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Multimedia Computing and Systems, 1998. Proceedings. IEEE International Conference on

Date 1-1 July 1998

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 48
  • Proceedings. IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems (Cat. No.98TB100241)

    Publication Year: 1998
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 372 - 373
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Computer analysis of TV spots: the semiotics perspective

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 170 - 179
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)  

    Commercial videos exploit simultaneously several planes of expression (colors, editing effects, viewpoints and rhythms, etc.) to encode the message being vehiculated to the audience in the most persuasive way. In this paper, previous research in the marketing and semiotics fields is translated into a multimedia engineering perspective by formalizing a set of rules mapping visual features at the perceptual level onto higher level features capturing the main narrative structures of the spot. The rules are embedded in a video retrieval system supporting access to a database of commercials based either on semiotic video categories or on global similarity with respect to a template spot View full abstract»

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  • Automated capture, integration, and visualization of multiple media streams

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 54 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB)  

    The authors discuss their efforts in building a system for the automatic generation, integration, and visualization of media streams-independent information sources that define rich interactive experiences. This research is done in the context of a project called Classroom 2000, an experiment in ubiquitous computing for education. They view teaching and learning as a form of multimedia authoring and have developed a system that generates much of the educational content that occurs naturally in university lectures. They have developed a taxonomy for characterizing different media streams that can be captured during or after a live session and present solutions to two research issues that affect the access of a rich multimedia record. The first issue deals with the granularity of stream integration. The second issue deals with methods of visualizing a set of integrated media streams that is scalable and that supports a user's desire to search by browsing View full abstract»

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  • Multi-mode indices for effective image retrieval in multimedia systems

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 152 - 159
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1084 KB)  

    This paper presents a multi-mode indexing scheme for effective content-based image retrieval. Three types of indices are identified: visual indices for quantifiable visual information, semantic indices for non-quantifiable semantic information, keyword indices for keywords or free text. The underlying index structures are the HG-tree and the signature file. The HG-tree is one of the most promising multidimensional point index structures and the signature file is best known for handling keywords. The multi-mode indexing scheme combines and extends the HG-tree, the signature file, and the hashing technique to support a wide range of user queries in multimedia information systems. Experiments have been carried out on an image repository to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed content model and indexing scheme View full abstract»

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  • Content-based representative frame extraction for digital video

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 190 - 193
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    We consider a content-based adaptive clustering algorithm (CBAC) to extract a fixed pre-determined number of representative frames to summarize a given digital video. In our algorithm, shot boundary detection is not needed. The inter-frame changes are compared globally for the extraction of representative frames. Small units of the video are dynamically clustered into two clusters based on the amount of change in content within the unit. One cluster, which has units of low content change, is designated for deletion and the other cluster, which has units of high content change, is for retention. The algorithm adaptively converges to the desired number of frames by deleting some redundant frames from each unit of the deletion cluster during every iteration View full abstract»

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  • On providing highly available fault-tolerant video-on-demand services

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 76 - 85
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB)  

    Due to the large number of magnetic disks involved in a video server, the probability of disk failure is fairly high. Traditional parity-based and duplex-based (mirroring) approaches provide full data recovery, but do not guarantee full availability of the service in the presence of even a single disk failure. If a video server would like to provide non-disruptible services to a large number of viewers, the issue of high availability needs to be addressed. The authors proposed a general scheme for accomplishing both fault tolerance and high availability in a video server. The tradeoffs between memory buffer space and redundant disk storage space are discussed. A video allocation problem based on the proposed scheme is formulated and heuristic algorithms to solve this problem are presented. The scheme can be easily implemented in a highly available fault-tolerant video server View full abstract»

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  • Active adaptation by program delegation in video on demand

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 96 - 105
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)  

    In order to provide more flexibility and a richer set of capabilities to support dynamic adaptive control of QoS in distributed multimedia systems, the paper seeks to complement the conventional passive data passing paradigm with the active program passing approach. By delegating and redelegating on the fly adaptation programs to encapsulate desired feedback control intelligence and data, a fine-grained, customizable and dynamic adaptation to QoS variations becomes realizable. To validate their approach, the authors built an experimental prototype that utilizes the above active adaptation paradigm to regulate video flow for video on demand. Preliminarly results show a viable system which has much greater flexibility for adaptation than is traditionally possible View full abstract»

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  • Content-based retrieval of video data based on spatiotemporal correlation of objects

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 208 - 213
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)  

    Unlike image data, video (animation) data contain the motion of objects. The spatiotemporal correlation of objects may represent certain semantic contents, which are not perceived by focusing only on the motion of an individual objects independently. We propose a content-based retrieval framework based on the spatiotemporal correlation of objects with a set of description factors of spatiotemporal relations of objects View full abstract»

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  • How “useful” is multimedia on the WWW for enhancing teaching and learning?

