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Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), 2010 IEEE Conference on

Date 13-16 Sept. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 246
  • A service oriented-based system for real time industrial applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1205 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The benefits of utilizing service oriented architectures (SOA) in industrial automation are well recognized. Nevertheless these architectures imply connection establishments and message exchanges with a large amount of overhead which is inappropriate when considering the real time characteristics of an industrial application. Furthermore, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) which are often part of such applications cannot handle the need for continuously parsing and storing of SOA messages whose data volume is high. In this paper an innovative system approach is proposed capable of retaining all the interoperability issues that SOA provides. In this system a new bridge is used for mapping WSNs to IP systems and a novel compression technique is applied that reduces the size of the exchanged messages but nonetheless not prohibiting the usage of SOA standards. Finally a SOA-based technology is proposed which is embedded on wireless sensors motes and enables them to communicate with other devices regardless their implementation platform. Simulation results have shown that the proposed system can operate with real time responses when the number of sensors does not exceed a specific limit and the required sampling period is within particular time intervals in contrast with a classical SOA-based system. View full abstract»

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  • Transport with automatic guided vehicles in the factory of the future

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (137 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The project XPRESS introduces a completely new scalable concept of an expertonic networked factory, which is composed by a coordinated team of specialized autonomous entities (intelligent production units), each knowing how to do a certain process optimally. This paper looks in particular to the transport intelligent unit implementation, which is responsible for the transportation of components at the shop-floor. An architecture based in a multi-agent approach that uses automatic guided vehicle expertons to perform this task is suggested. Additionally, it is presented an implementation of the automatic guided vehicle transport intelligent unit that uses the .NET framework integrated with the expertonic framework. View full abstract»

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  • Discovery and integration of information in a heterogeneous environment

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During plant life cycle very different information is collected regarding the components of the plant. The information is different not only in contents but also in regard to source, semantic and context. In order to use the heterogeneous information sources, the information regarding a specific topic needs to be found and integrated. This paper discusses the mechanisms for discovery and integration of information regarding a specific component of the plant based on OPC UA information transport. View full abstract»

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  • Utilization-based schedulability analysis for switched Ethernet aiming dynamic QoS management

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 10
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1111 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ethernet switches are typically found in many large-scale distributed real-time systems providing low-end transactions as well as bulk backbone routing to real-time applications. The FTT-SE protocol (Flexible Time-Triggered communication over Switched Ethernet) is a recent proposal to bypass the limitations of conventional switches in terms of real-time behavior while catering for growing requirements on dynamic reconfigurability and adaptability. For this end, this paper develops linear time-complexity and memory-efficient on-line admission control tests based on utilization bounds for Rate-Monotonic and EDF scheduling on Ethernet switches using FTT-SE, which are suited for dynamic Quality of Service (QoS) management. Our analysis also has broader applicability in general periodic task sets with bounded release delays. For FTT-SE with 100 Mbps links and 1500 bytes of maximum packet size, our sufficient schedulability condition achieves an utilization bound of 61% for RMS and 88% for EDF. Simulation results on randomly generated task sets demonstrate that such bounds are within 18% and 5% utilization of the ideal tests for RMS and EDF, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • The Distributed Deadline Synchronization Protocol for real-time systems scheduled by EDF

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many distributed and multiprocessor real-time applications consist of pipelines of tasks that must complete before their end-to-end deadlines. Different schedulability analyses have been proposed for both Fixed Priority and Earliest Deadline First scheduling. All the schedulability analyses proposed so far assume that a global clock synchronization protocol is used to synchronize the deadlines of jobs allocated on different processors. This assumption may limit the applicability of EDF to such systems. In this paper, we propose the Distributed Deadline Synchronization Protocol (DDSP) for computing the absolute deadlines of jobs. The protocol is a non-trivial extension of the Release Guard Protocol proposed for fixed priority systems. DDSP does not require a global clock synchronization, yet existing schedulability analyses are valid for schedules generated by DDSP. View full abstract»

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  • Verification and controller synthesis for resource-constrained real-time systems: Case study of an autonomous truck

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (596 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An embedded system is often subject to timing constraints, resource constraints, and it should operate properly no matter how its environment behaves. This paper proposes to use timed game automata to characterize the timed behaviors and the environment uncertainties, and use piece-wise constant integer functions to approximate the continuous resources in real-time embedded systems. Based on these formal models and techniques, we employ the realtime model checker UPPAAL to verify a system against a given functional and/or timing requirement. Furthermore, we employ the timed game solver UPPAAL-TIGA to check whether a given control objective can be enforced, and if so, we synthesize a controller for the system. We carry out a case study of this approach on a battery-powered autonomous truck. Experimental results indicate that the method is effective and computationally feasible. View full abstract»

