay, acute toxicity of zinc, lead and cadmium to fresh water zooplanktons was estimated. Whole zooplankton communities were exposed to different heavy metal stresses. Zooplankton community included nine planktonic forms i.e. Heliodiaptomus viduus, Mesocyclops hyalinus, Cyclocypris globosa, Diaphanosoma sarsi, Moina brachiata, Stenocypris malcolmsoni, Alona quadrangularis, Asplanchna brightwelli, Ceriodaphnia were exposed to different heavy metal stresses. Cadmium was found to be most toxic and lead was least toxic to zooplankton. Ostracods and Cyclops were in resistant forms and Rotifers were in sensitive forms in relation to metallic exposure. Sensitivity pattern observed during laboratory experiments was found to be in accordance with biodiversity variation of zooplankton in different sampling locations of Mahanadi River System in Paradip (Harbour City) area of Jagatsingpur District, Orissa. View full abstract»

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  • A study on the construction of microbial consortia containing bacterial isolates capable of degrading AB113, ABK 24, MB17

    Page(s): 15 - 18
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    The present work focuses on the Microbial degradation of three textile azo dyes, Acid Blue 113(AB113), Acid Black 24(ABK24) and Mordant Black 17 (MB17) by thirteen bacterial isolates as well by their consortia. Thirty five bacterial isolates were isolated from textile dyeing industry effluents. Proficient and rapid dye degradation was identified in thirteen isolates. Microbial consortia were developed on the basis of dye degrading competence of the strains. Nearly 60%-95% degradation was achieved in less than about 72 h in these isolates tested on individual dyes. Promising results were obtained with mixed dye concentration. The dye concentration, pH, temperature and time of degradation were optimized. 16S rRNA gene amplification was carried out for the sequencing and identification of these strains. TLC, HPLC, FTIR and GC-MS analysis were carried out to confirm the presence of aromatic amines and to aid the data supporting the course of degradation. As identified from the analyses, the final products of AB113 degradation were Metanilic acid and Peri acid, the latter was seen to disappear after 72h of degradation. View full abstract»

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  • Environmental pollution and public health: The socio-economic analysis of the global drivers of change

    Page(s): 19 - 24
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    Environment and health are inextricably interlinked. The physical environment, such as drinking water, sanitation, housing, and air, has considerable effects on the health status and well being of people. Environmental change and its attendant health impacts are driven by many factors, including economic growth, population growth and movements. The three broad trends - the intensification of agriculture, industrialization, and rising energy use - which stand out in terms of their profound impacts on the physical environment and their enormous potential for influencing human health. Rapid urbanization and the uncontrolled growth of urban slums are now creating a double environmental health burden for the urban poor. In India, premature death and illness due to major environmental health risks accounts for nearly 20 percent of the total burden of disease in India. Proper environmental management is the key to avoiding the quarter of all preventable illnesses which are directly caused by environmental factors. There is an immediate need to tackle environmental health issues. Problems such as unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene, and air pollution are major contributors to the worldwide disease burden. View full abstract»

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  • Nuclear radiation detection using low cost wireless system: Protection of environment against nuclear leakage and dump

    Page(s): 25 - 28
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    This paper attempts to integrate RF technology into Nuclear Radiation detector circuitry. In the proposed system, a Nuclear Radiation sensor upon senses Radiation, activates its alarm, sends a low voltage signal to all the other Radiation detectors in the vicinity. This low voltage signal activates the individual relays in the other Radiation detectors causing to emit a tone that alerts residents, that one of the Radiation detectors senses Radiation. In this system the transmitter and the receiver are installed in a unit and the need for the base is eliminated. The individual Radiation detectors are equipped with all the electronics required to both send and receive signals. They are battery operated and therefore they require no external connections. They can be installed by a layman just on a watch tower. The proposed design is aiming to have cost efficient system, compact design, easily expandable, simple to install, replaceable components. The system was tested indoor with a normal test bench with the presence of artificial source. View full abstract»

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  • Environmental impact of improper disposal of electronic waste

    Page(s): 29 - 31
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    “Electronic-waste” or “E-waste” is a popular name for electronic products nearing the end of their useful life or just dumped due to the availability of new and advanced products in the market. E-waste consists of a concoction of metals and toxins. The environmental impacts caused by computer from the mining stage to its disposal as e-waste is dealt with in this paper. Scientific methods of disposal of e-waste should be carried out for reducing the environmental damage. Planting trees can help the earth recover from its damages. View full abstract»

