By Topic

Computer Human Interaction, 1998. Proceedings. 3rd Asia Pacific

Date 17-17 July 1998

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 76
  • Proceedings. 3rd Asia Pacific Computer Human Interaction (Cat. No.98EX110)

    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (353 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • CollaborationFramework: a toolkit for sharing existing single-user applications without modification

    Page(s): 183 - 188
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (48 KB)  

    There are two conventional approaches to building synchronous collaborative applications: collaboration unaware and collaboration-aware. Though the unaware approach, realized by graphic level synchronization, has an advantage in that it does not require any modification of the original single user applications, it makes it difficult to support groupware specific operations. On the other hand, the aware approach makes it possible to include such features, but only at the cost of rewriting the original application. Our CollaborationFramework provides a platform that is unique in combining the two approaches. It supports construction of an aware external program for controlling the original software application. The scheme is useful for the type of applications in which interfaces for querying and setting the internal status are well defined. We demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach by making off-the-shelf WWW browsers into a shared version with groupware specific synchronization capability View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Testing in the field

    Page(s): 285 - 290
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (36 KB)  

    It is widely acknowledged in the HCI community that much can be gained from bringing aspects from the field into the lab, and this principle is dominating within usability groups in Danish Industry. The paper describes three such Danish usability groups and their experiments with turning the tables by using aspects from the lab in the methods applied in the field during field work projects. The context of use plays an important role for a richer understanding of the usability of particular products. As such, implications of this is not surprising, neither theoretically nor empirically. What is interesting, however, is how findings of this type are instantiated in the particular cases; how the three usability groups have used the lab approaches to aid them in working in the field and how the new methods may enhance their existing methodological toolkit. The message of the paper is that there are a variety of ways in which the theoretically driven, pre-planned, and predirected may meet the situated and open minded, both when usability work is conducted in the field and in the lab View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Perceived usability and system complexity

    Page(s): 76 - 81
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1396 KB)  

    The study presented investigated the influence of system complexity and previous experience on the perception of usability. Each of 24 subjects used a standard (simple) and a feature-rich (complex) graphical information retrieval system to complete a total of 6 information searches. The subjects provided ratings of the ease of learning, using and understanding each system. These ratings were used to develop a scale metric of usability. The standard system had a significantly higher usability metric than the feature-rich system. Only the feature-rich system resulted in significant differences based on subjects' previous search related experience. The usability metric was significantly lower for the feature-rich system for subjects educated in library science compared to subjects without that educational background. There was a significant correlation between familiarity with mouse based interfaces and the ease with which subjects understood the feature-rich system. There was a significant negative relationship between prior experience with commercial online systems and the ease with which subjects learned the feature-rich system. It is concluded that perceptions of usability decrease as the complexity of the user interface increases and that prior experience with other systems increases this effect View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The design of banking Websites: lessons from iterative design

    Page(s): 386 - 391
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1940 KB)  

    Iterative design is usually considered in the context of prototyping, evaluating, and improving a single product. The paper reveals our design experiences working on three banking Websites which had strong similarities, enabling us to carry many lessons over from one project to the next. We discuss our design rationale, the elaboration of our design process, and the results of our evaluations. Our approach with these Websites has been to try new usability techniques with each project, and to incorporate successful techniques in every subsequent project. Through our experience with banking Websites, we've developed guidelines for interactive graphic elements, navigation, and embedded multimedia. Our design process has also benefited primarily through: 1) providing usability training for our salespeople, 2) incorporating more effective mechanisms for customer feedback, and 3) conducting user testing View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The interactions among media and psychological functions on video-mediated communication

    Page(s): 232 - 236
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (40 KB)  