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  • Application of the virtual reference feedback tuning on wastewater treatment plants: A simulation study

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents a Data-Driven control applied to a wastewater treatment plant in a simulation study. The Benchmark Simulation Model 1 (BSM1) is used as a benchmark to compare the obtained results. It was found that similar results from the default controllers are achieved, without the need of any simplification of the model, and using only data from the direct simulation of the process. The Virtual Reference Feedback Tuning method is applied in a Two Degrees of Freedom Proportional-Integral (PI) control for the Dissolved Oxygen and Nitrate Nitrogen control loops, adding a constraint in the optimization problem to guarantee that the discrete version of the PI preserves the characteristics of the analog counterpart. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear system control based on Neural Networks with Adaptive Predictive strategy

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an Adaptive Predictive Control strategy based on Neural Networks for nonlinear systems. In order to train the Neural Network controller, an identification of the system is carried out by the Neural Network Identifier. This second Neural Network provides the training terms related to the nonlinear system dynamics. In this way it is possible to train the Neural Network controller online. The simulation results show a correct online adaptation of the NN controller and the validity of the proposed control strategy. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Evaluation of Emotion Elicitation oriented to people with intellectual disabilities

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    People with intellectual disabilities and elderly need physical and intellectual support to ensuring independent living. In our project a new IS system (LAGUNTXO) which adds user affective information oriented to people with intellectual disabilities has been developed. The system integrates a Human Emotion Analysis System (HEAS) which attempts to solve critical situations for this community as block stages. In the development of the HEAS one of the critical issues was to create appropriated databases to train the system due to the difficulty to simulate pre-block stages in laboratory specifically in the case of people with disabilities. A film and real sequences based emotion elicitation database was created. The elicitation material was categorized with features based on discrete emotions and dimensional terms (pleasant, unpleasant). In this work we present the Automatic Evaluation of Emotion Elicitation databases based on Machine Learning classifiers and un-supervised K-means clustering which provides new approaches of emotional answers finally validated by the specialist. View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of real-time distributed systems with the ASSERT Virtual Machine

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (709 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes how the ASSERT Virtual Machine, a dedicated execution platform that guarantees a predictable real-time behaviour, can be used to develop real-time embedded distributed systems with high-integrity requirements. The concept of virtual machine-level software components is developed, and sample programming patterns are provided. Components are used in the framework of the ASSERT development process, and are based on the Ravenscar Computational Model, a concurrent tasking model which can be statically analysed for a correct real-time behaviour. The current architecture of the ASSERT virtual machine is described in detail, and experience gained with its use in the last few years is provided. View full abstract»

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  • Resource management for enhancing predictability in systems with limited processing capabilities

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is an increasing demand for computing systems composed by heterogeneous computers, connected by different types of networks, and that allow for accessing a wide range of services in a seamless way. Some of those computers are mobile or embedded and have limited resources, and can be overloaded when trying to handle their users demands. Then it is not possible to ensure a proper behaviour of the running applications. This can be an important problem when dealing with critical events in healthcare, home surveillance, or forest monitoring. Resource reservation is a valid basis for handling this issue. It allows for guaranteeing a certain resource share for applications that are important for the proper behavior of a given system. This paper describes an implementation of a resource management component and its integration in the Linux kernel. This piece of software has allowed to assign CPU budgets to standard Java threads, which is an important facility, given the widespread of this programming language. This implementation has been validated on service oriented middleware, where relevant services are executed by thread with guaranteed budget, to improve its predictability. View full abstract»

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  • A service-oriented architecture for QoS configuration and management of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (563 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Software infrastructures for networked enterprises may need data coming from low-level pervasive devices, such as Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). However, the complex management of such tiny physical devices is not acceptable for high-level enterprise applications. Hence the need for a middleware layer that hides complexity and supports the management of heterogeneous real-time data coming from the environment. In our opinion, the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) design paradigm is the most suitable for allowing a seamless and effective integration of pervasive technologies into enterprise information systems. In this paper we present a service-oriented, flexible and adaptable middleware that allows applications to configure WSN functionalities and exploit them in the form of Web Services. View full abstract»

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  • Towards component orientation in embedded Web Service environments