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  • Study on soil bio-remediaton for preventing groundwater contamination of chromium bearing leather processing waste dumping sites

    Page(s): 32 - 40
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    Around 2300 tanneries in India produces 6000 tones of solid waste per annum, that includes 15000 tones of chromed leather shavings waste. This contain Chromium. Cr (VI) compounds used in leather processing which are highly water soluble, toxic, carcinogenic and a potential ground water contaminant. The MoEF have classified the chromium bearing solid wastes in the hazardous waste category that necessitates the disposal mechanism such as landfilling, stabilization, solidification etc., Many advanced chromium treatment methods were emerged that includes physio-chemical extraction and phytoremediation , but did not give complete solution to the problems. However, the bioremediation is one of the promising technology that is expected to play an important role in soil waste clean-up although, still in the preliminary stage. This is attributed to lack of proper understanding on integrating the geochemistry, geomicrobiology, geomorphology with soil stratification and mode of leachability. Therefore, this study is focused to evaluate the soil profile, geochemistry, geomorphology, biochemical transformation of cationic and anionic balances, specific organism's and their phylogenies for chromium degradation in Cr dumped sites. The present paper describes the important process of soil bioremediation based on the existing literatures, identified the gap in research for mobility of chromium degrading bacteria at different, compacted, non-compacted, porous and non-porous soil strata. A standard bioremediation protocol is the need of the hour to be developed for soil bioremediation in a confined and unconfined soil which can further be extended to other metals/salts such as (Ni, Fe, Zn, Cobalt) in contaminated waste dumping sites.Therefore, the laboratory and field level natural investigation on chromium contaminated waste dumping sites and sparging/injecting clusters of micro organisms that are capable of degrading chromium with a rich carbon source in the soils near Chromate ind- - ustries at Ranipet, TamilNadu has been proposed as a complete detoxification of chromium before it reaches the groundwater. View full abstract»

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  • Magnitude of Green House Effect and the contribution of Carbon di oxide

    Page(s): 41 - 44
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    Global warming is due to many factors such as the variation in the incoming solar radiation, earth's magnetic field, atmospheric conditions such as cloud formation, aerosol content, Green House Effect, etc. In the present study, the contribution of Green House Effect is being explored. First, a theoretical estimate of Green House Effect is presented with a verification using the observed values. Then, the contribution of the Green House Gases based on its concentration is calculated. Of the various Green House Gases, we have taken Carbon di oxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Chloro Fluoro Carbon-11 & 12 for our study. Of these gases, the contribution of carbon di oxide alone is found to be about 66% of the total magnitude of the Green House Effect. View full abstract»

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  • Surface ozone variability in the southern most semi-urban area, Nagercoil, India

    Page(s): 45 - 49
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    Ozone is an important atmospheric constituent due to its role both as a green house gas and an oxidant. Interactions between ozone and climate naturally occur not only in the stratosphere, but also at the earth's surface (troposphere). This study aspires to access the amount of surface ozone concentration in and around Nagercoil ( 8°11' N, 77°29' E ). A portable Aeroqual series 200 Ozone monitor has been used for measuring purposes. Sampling was carried out at two sites influenced by same meteorological conditions during four seasons in the period of 2007-2008. The measurements showed a well marked diurnal cycle of surface ozone concentration which clearly follows the diurnal variation of surface temperature. Results of this study have revealed that the annual mean of daily average surface ozone concentration was 19.19 ± 3.21 ppb .The highest average seasonal concentration was determined in summer and lowest in north east monsoon for both the sites. A difference of 2.73 ppb was observed in the annual mean of daily average surface ozone concentration between the two sites. Statistical t-test in this study shows that this difference is only due to the difference in the levels of VOC and precursor gas emissions. View full abstract»

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  • Role of weather data in validating air quality models

