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Microwave Measurement Symposium (ARFTG), 2010 76th ARFTG

Date Nov. 30 2010-Dec. 3 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • [Title page]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1
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  • 76th ARFTG conference organizers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 4
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  • Traceability to national standards for S-parameter measurements in waveguide at frequencies from 140 GHz to 220 GHz

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (577 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a new facility that has been introduced recently to provide high precision traceable scattering parameter measurements of waveguide devices in the frequency range 140 GHz to 220 GHz (i.e. in waveguide size WR-05). The facility comprises measurement instrumentation situated at the University of Leeds and associated primary reference standards provided by the National Physical Laboratory. The instrumentation consists of a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) and the standards are precision sections of waveguide that are used to calibrate the VNA. Traceability to national standards and the International System of units (SI) is achieved via precision dimensional measurements of the waveguide sections. Typical measurements, with uncertainties, are given to illustrate the current state-of-the-art for traceable measurements of this type. View full abstract»

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  • Complete characterization of rectangular waveguide measurement standards for vector network analyzer in the range of millimeter and sub-millimeter wave frequencies

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (609 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a complete dimensional evaluation technique andelectrical characterization of waveguide shims as primary standards suitable for vector network analyzer (VNA) calibration at millimeter-wave and sub-millimeter wave frequencies. The NMIJ has established techniques for dimensional measurements of aperture size and for evaluating aperture corner radii and flange misalignment. Scattering parameters for the waveguide shim were calculated both from basic electromagnetic theory and by computer simulation. Surface roughness was also evaluated as it affects the transmission loss of a waveguide shim. In this paper we summarize the evaluation and calculation of waveguide shim standards, discuss the reproducibility in VNA measurements and consider extensions of the method to waveguide shims with smaller aperture sizes. View full abstract»

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  • Understanding the residual waveguide interface variations on millimeter wave calibration

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 14
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Calibration is essential in obtaining accurate Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) measurements. Often, it is taken for granted that millimeter wave waveguide calibration is a simple, straightforward process as those in the RF & microwave waveguide calibration or in the coaxial calibration. This paper provides a better understanding of the “residual” or “non-ideal” waveguide aperture interface that often obfuscates a valid, repeatable, Thru-Reft-Line (TRL) and/or Line-Reft-Line (LRL) calibration of a two-port waveguide millimeter wave VNA system. WR05 and WR03 waveguide band data are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Rectangular-waveguide vector-network-analyzer calibrations with imperfect test ports

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (187 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a strategy for correcting for imperfect interfaces between the test ports of a vector network analyzer, the calibration standards and the devices under test. This corrects for the inconsistencies in calibrations introduced by use of flush thrus and flat shorts as calibration standards. The approach is based on equivalent standard definitions that are easy to implement in conventional network analyzers. We present analytic formulas for these definitions and demonstrate them in WR-90 rectangular waveguide. View full abstract»

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  • Modal calibration of GSSG probes

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work describes the use of modal Short-Open-Load calibrations to characterize symmetric and nearly symmetric GSSG probes for use in de-embedding and creating probe tip calibrations. Three methods have been developed that leverage the use of a modal representation and symmetric interface. The first method assumes perfect probe symmetry and uses a second tier technique to characterize the differential and common-mode 2-port behavior of the probe using a Short-Open-Load one-port modal calibration approach. This is extended in the second method where the probe mode conversion is also determined from the symmetric Short, Open, and Load standards under the condition of imperfect probe symmetry (low mode conversion). In both cases the single-ended error terms are determined allowing general de-embedding or calibration augmentation. Finally we demonstrate a useful first tier calibration approach using an imperfect single-ended calibration to the probe-tip, followed by immediate modal second-tier using the original standards data corrected by the imperfect first tier. Combined with four-port SOLT-SOLR this modal cleanup approach provides for the first time a practical way to calibrate to a symmetric and coupled reference plane while using only commercially available symmetric calibration standards. View full abstract»

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  • Improving on-wafer measurements with membrane-technology-based calibration standards

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (239 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we discuss the advantages of on-wafer calibration standards fabricated in membrane technology in comparison to standards built in conventional thin-film technology. Based on Monte Carlo simulations we investigate the propagation of uncertainties in the geometry and material properties to the broadband electrical properties of the standards. For coplanar waveguides used as line standards we demonstrate that, depending on the electromagnetic waveguide property we look at, an up to tenfold reduction in uncertainty can be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Broadband measurements of nanofiber devices: Repeatability and random error analysis

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (823 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    On-wafer, broadband measurements of two-port nanofiber devices were made in order to test the short-term repeatability of a widely used measurement approach that builds on established on-wafer calibration techniques. The test devices used in this study consist of Pt nanowire and Au microbridge structures incorporated into two-port coplanar waveguides. Based on repeated measurements of these test structures, we computed statistical (Type A) uncertainties. The standard deviation (k=1) of five repeated measurements of a Pt nanowire device was less than 50 μS. The analysis suggests refinements to the measurement process depending on the desired output of the measurements, e.g. the broadband response itself or the extraction of circuit model parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Through-wafer via modeling based on direct RF characterization