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Service-oriented architectures and systems designs are powerful concerning reusability of functional blocks and hiding implementation details from functional interfaces. But to compose a complete application, often central entities and engines are required for processing a specific sequence of service. In component-based designs the component itself is capable of describing both not only their offered services and interfaces but also dependencies on other services and interfaces to fulfill a complete task or application logic. This paper investigates on how to transfer and enhance exiting component-based approaches, already known from business applications, into the domain of embedded web services environments. Special focus is on the Devices Profile for Web Services (DPWS) technology which features service orientation also in device centric applications. This paper introduces a new approach to create applications, based on services provided by devices deployed with DPWS, in an abstract and dynamic way. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of 4 numerical solvers for stiff and hybrid systems simulation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1174 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Numerical simulation of stiff and hybrid systems is widely used in various engineering domains. Numerical solvers, originally designed for purely continuous problems, are not sufficient for these systems. Modern simulation environments provide necessary modifications and extensions to solve the problem. The implementation details of solvers and run time systems greatly affect the performance of simulations regarding accuracy, velocity of simulation, compactness of results, and efficiency. Since no all-powerful solver exists, we assess four popular solvers (DASSL, LSODAR, DOPRI5, RADAU IIA), included in the all-purpose simulator Dymola® for different problems with continuous, stiff, and hybrid behavior. Key traits, including the number of steps, accuracy, CPU time and the event handling capability, are examined and advice for solver selection is given. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical and experimental evaluation of polling times for wireless industrial networks using commercially available components

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (690 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the last years, several wireless standards have been profitably tested for possible application in factory communication systems, showing encouraging results even in time-critical applications. However, the achieved performance are clearly related to the specific applications considered and, more important, to the specific wireless components employed. In this paper, we consider the wireless extension of a very popular Real-Time Ethernet network, Ethernet Power-link, and we propose a practical implementation of it based on commercially available IEEE 802.11 Access Points. We first provide a theoretical analysis of the expected polling times and then we compare the obtained results with the outcomes of some experimental sessions carried out on a prototype installation, in order to characterize the behavior of the employed devices. View full abstract»

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  • On optimal real-time subsystem-interface generation in the presence of shared resources

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (210 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Hierarchical Scheduling Framework (HSF) has been introduced as a design-time framework enabling compositional schedulability analysis of embedded software systems with real-time properties. However, supporting resource sharing in HSF is a major challenge, since it increases the amount of CPU resources required to guarantee schedulability of the hard real time tasks, and it decreases the composability at the system level. In this paper, we focus on a compositional framework called the bounded-delay resource open environment (BROE) server, and we identify key parameters of this framework that have a great effect on how the framework will utilize CPU resources. In addition, we show how to select optimal values for these parameters in order to reduce the required CPU resource. View full abstract»

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  • First prototype and experimental assessment of media management in ReCANcentrate

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (585 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although the use of star topologies to improve dependability in field-buses is gaining in importance, as in TTP/C and FlexRay, a mature technology such as the Controller Area Network (CAN) remained essentially a bus-only network. Thus, we proposed a CAN-compliant replicated star topology called ReCANcentrate, which has advanced error-containment and fault-tolerance mechanisms. Its two hubs are coupled with each other and create a single logical broadcast domain that allowed us to propose, in a previous work, a strategy for each node to easily manage the replicated star by means of a software driver that abstracts away the details of the replication. This paper describes the main functionalities of this driver, as well as the first tests we have conducted, on a real ReCANcentrate prototype, to verify the correctness and the performance of the driver in the absence and in the presence of faults. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient fault tolerant scheduling on Controller Area Network (CAN)

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dependable communication is becoming a critical factor due to the pervasive usage of networked embedded systems that increasingly interact with human lives in many real-time applications. Controller Area Network (CAN) has gained wider acceptance as a standard in a large number of industrial applications, mostly due to its efficient bandwidth utilization, ability to provide real-time guarantees, as well as its fault-tolerant capability. However, the native CAN fault-tolerant mechanism assumes that all messages transmitted on the bus are equally critical, which has an adverse impact on the message latencies, results in the inability to meet user defined reliability requirements, and, in some cases, even leads to violation of timing requirements. As the network potentially needs to cater to messages of multiple criticality levels (and hence varied redundancy requirements), scheduling them in an efficient fault-tolerant manner becomes an important research issue. We propose a methodology which enables the provision of appropriate guarantees in CAN scheduling of messages with mixed criticalities. The proposed approach involves definition of fault-tolerant feasibility windows of execution for critical messages, and off-line derivation of optimal message priorities that fulfill the user specified level of fault-tolerance. View full abstract»

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  • Parametric analysis of distributed firm real-time systems: A case study

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1024 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new generation of distributed real-time systems (DRTS) is based on heterogeneous models of computation and communication and is associated with flexible real-time constraints. Classical design flows based on realtime scheduling theory display important limitations related to the restrictive assumption on the system model. On the other hand, formal verification of timed automata is far more general, but it suffers a different limitation: it does not provide any guide on how to choose the design parameters, nor does it permit to gauge the robustness of the design against unknown parameters. In this paper, we advocate the use of formal verification of parametric timed automata as a means to combine the best of the two approaches. The feasibility of the idea is shown on a significant industrial case study. View full abstract»