    The study assesses whether remotely located pairs of people working on a collaborative task benefit from using video or not. We look in particular at people's psychological functions as well as the sound delay time. In this study, we extend the research on video mediated communication (VMC) to the domain of interactions of psychological functions. Fourty-eight pairs of students performed a map task using either audio-only or audio-plus-video for communication. Half the pair were in the condition with 20 ms sound delay, half were in the condition with 1000 ms sound delay. We found a significant interaction among communication media, the sound delay time, and the subjects' psychological functions. Although as in many studies of video connectivity, no benefit from the video was found in four experimental conditions, the results indicate that video might matter when audio connectivity has a longer sound delay. Video connectivity might decrease the difference of task performance in two sound delay conditions. These results have important implications for people who have some types of psychological functions to communicate in different communication media conditions. Video connectivity may be beneficial for communication quality View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • EnhancedDesk: integrating paper documents and digital documents

    Page(s): 57 - 62
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)  

    Digital media such as World Wide Web or CD-ROMs enable us to publish and transfer computer graphics, digital images, or audio data in ways that were not available for paper media. Yet, paper still has many advantages. It is easier to carry, strong enough to survive dropping or bending, and it offers highest resolution for printed text and images. We have developed an augmented desk top interface, EnhancedDesk, which utilizes computer vision technology. EnhancedDesk smoothly links paper documents and digital documents. EnhancedDesk users can manipulate digital information projected onto the desk manually. Applications that show the effectiveness of EnhancedDesk are given View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Supporting mutual understanding in collaborative design project

    Page(s): 132 - 137
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (172 KB)  

    In collaborative design, participants usually have different backgrounds and standpoints. Due to these differences, it is hard for participants to mutually understand intentions, and they must make a lot of effort to reach a mutual agreement on the design. Thus, the efficiency of the design processes is decreased. We propose a framework to support participants in mutual understanding by grasping and showing the differences among their intentions in a collaboration. A system based on the proposed framework has the following characteristics: it facilitates mutual understanding among participants by presuming their intentions and by communicating them in an understandable form, it visualizes the differences in concepts among the participants, and it progresses the collaboration in an interactive way View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Virtual reality for geosciences visualization

    Page(s): 196 - 201
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    Geoscientists have used data visualization as a means of assisting in the difficult task of modeling the subsurface environment. A virtual reality (VR) application is described that not only permits the user to manipulate interpreted geological surfaces or interfaces but also supports the simultaneous manipulation of the three dimensional seismic data from which the interpretations were derived. Two dimensional textures are used to represent vertical slices of migrated seismic data; these slices can be loaded and processed dynamically. An informal evaluation has been performed and results show that VR has significant potential to improve the ability of geoscientists to analyze their data and to collaborate on its interpretation View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Eviss: a visual system having a spatial parser generator

    Page(s): 158 - 164
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB)  

    A visual system called Eviss is proposed. Visual systems proposed so far have been fixed on certain specifications. It is hard to make and modify such visual systems. Since Eviss has a spatial parser generator based on CMGs, it can construct various visual systems if provided with grammars which consist of production rules. In Eviss, a person who implements a visual system first defines production rules using figures. Eviss extracts constraints which hold between the figure elements. Then the person modifies them and write actions, if needed. An action is described as an arbitrary Tcl/Tk script. We can perform actions, such as calculating values, creating widgets and redrawing figures. Given a certain grammar, Eviss can parse a visual sentence (a collection of figure elements) spatially. Parsing means to apply production rules to the figure elements. When a production rule is applied, Eviss redraws the figure elements so that the constraints between them always hold. Actions, if any, are also executed when the production rule is applied. We also describe two examples of making visual systems with Eviss, i.e., the GUI creator and the subset of YISPATCH (Y. Harada et al., 1997). Eviss and the examples described in the paper are fully implemented and can be obtained via WWW View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Factors determining the difficulty of practice problems in a computer language textbook

    Page(s): 422 - 428
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1836 KB)  

    We studied the factors which determine the difficulty of practice problems in a computer language textbook. The extraction of these factors from such complex problems requires considerable effort, and after extraction these factors are difficult to analyze because of their large number. An additional difficulty is that these factors cannot include the full range of human cognitive characteristics involved in problem solving. To overcome these problems, we took the following two steps. First, we undertook an analysis with formal factors, namely the knowledge and inferences required to solve a problem, and estimated the degree of difficulty. Second we conducted an error analysis on specific problems which included some deviation from the formal factors, and extracted the factors required for a special cognitive load. Our model was then made more accurate by including these factors among those which were found to be significant. In this way, we estimated the difficulty of practice problems quantitatively, and showed the effectiveness of the proposed method by means of an experiment using an actual C language textbook View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Operation record based workflow extracting method for personal information management system

