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Date 1-4 Nov. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 584
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  • Cyborg beetles: The remote radio control of insect flight

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2755 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, we demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. This paper summarizes these results. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely-controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses. View full abstract»

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  • Precision navigation and timing enabled by microtechnology: Are we there yet?

    Page(s): 5 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (310 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews currently recognized needs for advances in precision navigation and timing technology, summarizes ongoing efforts, and discusses future technological developments being pursued under the aggregated DARPA/MTO Microtechnology for Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (μPNT) program. View full abstract»

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  • Ultra-precise rotation sensing with a superluminal ring laser

    Page(s): 10 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1602 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We show that group velocity of light far exceeding the vacuum speed can be realized when a medium that produces a narrow band dip in the gain profile is placed inside a ring laser. The dip leads to an effective negative dispersion, which can be tuned to produce a very small group index. The rotational sensitivity of the ring laser is enhanced by a factor equaling the inverse of the group index. For a realistic system, the enhancement factor can be as high as 1.8*105. In order to realize such a device, the background gain can be produced by using, for example, an optically pumped Ti:Sapphire crystal, a semiconductor optical amplifier, or a diode pumped alkali laser. The narrow dip can be produced, for example, by a Rb cell configured for Raman depletion. Here, we present the theoretical model behind such a superluminal laser, and describe a preliminary experiment for realizing such a device. View full abstract»

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  • Atom interferometric navigation sensors

    Page(s): 15 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (377 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Gyroscopes and accelerometers based on atom interferometry have demonstrated superb noise, bias and scale factor figures of merit in laboratory instruments. This paper will review basic physical principles motivating these characteristics, and summarize efforts to realize fieldable prototype instruments. View full abstract»

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  • Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscopes

    Page(s): 17 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (699 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscopes (NMRGs) detect rotation as a shift in the Larmor precession frequency of nuclear spins. A review of the open literature on NMRGs is presented, which includes an introduction to the spectroscopic techniques that enable NMRGs and a discussion of the design details for several specific NMRGs that have been built. View full abstract»

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  • Micromachined gyroscopes based on a rotating mechanically unconstrained proof mass

    Page(s): 23 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (967 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the state-of-the-art of micromachined gyroscopes based on a spinning, electrostatically suspended rotor as proof mass. This approach has numerous advantages over the prevailing approach for MEMS gyroscopes relying on a two degree of freedom vibrating structure and Coriolis force coupling between two modes. The key benefits of a gyroscope with a suspended rotor are its higher scale factor, the absence of mode coupling issues such as quadrature error and that there is no need to tune modal resonant frequencies. The paper reviews the literature on gyroscopes with a spinning, mechanically unconstrained rotor and then reports on the authors' effort to develop such a gyroscope. View full abstract»

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  • Composite nanomaterial thin film-based biosensors

    Page(s): 29 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (596 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports a new class of biosensors based on composite nanomaterial thin film. The composite nanomaterial film is synthesized using a simple vacuum filtration method. Using composite nanomaterial film, we can not only simplify the positioning and integration fabrication process of nanoscale materials into a functional device, but also enhance the sensing surface area significantly, which might open an opportunity to fabricate devices for ultrasensitive biosensing in a cost-effective way. Systematic measurements find that the composite film, containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and SnO2 nanoparticles, shows the similar field effect as that of single CNTs or nanowires (NWs) and its resistance changes upon binding to biomolecules during a bioassay process. View full abstract»

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  • A novel L-Lactate sensor based on enzyme electrode modified with ZnO nanoparticles and multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Page(s): 33 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A highly sensitive and stable L-Lactate sensor based on the synergic action of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) and ZnO nanoparticles has been developed. The unique sandwich-like layer structure (PDDA/LOD/ZnO/MWCNTs) provides a favorable microenvironment to keep the bioactivity of LOD and prevent enzyme molecule leakage. Therefore, the proposed L-Lactate biosensor exhibited good analytical performances including high sensitivity and selectivity with satisfactory stability to amperometric determination of L-Lactate. The results indicated that the proposed PDDA/LOD/ZnO/MWCNTs film was an attractive matrix for the immobilization of LOD enzymes to fabricate biosensors. View full abstract»

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  • Surface charge sensitive suspended nanoparticle crystal