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 44 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (44 KB)  

    The proliferation of multimedia-based educational presentations on the WWW which are designed to enhance teaching and learning is a recent phenomenon. Although some impetus has occurred because institutions seek to broaden and increase their student population and sources of revenue there is an undercurrent that suggests that new Web-based modes of presentation are more “useful” or “better” Educationalists have proposed several methods for measuring how “good” a multimedia-based educational presentation is. The purpose of the paper is not to compare these measures or assess them. Rather, the authors focus on the seminal work of Laurillard and apply her methodology to a broad spectrum of 112 web sites. They present the results of their research and show that more attention needs to be paid to the effective modelling and transmission of “the state of a student's interaction” in order to better support the educational objectives of Laurillard's methodology View full abstract»

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  • Compressed domain transcoding of MPEG

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 295 - 304
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)  

    Current video compression formats optimize for either compression or editing. For example, motion-JPEG (MJPEG) provides excellent random access and moderate overall compression, while MPEG optimizes for compression at the expense of random access. Converting from one format to another, a process called transcoding, is often desirable over the life of a video segment. The paper shows how to transcode MPEG-1 video to motion-JPEG without fully decompressing the MPEG-1 source. The described technique for compressed domain transcoding differs from previous work because it uses a new approximation approach that is optimized for software implementations. This new approach is 1.5 to 3 times faster than spatial domain transcoders and offers an additional degree of freedom: higher transcoding speeds can be obtained at the price of lower picture quality. This speed/quality trade-off is useful in many real time applications such as offline editing and video gateways View full abstract»

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  • Enhancements to 4.4 BSD UNIX for efficient networked multimedia in project MARS

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 326 - 337
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Cluster based architectures that employ inexpensive personal computers (PCs) interconnected by high speed commodity interconnect have been recognized as a cost effective way of building high performance scalable multimedia-on-demand (MOD) storage servers (W. Bolosky et al., 1996; M. Buddhikot et al., 1994). Typically, the PCs in these architectures run operating systems such as UNIX that have traditionally been optimized for interactive computing and lack fast disk-to-network data paths and support for guaranteed CPU and storage access. We report design, implementation and performance measurements of innovative enhancements to 4.4 BSD UNIX carried out to rectify these limitations in the context of our Massively-parallel And Real-time Storage (MARS) project (M. Buddhikot et al., 1994). We have proposed and implemented the following enhancements to a 4.4 BSD compliant public domain NetBSD UNIX operating system: (1) a new kernel buffer management system called Multimedia M-buf (mmbuf) which shortens the data path from a storage device to network interface; (2) fair queueing within the SCSI driver for equitable resource sharing between real time and non real time streams; and (3) integration of these new OS services with a CPU scheduling mechanism called Real Time Upcall (R. Gopal, 1996) and a software disk striping driver called Concatenated Disk (CCD). Our experimental results demonstrate that these enhancements provide throughput improvements and QOS guarantees on the data path from the disk to network View full abstract»

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  • Multimedia processor architecture

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 316 - 325
    Cited by:  Patents (4)
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    The paper describes trends in the development of multimedia processor architecture that may be predicted on the basis of the availability of an ASIC with 10s of millions of gates. Multimedia processing based upon multi granular parallelism for diverse media needs supercomputing power for multi threaded, process level execution. Due to the appearance of large scale integration (LSI) for what has been termed system on silicon, a new scheme for building the multimedia centric processor will be realized. The paper proposes advanced implementation technologies for multimedia acceleration employing a reconfigurable architecture and using hundreds of processing elements embedded within an ASIC. Accelerated functions considered in this proposal include 3D graphic and 3D audio rendering, and implementation of video and audio codecs. Computational efficiency for advanced applications, such as walk through virtual reality (VR), is maximized by sharing the results of geometric calculations that are required both for graphics and audio rendering View full abstract»