    Page(s): 50 - 54
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    Air quality dispersion models have been used to predict the ground level concentrations (GLC) of air pollutants such as Particulate matter, SO2 and NOx etc. Industrial Source Complex Short Term Version 3 (ISCST3), a dispersion model developed by United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) is widely adopted in India to predict the GLC due to emissions from the industries. American Meteorological Society/Environment Protection Agency Regulatory Model Improvement Committee has developed an improved version model, Aermic dispersion Model (AERMOD) to predict the GLC. USEPA has adopted AERMOD as its regulatory model since 2005. This study examines the suitability of AERMOD for Indian conditions especially for a rural area near by Chennai. The validity of AERMOD model is examined considering a point source of emission from an industry which uses furnace oil as fuel. The study has been conducted to compare the predicted value using AERMOD and the actual value of GLC by field observations. The study also used ISCST3 to predict the GLC and the values obtained have been compared between the models. This study aimed at the comparison of the AERMOD and ISCST3 models for ambient air quality prediction. Further in this paper, local meteorological data have been used to a greater accuracy to validate the models AERMOD and ISCST3 for the point source of emission of SO2. It is clear from this study that weather data playing a vital role in validation of model and to predict the air pollution concentration in a particular station. And also it is clear that both AERMOD and ISCST3 have under predicted the concentrations than that of the observed value and the accuracy of the predicated data is mainly depending on the weather data. View full abstract»

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  • Cloud virtualization: A potential way to reduce global warming

    Page(s): 55 - 57
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    The greatest environmental challenge today is global warming, which is caused by carbon emissions. A report by the Energy Information Administration says that about 98 percent of CO2 emissions (or 87 percent of all CO2- equivalent emissions from all greenhouse gases) can be directly attributed to energy consumption. The major challenge of many organizations today is a desire to operate in a “green” manner, publishing principles for environmental practices and sustainability on their corporate Web. In addition, many companies are now paying some kind of carbon tax for the resources they consume and the environmental impact of the products and services they produce, so a reduction in energy consumed can have a real financial payback. In this paper, we focus on reduction in energy consumption over the full equipment life cycle as the prime motivator for “green” application design; with energy reduction as the best measure of “green-ness”. Green IT refers to the study and practice of using computing resources in an efficient, effective and economic way. The various approaches of the green IT are Virtualization, Power management, Material recycling and Telecommuting. In which Virtualization platforms can run across hundreds of interconnected physical computers and storage devices, to create an entire virtual infrastructure. Cloud computing is the concept of equal sharing of resources among nodes. Cloud virtualization refers the process of running two or more logical computer systems on one set of hardware with equal sharing of resources. The challenge of the existing system is reduction of efficiency due server virtualization. In this paper, we propose a new system that connects more number of nodes with minimum number of servers. The sole motivation of this paper is reducing energy consumption using cloud virtualization clique star cover number technique. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of high pressure and high temperature on (Nd, Eu, Gd) Ba-Cu-O superconductor

    Page(s): 58 - 60
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    The effect of high pressure and high temperature on electrical resistivity behavior of (Nd, Eu, Gd) Ba-Cu-O superconductor with 10wt %Ag2O addition was studied. This high Tc superconductor was synthesized using the oxygen controlled melt growth process(OCMG). At room temperature, there was an initial drop in the resistivity of the superconductor up to 3GPa, followed by a nearly constant value up to 8GPa pressure. The steady value of resistivity observed between 3 and 8GPa decreased with increasing Ag2O content. The superconducting composite formed exhibited a metallic nature under pressure up to 8GPa. View full abstract»

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  • An Embedded systems approach to monitor green house

    Page(s): 61 - 65
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    Cultivation method of greenhouse is that the growth of crops doesn't depend on the nature environment and keep the best of optimization of environment by artificially controlling the environment. An Embedded systems approach to monitor green house have become quite important now a days, especially for monitoring and control of green house systems. Small green houses are typical examples. First, they are usually located far, away from the owners house, and second, the plant grow is an example of the process which need constant 24 hours monitoring. In this paper “An Embedded systems approach to monitor green house” based on the measuring of parameters like Humidity, Water pH, Soil wetness, Light intensity and temperature by sensors are located at different places, where measured, processed, controlled and updated to owner through SMS using GPS modem. View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring and transmitting the details of vehicle not obeying traffic rules to the nearby surrounding stations for instant action

    Page(s): 66 - 68
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    In the growth of population in world, people use vehicles like sedan and lorry to meet their comfort and necessity. This lead to heavy traffic, pollution etc. at the same time there is increase in traffic violation. In order to detect the violation by the driver, we have designed a tool. This tool is employed in the toll booth, so that it will monitor the vehicles which are moving. If any vehicle violates the traffic rules by crossing the speed limit, by not obeying the traffic signals and rules it will take photograph of the vehicle and send the picture of the vehicle and its details like car number to the next booth in few seconds by advanced transmission techniques. With the help of this transmitted information which is received in next subsequent booth so that the cops in next booth will be alerted and will be able to stop the vehicle. This tool which is undergoing testing and validation process once provides satisfactory result can be installed in real time. View full abstract»