    Page(s): 224 - 231
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)  

    In businesses, knowledge of work is represented by a sequence of related work events and management of these relations is very important for users. The paper proposes a method that automatically groups related work events from a user's operation record on a Personal Information Management system (PIM). We assume that the related work events on a PIM are operated consecutively by a user. Our method accumulates the target event and time of the user's operations such as inputs, changes, and references, and picks out all related events based on their recorded operation time. However, reference to events is an act that a user just looks at an event on a calendar view, not involving any operation, so recording which event and what time the user referred to is difficult. In order to record the user's reference behavior exactly, we introduce a balloon help based function for event reference support. We ran a one month trial of our developing prototype and confirmed our method can group related work events with acceptable accuracy View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • GUNGEN: groupware for a new idea generation consistent support system

    Page(s): 357 - 362
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    This paper describes GUNGEN groupware for a new idea generation consistent support system and its application to research activities. In Japan, the KJ method is known as one of the problem solving methods. GUNGEN allows us to execute the distributed and cooperative KJ method over a computer network. GUNGEN consists of three software components. The first component is KJware which supports the KJ method. The second is Wadaman which is a card-type database providing an environment to collect ideas. The third is NetGear which is a multimedia communication tool. Wadaman is necessary for the GUNGEN supported consistent KJ method. The combination of KJware and Wadaman makes it possible to carry out the KJ method using data stored in Wadaman. However, Wadaman has not been used for collecting ideas because it has not been easy to input data compared with writing down an idea on paper. On the other hand, Wadaman has improved as a remote seminar system. Through a remote seminar between two universities via the Internet, many seminar reports have been stored as Wadaman card data. In this time, GUNGEN makes it possible to carry out the KJ method using the report cards stored in Wadaman View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Extracting and viewing information method for mobile tele-conference system

    Page(s): 430 - 435
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    The authors propose DYNAMITE (DYNamic Adaptive Mobile Teleconference system), a teleconference system for a mobile environment. DYNAMITE is a system for partial asynchronous conference, and aims to merge synchronous users (real time talking on synchronous conference) and asynchronous users (mainly viewing speeches when he/she accesses the meeting). The paper describes the method of extracting and viewing speech data which were stored by a mobile teleconference server, and they propose an efficient user interface with which users can grasp the contents and situation of meetings. They think this method can support users' quick joining in with a synchronous conference View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Development of an eye-movement enhanced translation support system

    Page(s): 114 - 119
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)  

    Translation support systems have the ability to retrieve information quickly from large databases and dictionaries. However, current systems lack the ability to present relevant information automatically, at just the right moment, without interruptions. To allow a user seamless retrieval, an ideal system would be able to observe a translator's behavior, predict their translation processes and automatically retrieve appropriate information at just the right moment. We focused on eye movements as an aspect of user behavior that can reveal users' translation processes. They move their eyes during translation, both to read text and to obtain various information. We thought that eye movements could therefore provide a valuable insight into the translation process. Based on this fundamental idea, we investigated eye movements during translation and found two characteristic patterns. One indicates that a user is at a standstill in the translation process and the other reveals when superfluous information is being displayed. Then we developed a translation support system that is able to detect these patterns. The system automatically retrieves information from the corpora databases at the appropriate time, and removes displayed information when the system predicts that it is superfluous. We refer to the results of preliminary experiments indicating the relation between eye movements and translation processes. Then we describe the implementation of the translation system, review related works, discuss the system's effects and problems, and end by considering the future direction of our research View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Mixed task domain representation in VR-DIS

    Page(s): 415 - 420
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (124 KB)  