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  • Phased scheduling of continuous media tasks to improve quality of service

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 108 - 117
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)  

    To improve the quality of service, a multimedia system needs to accommodate transient overload with minimum deadline misses of time-critical tasks. It also has to minimize the average response time of non-time-critical tasks for smooth, consistent user interactions. The objective of the paper is to present a phased scheduling technique for periodic, continuous media tasks to minimize both the deadline miss ratio and the average response time. Phased scheduling is achieved by varying the phases or points of time at which independent periodic tasks are scheduled for execution. An algorithm is proposed to identify the optimal phase vector. The discussion focuses on the earliest deadline first algorithm, although it can be extended to other scheduling algorithms. Simulation results show that the phase shifting substantially enhances the quality of service View full abstract»

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  • Use of statistical methods to reduce delays for media playback buffering

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 259 - 263
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (56 KB)  

    Receiver playback buffers are required to smooth network delay variations. A playback buffer operates by introducing additional delay, acting as a holding area for packets whose scheduled playback time is in the future. Packets which arrive after their scheduled playback time are considered late and are discarded. The algorithms commonly used in the Internet are reactive, in that they measure immediate network delay variations and then adjust the buffer size to avoid lateness, resulting in potentially large end to end delays and frequent buffer changes. The paper works with an alternative predictive approach, which records historical information and uses it to make short term predictions about network delay, with the aim of not reacting too quickly to short lived variations. This allows an application controlled trade-off of packet lateness against buffering delay, suitable for applications which demand low delay but can tolerate or conceal a small amount of late packets. The paper builds on previous work by proposing aging techniques to improve delay predictions, evaluating performance using trace driven simulation View full abstract»

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  • A resolution independent nonrealistic imaging system for artistic use

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 358 - 367
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In multimedia environments, digital artwork is usually exhibited on many types of media with different sizes and resolutions. For this reason, it is desirable that artists create works of art in a resolution independent way. We present an algorithm for resolution independent unrealistic imaging. To realize resolution independent imaging, characteristics of all brush strokes are coded and saved in a characteristic table. From the characteristic table, images of any size and resolution can be created. This characteristic table gives our algorithm the ability to create many types of artistic expression. Three different expressions are exhibited. In particular the expression in which contours are drawn by pen and ink then colored by brush is, we believe, a new type of expression in computer artwork. Another feature of our algorithm is that the shape of a brush stroke is not set, but is adaptively changed: a less mechanical pattern which seems more natural to humans. As for aesthetic evaluation, we do not have a proper evaluation method, but if an image created using this algorithm won an award for digital creation, that would be an indication of the algorithm's success View full abstract»

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  • Watermarking methods for MPEG encoded video: towards resolving rightful ownership

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 276 - 285
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB)  

    Various digital watermarking techniques have been proposed in recent years as the methods to protect the copyright of multimedia data. However, the rightful ownership problem has not been properly solved. Currently, there are two proposals to solve the ownership problem. Unfortunately, one proposal lacks a formal proof and the other can be easily defeated. We present watermarking methods which will be successful in resolving rightful ownership of watermarked MPEG video. By introducing specific requirements in the watermark construction, the proposed scheme is proved to be non invertible. We show the invertibility of those schemes which do not use the original in its verification, discuss in depth various issues of the watermark construction requirements, extend the basic idea to create a non invertible scheme for image, and discuss the usage of different non invertible schemes View full abstract»

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  • Web page caricatures: multimedia summaries for WWW documents

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 194 - 199
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB)  

    This paper addresses the problem of rapid browsing of a large set of World Wide Web documents, such as the results of a search engine query or a bookmark list. Traditional presentations of such lists are in the form of text, and require careful attention and often laborious efforts in order to discover relevant documents. We propose a visual representation of documents, called a caricature, which emphasizes the key points of a document in a way which quickly conveys these points to the user, and thus facilitates document selection. We describe a representation-independent WWW document summary, called a feature vector, which includes novel techniques for determining link density and a representative image among other features. An example caricature template for this feature vector is given, along with several examples of caricatures View full abstract»

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  • Concealment of lost speech packets using adaptive packetization

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 140 - 149
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB)  