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  • Data compression and query for large scale sensor data on COTS DBMS

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (805 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multi-dimensional temporal data set is the common format in sensor network applications to store sampled temporal data. As time goes on, the size of the core tables in the data set may increase to enormous size and the tables become not managable. In order to reduce storage space and allow on-line query, how to trade off data compression effectiveness for on-line query performance is a challenge issue. In this paper, we are concerned with an effective framework for temporal data set that does not scarify on-line query performance and is specifically designed for very large sensor network database. The sampled data are compressed using several candidate approaches including dictionary-base compress and lossless vector quantization. In the mean time, on-line queries are conducted without decompressing the compressed data set so as to enhance the query performance. Experiments are conducted on a power meter database and sonoma database to evaluate the proposed methodologies in terms of data compression rate and data query speed. The results show that the compression rate ranges from 70% for numerical data to 20% for character data. In the mean time, the increased overhead for online query is limited up to 2%. View full abstract»

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  • Automated fault tree generation and risk-based testing of networked automation systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (902 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In manufacturing automation domain safety and availability are the most important factors to ensure productivity. In modern software intensive networked automation systems it became quite hard to ensure which non-functional requirements are related to these factors as well as whether these are satisfied or not. This is due to the prevalence of manual efforts in several analyses phases where complexity of the system often makes it hard to obtain comprehensive overview and thus makes it difficult to ascertain the presence of certain undesired consequences. Since design, development and following verification and validation activities are largely dependent upon the result of the analyses the product is largely affected. To address these problems automated fault tree generation is presented in this paper. It uses distinct modeling artifacts and information to automatically compose formal models of the system. Embedding hardware and network failures it is then ascertained through model checking whether the system satisfies certain safety and availability properties or not. This information is used to compose the fault tree. Proposed approach will improve completeness and correctness in fault trees and will consequently help in improving the quality of the system. Furthermore, it is also shown how the artifacts of this analysis can be used to produce test goals and test cases to validate the software constituents of the system and assure traceability between testing activity and safety requirements. View full abstract»

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  • A middleware to support dynamic reconfiguration of real-time networks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (899 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The middleware is an important software component when designing an application, facilitating the development and deployment of the applications. In the case of Distributed Embedded Systems (DES), the middleware should provide basic functionalities to abstract the complexity that results from network distribution, namely data consistency, events synchronization and resource management. Often DES applications exhibit real-time requirements and have to deal with dynamic environments that present evolving requirements. While some middleware architectures have been proposed to address resource provisioning and QoS management, none of those middle-wares supports dynamic resource reconfiguration while providing real-time guarantees. This paper proposes a middleware layer, based on the services provided by a flexible real-time communication protocol, addressing distribution abstraction, dynamic reconfiguration and dynamic QoS management under real-time constraints. View full abstract»

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  • Model-based diagnosis of induction motor failure modes

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (681 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Induction motor failure modes can be instantaneous or progressive. This paper proposes a model-based methodology employed to attempt to identify the root causes of the main fault modes of progressive failures. Utilising indicators from the monitoring of three-phase motor currents, this paper explains how leading-edge and traditional theories could be combined and optimised to provide an integrated software algorithm set that could accurately predict the root causes of the five main failure modes of standard cage type Induction Motors. Utilising mathematical modelling and simulation of each specific fault mode, comparisons can be made between the known symptoms of specific faults and Induction Motor signals obtained from devices operating at full load in the field. Comparison of variances between model states and the state of the operating machine could enable the specific root cause diagnosis to be made. View full abstract»

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  • A measurement model for mobile robot localization using underwater acoustic images

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1765 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Likelihood fields (LF) have been used in the past to perform localization. These approaches infer the LF from range data. However, an underwater Mechanically Scanned Imaging Sonar (MSIS) does not provide distances to the closest obstacles but echo intensity profiles. In this case, obtaining ranges involves processing the acoustic data. The proposal in this paper avoids the range extraction to build the LF. Instead of processing the acoustic images to obtain ranges and then using these ranges to infer a LF, this paper proposes the use of the acoustic image itself as a good approximation of the LF. The experimental results show the potential benefits of using this idea to define a measurement model to perform mobile robot localization. View full abstract»

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  • Generic specification toolchain for ontology-based Device Descriptions

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (619 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ontology-based Device Descriptions (ODDs) have been developed and introduced as a novel electronic device description approach to realize an automated design of building automation systems. For their wide practical application however it is essential, that their creation and maintenance is as easy as possible. Therefore a generic specification toolchain for ODDs is introduced in this paper. It supports the user in four different ways: by reusing knowledge from existing device descriptions, by providing a generic user interface, by validating the user's inputs and by completing data with a rule-based approach. View full abstract»

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