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a methodology for determining the series resistance of (through-wafer interconnect) Vias directly from measured S-Parameters using an ultra-low impedance measurement known as the “S21-Shunt” technique. Data is acquired following on-wafer SOLT calibration using standard VNA / PNA hardware by characterizing “series-shunt” configured test structures. Measurement errors attributable to probe contact resistance (PCR) and its associated variability are eliminated through application of the presented methodology. Parameters associated with a lumped-element equivalent-circuit (LE-EC) based model are determined via direct extraction using slope and intercept methods. A parametric sub-circuit model, which incorporates frequency-dependent elements and exhibits statistical predictability has been implemented in the (ADS) design kit / PDK environment. The model is generated directly from measured data by automating the data acquisition and post processing sequences under a comprehensive test executive platform (such as ACE or ACSRF). View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of maximal applicable gain for the generalized and the direct method for extreme impedances measurement

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (787 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A mathematical approach for determining the maximal applicable gain of amplifiers, that are used in two recently introduced methods for measurement of extreme input impedances using a common vector network analyzer (VNA) - the generalized method and the direct method - is presented. These two measurement methods exhibit outstanding measurement sensitivity for extreme impedance values - impedances significantly higher or lower than the 50 Ω reference impedance of common measurement systems. The measurement sensitivity is better when gain of the used amplifiers is higher. However, the gain is limited by nonlinearity of the amplifiers and the receivers of the vector network analyzer. Therefore, the gain calculation is derived to make possible to fully exploit the capabilities of the measurement methods without loosing accuracy due to nonlinear effects. An example of calculation for one experimental setup is also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Noise figure and S-parameter measurement setups for on-wafer differential 60GHz circuits

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1221 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    On-wafer measurement setups are introduced for measuring the noise figure and s-parameters of differential 60GHz circuits. The need for expensive four-port mm-wave vector network analyzers is circumvented by using magic-Ts, providing a minimum CMRR of 20dB, in combination with cheaper two-port mm-wave network analyzers. Waveguide interfaces are used in the vicinity of the RF probes to achieve a robust and repeatable setup, as the cables at mm-wave frequencies are prone to impedance and delay variation due to movement and bending. The noise figure of a double-balanced 60GHz mixer and the noise figure and s-parameters of a differential 60GHz LNA are measured using this setup and the measurement results are in good agreement with the simulations. View full abstract»

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  • PCB manufacturing variation impact on high frequency measurement fixtures

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1624 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-speed digital interconnects found in computer platforms are reaching speeds above 10Gbps in the near future while minimizing the power on-chip. Platform designers now face the challenge of creating interconnects which optimize IO density and performance within the constraints of power and platform affordability. This paper will focus on measurement techniques used to characterize passive interconnect components using fixturing native to the platform's end use. PCB based fixturing inherently contains manufacturing variations dictated by material composition and the manufacturing techniques. Manufacturing variations in the PCB fixtures contribute to uncertainty factors in passive device measurements. A specific focus of on-fixture TRL calibration standards will be studied for manufacturing variations. This information will be used as inputs into a design of experiments to determine the influence of fixture variations on the vector network analyzer (VNA) calibration and its impact to DUT measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Calibration accuracy of a 625 GHz on-wafer probe

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (723 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The accuracy of an on-wafer probe system operating at 625 GHz is analyzed. A weighted least squares analysis is applied to the calibration of a one-port measurement system to propagate the non-systematic errors introduced by probe contact and probe placement variation. The worst-case errors of the 625 GHz on-wafer probe system are found and the combined effects of the VNA extender's power drop-out at the low end of the band with the poor matching of the probe at the high-end results in the 625 GHz probe system being most accurate in the center of the WR-1.5 waveguide band. Between 560 and 625 GHz the worst case error is 0.26 in linear magnitude and 15° in phase for a 0 dB reflection. View full abstract»

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  • A process to reduce reproducibility error in VNA measurements

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Vector Network Analyzers have proven to be useful for characterizing the electrical properties of passive interconnects and determining their ability to transmit high speed signals. It is highly desirable to have a measurement process that is both accurate and precise. Because of the complexity of the measurement, there are many potential factors that could affect the precision of the measurement. For example, when taking probed measurements, operators typically use different methods to align the probes, which often introduce subtle variations in measurements. Additionally calibration algorithms (or procedures) may have slight differences that introduce errors as well. This paper will present a method to identify the largest sources of variation that impact the precision of the measurement. The method is based on an extension of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) so that it can be applied to complex variables. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization and verification of coaxial open-circuit primary standards for millimeter-wave vector network analyzer calibration

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1351 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new form of primary reference standard suitable for vector network analyzer calibration at millimeter-wave frequencies. The standard comprises a calculable, frequency-dependent, capacitor terminating a section of lossy coaxial line. The standard can be realized in any of the currently available precision coaxial line sizes used at these frequencies. The paper describes the characterization (via electromagnetic modeling and precision dimensional and electrical metrology) and validation (via precision electrical measurements) of these standards. Results are presented for a series of such standards that have been realized in the 1.85 mm line size. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of 1.85mm line reflect line and offset short calibration