    Long-term correlation within a speech signal is usually exploited to achieve higher compression ratios (e.g. RPE-LTP coders). We aim to use the long-term correlation to influence the packetization interval of a voice stream at the sender before sending it over a lossy packet-switched network. If a packet is lost, the receiver can conceal the loss of information by using adjacent signal segments of which (due to the pre-processing/packetization at the sender) a certain similarity to the lost segment can be assumed. Subjective test results show that the adaptive packetization/concealment scheme (AP/C) can alleviate significantly the impact of isolated packet losses to speech quality View full abstract»

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  • MPI-Video infrastructure for dynamic environments

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 249 - 254
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB)  

    We describe an infrastructure for multiple perspective interactive video (MPI-Video) systems. An MPI-Video system assimilates data from multiple disparate sensors, allowing a user to interact with them in a meaningful way. At the heart of an MPI-Video system is an environment model (EM) that both assimilates data from multiple sensors and acts as an information server to clients. A collection of strongly-coupled dynamic state estimation algorithms does the assimilation. Results show that our infrastructure is easy to configure, easy to extend, and is effective at modeling a dynamic environment View full abstract»

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  • Interoperable networked virtual environments

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 222 - 225
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (28 KB)  

    The interoperability between heterogeneous distributed virtual environments is one of the main problem virtual reality will have to face in the very near future. This article presents the main concepts we propose in NOVA (Networked Open Virtual Environment). These concepts are presented as a set of paradigms based on the semantics of a virtual world and its virtual entities View full abstract»

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  • Multiple inverted array structure for similar image retrieval

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 160 - 169
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB)  

    The retrieval functionality of a multimedia database system is important to provide users with comfortable access to the stored data. Similarity retrieval (also called content-based retrieval) is a promising technique for multimedia retrieval. We have therefore been carrying out research on an image retrieval system that makes use of similarity retrieval. This kind of retrieval is based on nearest neighbour searching in a multi-dimensional space. To make the retrieval fast and flexible we have developed a novel access method that uses an index structure consisting of multiple inverted arrays. Experimental evaluation of this method showed that it is potentially useful for shape similarity retrieval. The search speed is significantly faster than that of brute-force searching, and the accuracy is good enough View full abstract»

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  • Construction of interactive movie system for multi-person participation

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 228 - 232
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (92 KB)  

    Interactive movies have emerged as a new type of media that implements interaction capabilities into movies. In interactive movies, people enter cyberspace and enjoy the development of a story by interacting with characters in the story. We first explain the concept of interactive movies and briefly describe the prototype system we have developed. We then describe the construction of a second system, which we are currently developing, as well as several improvements incorporated in it View full abstract»

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  • Study on disk zoning for video servers

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 86 - 95
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)  

    Without proper care of the disk zoning issue, one may suffer a great loss in both storage and bandwidth utilization for supplying video streams. In this regard, the authors propose two schemes, free-π and fixed-π schemes, in a unified framework of rearranging the zone layout in a logical manner. The free-π scheme can optimally utilize resources, but needs a complicated timing control. Whereas, the fixed-π scheme can achieve a slightly lower utilization with a simpler timing control compared to the free-π scheme. The fixed-π scheme is further applied to a multiple-disk platform. The variable bit rates of individual disks may cause dramatic aggregated bit rate fluctuation, so they propose a novel data placement policy termed skewed zone-major round robin (SZRR) to ensure a stable disk-bus bandwidth utilization. A file system employing the proposed schemes has been implemented on a PC server equipped with five SCSI-II disk drives. They demonstrate that the system is able to support up to 70 1.5 Mbps video streams simultaneously when a 20 second or so initial waiting time is allowed View full abstract»

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  • Audio retrieval using perceptually based structures

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 338 - 347
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (108 KB)  

    Despite growing interest in multimedia data management, audio retrieval has received little attention. In part, this can be attributed to existing unstructured audio representations that do not easily lend themselves to content based retrieval and especially browsing. This paper aims to address this oversight. It begins by reviewing existing techniques and the specific problems posed by unstructured representations. Some characteristics of audio perception that may be exploited in the solution to these problems are then presented. A new structured representation is then detailed that is designed to support content based retrieval and browsing. Finally, the suitability of this representation for its intended purpose is discussed View full abstract»

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