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  • Improving data accessibility in mobile ad hoc networks

    Page(s): 69 - 73
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    In mobile ad hoc networks, the networks topology changes dynamically and partition among mobile nodes occur frequently. These are due to unpredictable mobility of mobile nodes and each mobile nodes act as routers which discover and maintain routes, and forward packets to other nodes. We address the problem of replication in mobile ad hoc networks by exploring group mobility approach. Group mobility refer to the scenario where several mobile nodes are tends to move together. Group mobility approach is used to increase the data accessibility among mobile nodes through data replication and consistency group management. It also guarantees basic level of system performance, such as throughput, delay and reduces the networks traffic among mobile nodes. View full abstract»

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  • Spatial interpolation of air temperature in Himalayas

    Page(s): 74 - 76
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    The daily air temperature measured at few stations in Sutlej basin need to be interpolated spatially across the basin to account for spatial variability in the proposed snowmelt runoff model. GIDS algorithm combines the multiple regression and inverse-distance-squared approaches in which the inputs includes location and elevation details of the stations with reference to inverse squared distance between each station. The model was created in GIS environment and executed daily for April and May by varying the coefficients generated using MATLAB software with 30m resolution. The model contains two modules, with Kaza and Racksham as check stations. Statistical analysis result shows, according to Kaza station the percentage of error is +/- 5%. The standard deviation for both the months is 0.60 and 0.44. In case of Racksham, the percentage of error is within +/- 20%. The standard deviation for both the months is 3.4 and 1.12. Based on analysis, GIDS model was governed by the range of inputs like spatial distance, elevations and temperatures.The computed temperatures were compared with those derived using lapse rate method (LRM). On comparison GIDS produced better results than LRM. Thus the study concludes that GIDS can be used for interpolation with certain boundary conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Second harmonic generation in Thiourea doped L-Threonine Non Linear Optical single crystal

    Page(s): 77 - 79
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    Non Linear Optics (NLO) is a new frontier area of science and technology that is to play a major role in the emerging technology of photonics, which is the technology of the 21st century. Non Linear Optical processes provide the key functions of frequency conversion and optical switching. These applications depend upon the various properties of the materials, such as transparency, birefringence, refractive index, dielectric constant, thermal, photochemical and chemical stability. Organic nonlinear materials are attracting a great deal of attention, as they have large optical susceptibilities, inherent ultra fast response times and high optical thresholds for laser power. In the present work Thiourea doped L-Threonine (TU doped LT) organic single crystal is grown at room temperature by slow evaporation technique. The lattice parameters and the functional groups are identified by single crystal XRD and FTIR studies respectively. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of a non linear optical material is a very important parameter from which we get an idea about the efficiency of the material in translating energy from fundamental beam to second harmonic beam. This is confirmed by Kurtz Perry powder technique using Q-switched Nd-YAG laser and the SHG efficiency of the grown crystal is found to be 0.47 times that of urea. This enhances the application of TU doped LT single crystal in non linear optical applications. View full abstract»

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  • A comparative study over alternative fuel (biodiesel) for environmental friendly emission

    Page(s): 80 - 86
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    The world's energy consumption is estimated to be 3.36 × 1020 J per annum and is projected to increase to up to 6.3 × 1020 J in the year 2050. Due to the concern on environmental problems caused by the use of those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. Biodiesel is advised for use as an alternative fuel for conventional petroleum-based diesel chiefly because it is a renewable, domestic resource with an environmentally friendly emission profile and is readily biodegradable. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. This paper aims at analyzing the preparation, physical and chemical properties such as acid value, fatty acid percentage, iodine value and sponification value, density, viscosity of Coconut, Palm, Sunflower, and Jatropha oil. It is seen that generally the plant species oil have low saturation and low polyunsaturation value but high mono saturated fatty acid for the production of biodiesel. On assessment it reveals that Jatropha oil has 44.7% of Oleic acid, 32.8% of Linoleic acid. From the study it is inferred that fatty acid is predominant in Jatropha oil. So it is suitable for the production of biodiesel. View full abstract»

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  • New hope for clean energy through exploring space