    Page(s): 38 - 41
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1484 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We reported a surface charge sensitive suspended nanoparticle crystal (S-NPC) as a promising nanofluidic-based sensing strategy. In the S-NPC, interspaces among nanoparticles construct a nanochannel network and provide nanofluidic electrokinetic properties. When electric double layers inside the interspaces are overlapped, conductance across the S-NPC will be directly related to the surface charge density of the nanoparticles, offering an approach to sense the surface charge. The enormous surface to volume ratio of the S-NPC yields very large electrical signals that facilities the sensing application. Having an easy and inexpensive fabrication approach and more importantly, being able to use off-the-shelf nanoparticles with different functional groups onside, the present S-NPC offers a potential of detecting various biological and chemical processes with surface charge coupling involved. View full abstract»

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  • A highly selective mediator less glucose detector employing vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF)

    Page(s): 42 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1587 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work reports a vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) based glucose detector which shows excellent selectivity without employing any mediator or artificial membrane. Forests of VACNF are fabricated on silicon (Si) substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process and a metal layer is fabricated over silicon to serve as the electrode. VACNFs demonstrate superior conductive and structural properties compared to other carbon nano-materials and serve as an excellent location for charge transfer in electrochemical reaction process. Measurement results show that this glucose sensor can detect very low level of glucose with a high degree of linearity with respect to glucose concentration. Glucose detection is often interfered by several electro-active compounds and mediators/membranes are used to improve the performance of the detectors. Test results demonstrate that the proposed glucose sensor works well in presence of the interferer materials. View full abstract»

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  • Integration of vertically-aligned carbon nanotube forests in microfluidic devices for multiscale isolation of bioparticles

    Page(s): 47 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Presently, an estimated 35 million people are living with HIV, 300 million with Hepatitis C (HCV), with thousands of human fatalities registered ever day due to these and similar infectious diseases. Efficient, reliable, inexpensive medical solutions are therefore needed to tackle these issues. Identification of HIV and HCV is however not easy. Being significantly smaller than cells and bacteria, these viruses escape the isolation capabilities of both macroscopic and microscopic (MEMS) medical instrumentation. Allowing access to sub-micron species such as viruses and cancer cells, integration of nanotechnologies in medical devices has the potential to revolutionize the field of biomedicine. In this work, we explore the potential of nanoporous, patterned forests of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) for bioparticle isolation, demonstrating their ability to access particles over several orders of magnitude in size, from viruses (~40nm) to cells (~10μm). Modifying the flow field inside microfluidic channels, CNT-enhanced biodevices result in a seven-fold increase in capture efficiency compared to a nonporous design, as well as the ability to simultaneously isolate multiple distinct biospecies both inside and on the outer surface of the VACNT features. Our technology represents a versatile, highly efficient approach to biological isolation, with applications ranging from point-of-care diagnostics to subsequent therapeutic modalities in both infectious diseases as well as cancer applications. View full abstract»

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  • High frequency Piezoelectric Resonant Nanochannel for bio-sensing applications in liquid environment

    Page(s): 52 - 55
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (974 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on the first demonstration of a 457 MHz AlN Piezolectric Resonant Nanochannel (PRN) for bio-sensing applications in liquid environment. A novel process consisting of 7 lithographic steps was developed to fabricate the PRN. The new resonant device shows an unchanged value of the electromechanical coupling, kt2 (about 0.8 %), whether the channel is filled with air or water and a quality factor, Q, in liquid of approximately 170. The value of kt2 and Q are respectively about 2.7 and 2 times the ones recorded for conventional laterally vibrating AlN Contour Mode Resonant Sensors (CMR-Ss) submerged in water. Overall, these results translate in a ~5 fold enhancement in the figure of merit (kt2-Q product) of the resonant device when operated in liquid and simultaneously permit the efficient delivery of ultra-low concentrations of fluid samples directly on the surface of the sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a MEMS-based Raman spectrometer

    Page(s): 56 - 60
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1022 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the development of a Raman spectrometer incorporated into a MEMS device for use in environmental monitoring against chemical and biological agents. The current design incorporates a 1525 nm laser diode as an optical pump source, and a tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer as the wavelength selection element. View full abstract»

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  • Multimode fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for measurement of refractive index

    Page(s): 61 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (767 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel class of multimode optical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer suited for refractive index measurement is presented. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer was constructed by making two coupling points in a multimode optical fiber at localized regions with an electric arc system. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer as a high sensitive refractive-index sensor to detect changes in the surrounding refractive index was studied. The results for different concentrations of sucrose solution show that a resolution of 3.07×10-5 - 7.47×10-5 RIU is achieved for refractive indices in the range of 1.333 to 1.370, suggesting that the Mach-Zehnder interferometer are attractive for chemical, biological, and biochemical sensing with aqueous solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Miniature interferometer with corner cube mirrors