    Direct manipulation interfaces are characterised according to the representation of the task domain. The domain objects and the effect of user operations on those objects. In the VR-DIS system (Virtual Reality-Design Information System), the task domain is represented by a mix of a verbal (textual) and analogue (pictorial) representation. Objects are represented by a mixture of a descriptive spatial 3D graph of text blocks and a realistically rendered perspective view. It is postulated that user interfaces that present mixed views of the task domain can better support differences between users' working styles and sub-task dependent types of information exchange View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A visual anthropomorphic agent with learning capability of cooperative answering strategy through speech dialog

    Page(s): 260 - 265
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB)  

    As the opportunity of using computer systems spreads into everyday life, the importance of friendly human interfaces is increasing. As a form of next generation human interfaces, an anthropomorphic interface agent which mimics a face-to-face communication holds promise, and some early developments have started. Its multimodality including facial expression and speech dialog fits to human perception and can enhance the friendliness of the interface. We present an anthropomorphic interface agent called VSA (Visual Software Agent), which has a moving realistic facial image and a speech dialog function. Unlike other anthropomorphic interface systems, our VSA system has connection to a WWW browser (Netscape Navigator), so that it can serve as a new interface to a vast WWW information space and effectively use multimedia data written in a standardized HTML format. As immediate applications of the VSA, it is suitable for guidance systems which are used by various people with little knowledge of computers at, for example, department stores, company reception desks, university campuses, etc. We have implemented learning capability into our anthropomorphic agent. We use reinforcement learning, in particular, profit sharing method; but our research is unique in that the learning mechanism is implemented to acquire knowledge from speech dialogs. We show our implemented learning mechanism with reference to a task of campus guidance View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analysis of the concept of redundancy concerning the design of multimodal combinations of output-elements

    Page(s): 273 - 278
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (60 KB)  

    The tendency in user interface design is to support interaction styles that resemble our interaction with our natural environment. In practice, this has resulted in adaptive, multimodal user interfaces. Concerning output, designers are challenged to create interfaces with multimodal output elements in which single messages from a designer to a user are presented in multiple forms, i.e., redundancy can be used to support computer human interaction. Redundancy is a complicated phenomenon, especially in multimodal cases, in which it is attempted to express the same information in quite distinct coding systems. However, when properly analyzed, redundancy as a central concept in the design process provides an interesting approach to multimodal information presentation. The paper first surveys the possible connotations of the concept. Then, a functional definition for the needs of application design is outlined by defining the conceptual environment of the concept of redundancy View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Bali: a live desktop for mobile agents

    Page(s): 238 - 242
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (44 KB)  

    As one of the tools for our mobile agent system, Aglets, we developed a desktop-like visual shell, called Bali, to allow natural and intuitive handling of mobile agents. By nature however, mobile agents are autonomous programs. The speed at which an agent executes its own program is very fast in comparison with the speed at which humans operate. Therefore, it is hard for a user to control an aglet's behavior through a GUI that is extended straightforwardly from a static object based desktop to a dynamic agent based desktop. But if we renounce control of aglets, the significance of the desktop metaphor will be lost. We propose a way of extending the desktop metaphor to an agent based desktop, introducing Bali as a visual shell whose design is based on two basic agent specific concepts: hooking of agents' execution and separation of the executing environment by provision of multiple environments. As an example, we outline our GUI and its inner structure and introduce our system, Aglets View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Emotional speech as an effective interface for people with special needs

    Page(s): 266 - 271
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    The paper describes an application concept of an affective communication system for people with disabilities and elderly people, summarizes the universal nature of emotion and its vocal expression, and reports on the work on designing a corpus database of emotional speech for a speech synthesis in the proposed system. Three corpora of emotional speech (joy, anger and sadness) have been designed and tested for the use with CHATR, the concatenated speech synthesis system at ATR. Each text corpus was designed to bring out a speaker's emotion. The result of perceptual experiments was proved to be significant and so was the result of CHATR synthesized speech. This indicates that the subjects successfully identified the emotion types of the synthesized speech from implicit phonetic information and hence this study has proved the validity of using a corpus of emotional speech as a database for the concatenated speech synthesis system View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Attachable computer: augmentation of electric household appliances by fit-up computer