    Page(s): 87 - 89
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    It is most spectacular that non-conventional forms of energy i.e. renewable sources of energy has very vital & promising role on our whole civilization. No doubt our rich cultural heritage and very extraordinary scientific development was some cumulative and exhaustive manipulations in each and every fact of our lives. Nowadays we have to be very efficient and able to use all these abundant sources of renewable energy to harness our economical and social growth without earning any ecological imbalances and concern to our unique planet Earth looking after each and every kind of life human, animal, plants as well as organisms. The Solar Power Satellites were used for collecting the solar power and then that energy is sent to Earth using Microwaves from the small antenna on the satellite to the very large area on the ground known as Rectenna. These SPSs delivers the power without disturbing Life-Cycle, environmental balance and Pollution level. SPSs receives the solar energy in intense form, Moreover Space is free from the day-night Cycles and changing Weather Problems. There can be various orientations for these SPSs like Geosynchronous, L1, L2, L3 Earth sun Lagrange Point which is specially used for the Scientific Purposes. SPSs need an enormous antenna and the ground station an ever larger Rectenna due to phenomenon of Diffraction. Energy from SPSs are reliable and better than the Wind, geothermal, Ground Based Solar Systems, Biomass and Nuclear Energy since it supplies Energy on large scale at Low cost and there are no associated problems like flooding, radiation, terrorism, waste Matter, acid rain, Carbon Di-Oxide and other GHGs etc. Since this form of Energy is transported by Power Lines, hence there is no fuel consumption and Thus It is clean form of energy too. So viewing all these benefits we could very well guess how profitable and futuristic it can be to achieve our objective to meet our Energy challenges without any concern over the Planet earth. View full abstract»

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  • A comparative study on failure pressure estimations of GFRP pressure vessels using Acoustic Emission technique

    Page(s): 90 - 92
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    There is a need of design a reliable light weight composite pressure vessel for a launch vehicle or missile system. The composite pressure vessel acted upon by static internal pressure and dynamic during flight, but for practical structural integrity purposes, consideration of internal pressure is all that is necessary. This paper examines the performance of 6-litre capacity cylindrical Glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) pressure vessel under cyclic loading cum burst tests using Acoustic Emission (AE) technique. AE data was acquired only up to 50% of the theoretical burst pressure. Based on the inferences a relation was developed to predict the burst performance of this class of bottles. In fact, one could infer that impending failure was significant even at 50 to 60% of maximum expected operating pressure (MEOP) with a reasonable error margin. Comparative studies were performed with identically machined GFRP pressure vessels which are also within the limit. View full abstract»

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  • Effective recovery technique for halftone images in Visual Cryptography

    Page(s): 93 - 98
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    Security has become an inseparable issue even in the field of space technology. Visual Cryptography is the study of mathematical techniques related aspects of Information Security which allows Visual information to be encrypted in such a way that their decryption can be performed by the human visual system, without any complex cryptographic algorithms. This technique represents the secret image by several different shares of binary images. It is hard to perceive any clues about a secret image from individual shares. The secret message is revealed when parts or all of these shares are aligned and stacked together. In this paper we provide an overview of the emerging Visual Cryptography (VC) techniques used in the secure transfer of the thousands of images collected by the satellite which are stored in image library and sent to Google for use on Google Earth and Google maps. The related work is based on the recovering of secret image using a binary logo which is used to represent the ownership of the host image which generate shadows by visual cryptography algorithms. An error correction-coding scheme is also used to create the appropriate shadow. The logo extracted from the half-toned host image identifies the cheating types. Furthermore, the logo recovers the reconstructed image when shadow is being cheated using an image self-verification scheme based on the Rehash technique which rehash the halftone logo for effective self verification of the reconstructed secret image without the need for the trusted third party(TTP). View full abstract»

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  • Graduated granulation of spatial information for efficient, effective business activity monitoring

    Page(s): 99 - 101
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    Graduated Granulation is an important feature of fuzzy logic system. It is used to imitate the process of human interpretation and assimilation of knowledge, given an uncertain situation with imprecise data at hand. Spatial locations are an important factor attributing to the success of business activities. The business prospers or perishes depending upon the way it handles its data for making smart decisions. Though business activities and decisions often rely on enough speculations and well driven information, there are umpteen number of fuzzy situation in this domain. The spatial component of data has been for large time ignored by the business community or was presented only as supplementary information. Now, people have realized the importance and impact of spatial data on the business enhancement. Granulation of spatial information may be due to want of data or may be a cost cut off measure or privacy preserving measure. This paper discusses the scope and application of graduated (fuzzy) granulation of spatial data from news articles, customer feedbacks for increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the business activity monitoring. View full abstract»

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