    Page(s): 65 - 70
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1399 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A miniature Wishbone type interferometer for a spectrometer is designed and fabricated, which has electrically actuated rotary comb drives. The three-dimensional corner cube mirror is mounted at the end of Si arms integrated with rotary comb drive actuators. The total size of the interferometer is approximately 8 mm × 8 mm, which is bonded with a glass substrate. The corner cube mirrors with sharp edges are fabricated using indentation technique. The size of the corner cube mirrors is approximately 1 mm × 1 mm × 0.5 mm. The rotation angle of the rotary comb drive was approximately 11 degrees at an applied voltage of 180 V. Hereby, the maximum optical path difference of approximately 2640 μm was achieved, which corresponds to the theoretical resolution of ~4.0 cm-1 as a spectrometer. View full abstract»

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  • Rapid and sensitive optochemical nitrogen dioxide detection: Silicone-containing amphiphilic co-networks as well suited immobilization matrices for gas sensing

    Page(s): 71 - 74
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a new optical polymer thin film sensor for high sensitivity and rapid response gas detection. Amphiphilic polymer co-networks (APCN) are used as sensor matrices for fast nitrogen dioxide detection. The sensor consists of an APCN in which the indicator has been embedded. The APCNs were synthesized by free radical induced photo polymerization and result in poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl acrylate)-1-polydimethylsiloxane(PDMAEA-l-PDMS). Thin and optical clear films of nanophase-separated co-networks are formed which are well suited for simple impregnation with indicators. Due to the high gas permeability of silicone containing APCNs, accurate gas detection at the sub-ppm level is feasible within seconds. As a result of nanophase separation, there is a spatial separation between areas in which the indicator reagent is well immobilized and areas that advantageously take care of the diffusive transport of the analyte. Thanks to the huge interface between the heterogeneous phases and therefore the good accessibility of the indicator, it is possible to design sensors with high sensitivity. Here, we describe the determination of nitrogen dioxide in the sub ppm-range, which occurs within seconds, using DPPD (N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylendiamine) as indicator. The thin film response is reproducible and irreversible. With our kinetic optical method response times within seconds were achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Fluorescent gas sensors based on nanoporous optical resonators (microcavities) infiltrated with sensory emissive polymers

    Page(s): 75 - 78
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1734 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this contribution we report fluorescent gas chemosensors for detection of nitroaromatic vapors and other classes of volatile organic compounds based on porous silicon (PSi) microcavity (MC) infiltrated with sensory emissive polymers. Such hybrid functional sensors have several advantages over traditional fluorescent chemosensors, where the sensory polymers are deposited on flat substrate. This includes a high interfacial area of nanoporous Si (high sensitivity), narrow fluorescent band due to photon confinement, dependence of the spectral peak position on nature of analyte (enhanced selectivity), and fast recovery time. We demonstrated that deep and uniform polymer infiltration is critical for effective gas sensing and investigated the experimental conditions required for preparation of high quality hybrid sensors. In the case of deep infiltration, the broad polymer fluorescence (FWHM ~ 100 nm) shows a narrowing to the resonance peak (FWHM ~ 10 nm) with narrow intensity angle diagram. In addition, the potential of the sensor array platform and sensor recovery under ultrasound power is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Polymer (SU-8) optofluidic device with embedded hydrogel oxygen sensing elements

    Page(s): 79 - 82
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (570 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The SU-8 photopolymer is an excellent alternative for traditional materials used in fluidic devices such as glass- or silicon-based inorganic materials. We describe a new chemically-anchored, lithographically-patterned hydrogel sensing element embedded in a completed SU-8 fluidic channel structure after the channel bonding process. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel films incorporating oxygen-responsive ruthenium-complex fluorophores are grafted and patterned by photopolymerization of solution-phase precursors on the modified SU-8 channel surface. The optofluidic sensing platform with this embedded sensing elements exhibited excellent performance in measuring dissolved oxygen content. A unique advantage of this method is the selective growth of various functional films in situ by sequentially injecting different precursors. This fluidic sensing platform will be a viable component for both electrochemical and optical bioanalytical assays. View full abstract»

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