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (878 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper shows how the S-parameters in 1.85 mm coaxial line systems can be defined in a traceable way. It is found that a very fail-proof verification method is to compare two different and independent calibration techniques. Here a line reflect line method is compared to an offset short calibration. Measurements of a load, which were corrected with both calibrations, showed an agreement which was better than 0.003 in linear S-parameters up to 67 GHz. Key factors for achieving this accuracy are the taking into account of connector effects and the setting of pin gaps to defined values with dielectric rings. View full abstract»

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  • An improved ring-centered waveguide flange for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1574 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Existing waveguide flanges impose a major limitation on measurement precision above ≃100 GHz. A ring-centered waveguide flange was proposed in and its electrical performance characterized in the WR-5 band. This paper explores an improved ring-centered waveguide flange which is backward compatible with the original UG-387 flange and with all its known variants, and facilitates standard TRL VNA calibration using a properly aligned "through" waveguide shim. The modifications to the ring-centered waveguide flange are discussed and measurements in the WR-2.2 (330-500 GHz) band presented. View full abstract»

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  • Representing bias-network baseband characteristics when simulating intermodulation distortion

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (446 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We assess the expected impact that incorrect representation of the bias network will have on simulations of intermodulation distortion by quantifying the range of impedance values of several real baseband components, including bias tees, cables, and bias supply settings. We then introduce a table-based method to incorporate these elements in circuit simulations and verify its ability to improve prediction of intermodulation distortion. With this method, we are able to predict the third-order intermodulation distortion products to within 0.25 dB in the weakly nonlinear regime for a variety of baseband components. Use of the method enables improved model parameter extraction because only the device model itself remains in question if simulation and measurement results differ. View full abstract»

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  • A de-embedding procedure oriented to the determination of FET intrinsic I-V characteristics from high-frequency large-signal measurements

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work a de-embedding technique oriented to the determination of FET I-V dynamic characteristics is reported. It exploits high-frequency large-signal measurements and a model based description of the reactive nonlinearities. The proposed technique allows one to gather information about the intrinsic I-V dynamics, including traps related dispersion and thermal phenomena, directly from high-frequency large-signal measurements. Moreover, the actual waveforms exciting the FET active area can be monitored and, for instance, related to the boundaries imposed by reliability issues under dynamic operation. In order to validate the proposed approach, experiments carried out on a gallium nitride HEMT are reported. View full abstract»

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  • Understanding transistor channel temperature in nonlinear microwave measurements and device operation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (109 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the widespread use of high-voltage GaN devices and other high-power transistors, understanding the heating of a device during large-signal excitation and measurement is critical, both to ensure efficient operation and to prevent destruction of devices during measurement. Device self-heating during RF excitation is directly dependent upon the power-added efficiency of operation. All DC and RF power that is not converted to output RF power is dissipated in the device as heat. When properly applied, the traditional electrothermal model used in circuit simulators adequately calculates this self heating and yields some interesting results. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the load impedance providing maximum power-added efficiency also results in the lowest average dissipated power, and hence the lowest channel temperature, of the device. The variation in average dissipated power (and hence channel temperature) is also examined for different loading conditions; it is shown that some loading conditions produce a dissipated power that is actually higher than the DC power, a situation which often can lead to device failure during load-pull measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Measurements of micromachined submillimeter waveguide circuits

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1223 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper two calibrated measurement methods for submillimeter circuits are presented and micromachined waveguides operating between 220 and 325 GHz have been fabricated using thick SU-8 photoresist technology and tested. The first measurement method is achieved by employing a pair of micromachined embedded H-plane bends, which were specially designed to enable direct and accurate connection between the micromachined circuit and standard waveguide flanges. A 16 mm long WR-3 waveguide has been designed, fabricated and measured using this technology. The measured average insertion loss is 2.3 dB or 0.144 dB/mm over the frequency range of 220-321 GHz. The second measurement technology employs a conventionally machined metal block constructed with two separate pieces in which to mount the micromachined circuit. A choke flange has been adopted for eliminating the effect of air gap at the interfaces between the micromachined circuit and metal block. A 15 mm long WR-3 straight waveguide has been fabricated and tested. The measured insertion loss is between 1.4 dB and 3.2 dB corresponding to 0.093 and 0.213 dB/mm. A comparison between these two measurement technologies has been carried out and presented. View full abstract»

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  • Receiver noise calibration for a vector network analyzer

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple and accurate noise calibration technique for a vector network analyzer is presented. Enhanced and mathematically improved from authors' previous work, it provides a simple analytical procedure for the obtaining of the receiver noise parameters and its gain-bandwidth product. Previous approximations in the gain-bandwidth product obtaining are avoided in this new approach. The procedure makes use of a standard SOLT S-parameter calibration kit as impedance generator. Measurement results in the 1-2 GHz range are given. View full abstract»

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  • Shielded coaxial open as high frequency impedance standard

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (91 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A comparison of shielded 7 mm coaxial open circuits' capacitance with different center conductor is introduced. With analysis of the measurement results, a kind of special shielded open is suggested to be used as impedance standard for precision coaxial connectors, such as type N, GPC3.5, GPC2.92 in high frequency range. View full abstract»

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