    Page(s): 51 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB)  

    A new concept of “Attachable Computer” is proposed for the purpose of augmenting the use of daily artifacts by fit-up type small computer devices which can be directly attached on user interfaces of the artifacts. Attachable Computer is a small computer device which can recognize situations on the user interface of electric household appliances such as a light switch or a display panel of video tape recorder by a small sensor and a simple image recognition technique. We have designed a prototype system which can control a computer system by manipulating the user interface of real world artifacts. The system consists of a portable micro computer and small sensors such as a photo-sensor or a CCD camera. By attaching the computer device directly to the user interface of artifacts, situations on the user interface of artifacts are captured by sensors, and recognized through a simple image recognition technique View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A study on the influence of personality and anonymity on electronic brainstorming

    Page(s): 363 - 366
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB)  

    This study examines the influence of personality and anonymity on idea generation in electronic brainstorming systems. A hypothesis was set up that anonymity encourages introverts to generate ideas in electronic brainstorming, and this hypothesis was examined by a laboratory experiment and questionnaire. The subjects of this experiment were 20 university students and graduate students who had studied and used groupware systems. 2×2 factorial design was used, crossing anonymity (anonymous/identified) with personality (introvert/extravert). As for the results of the laboratory experiment, introverts with anonymity generated a lot of ideas. As for the results of the questionnaire, it was clarified that the anonymous condition in electronic brainstorming is suited to introverts' idea generation. So, in this study the hypothesis was basically supported. Generally speaking, Japanese are, like introverts, sensitive to conformance pressure. So, the anonymous condition may be most suited to Japanese people. In the future, the relationship between anonymity and cultural background should be studied View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Human interaction issues for user-configurable collaborative editing components

    Page(s): 145 - 150
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (108 KB)  

    The ability to synchronously and asynchronously edit work artefacts has become very important in many editing tools. However, most tools usually only provide one kind of collaborative editing “level” or provide incompatible levels of collaborative editing. We describe our recent work in adding flexible, user configurable collaborative editing facilities to component based design environments, and focus on the human interaction issues in such systems. We also briefly describe the engineering of such tools using a component based approach, which allows user configurable collaborative editing capabilities to be added to component based tools without modifying the tool or collaboration component implementations View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Reduction of overhead in drawing figures with computer-detailed analyses of drawing tasks

    Page(s): 11 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (80 KB)  

    In drawing figures using a computer assisted drawing editor, users often find it difficult to draw figures that seem to be very simple. To explain this problem, the paper first introduces an operation model that consists of two layers: concrete layer and abstract layer. The problem is that a user must deal with invisible abstract pictures, which is a combination of editor's drawing functions. To reduce this “psychological load,” the paper proposes a new operation model in which a user can handle only concrete pictures, and introduces a new drawing editor, GIGA based on this model. In GIGA, the computer displays multiple possible candidates with considering various geometric constraints based on a picture manually sketched by the user. The user then simply selects a desirable candidate. To confirm the effectiveness of this “candidate selection method,” GIGA is evaluated and analyzed by comparing with conventional drawing editors. The analyses reveal that the psychological load is much reduced in GIGA. The drawing time with GIGA is only less than 50% of conventional drawing editors View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An interactive tutoring system with tutorials generation and English-Malay translation abilities

    Page(s): 441 - 445
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (40 KB)  

    The paper describes the prototype of an interactive tutoring system. The prototype enables a Malay monolingual user to generate computer-based tutorials without any programming knowledge, serves as a multiple domain tutor to English monolingual users who are learning Malay, and the prototype also incorporates an English-Malay translation ability. Based on reviews of previous work, such features are usually incorporated separately in different systems and applications. Therefore, the primary goal of the paper is to describe an experiment which investigates the feasibility of integrating these features into one common platform. The implementation of the prototype is based on paradigms of a flexible and interactive user interface, and natural language processing View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.