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Product Compliance Engineering (ISPCE), 2010 IEEE Symposium on

Date 18-20 Oct. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): c1
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  • [Copyright notice]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): iii - vii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Chairman's welcome message [and additional front matter]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): viii - xix
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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): xx - xxiii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Choosing the right product safety label formats: A critical decision for product safety engineers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (231 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ANSI Z535 standards set forth a national uniform system to communicate hazard information. These standards define the state-of-the-art for safety signs, labels and tags used in the United States. And yet, especially from a product manufacturer's standpoint, their audience is the global marketplace. ANSI does not set the world's safety sign standards. ISO does. With that in mind, this presentation presents an overview of both the ISO and ANSI safety sign standards, how they differ, where they are the same, and strategies product engineers can use to develop safety labels that both meet the standards and meet their market requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Class 2 transformers and plastic enclosed printed circuit boards: A potentially perilous combination

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2668 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    From a fire development perspective, Class 2 transformers are generally regarded by the design engineering and standards (listing agencies) community to provide a safe method in which to power a wide variety of consumer and commercial electronic/electrical devices due their “intrinsic” current limiting features as stated in their specifications. However, Class 2 transformers can deliver current levels much higher than the 1.67 amps that is frequently accepted as the maximum current which can be provided by the transformer. These high current levels produce rapid I2R heating that can ignite flame-rated circuit board laminate, as well as the flame-rated plastic that houses the printed circuit board. Environmentally driven directives are creating a more challenging design environment via the introduction of materials and components that have been proven to be more sensitive to failure, more prone to ignition, and present increased safety hazards. Consequently, it is important that the design engineer considers the actual performance characteristics of the Class 2 transformer (not merely the abridged specifications). The design engineer must also consider the performance of the circuit board laminate and the plastic housing of the device in fault modes that can develop excessive I2R heating. View full abstract»

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  • Supporting qualification: Safety standard compliant process planning and monitoring

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (774 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Functional safety of embedded systems has become an integral part in automotive engineering activities due to the forthcoming safety standard ISO 26262. One main challenge is to perform development activities compliant to the standard and provide the respective documentation. Traceability between requirements from a standard, as well as project-specific process and product artifacts throughout the entire development cycle allows compliance assessment to support qualification. This paper proposes a methodology to plan and monitor the safety development process. Using a formalized requirements library of the ISO 26262 as well as a system description and its safety integrity level, a standard compliant process model is derived describing all necessary steps in the development process. Based on this process model, the methodology allows monitoring process activities and their degree of implementation, based on standard compliant confirmation measures. The main benefit is the reduced effort in preparing qualification or certification of a new safety-critical product. The development of an Adaptive Cruise Control system is sketched as an example application to illustrate the proposed proceeding. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical evidence at fire scenes

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2761 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes several of the different types of electrical phenomena that occur at a fire scene and how to preserve and analyze those phenomena. Topics include a description of the activities at the fire scene inspection and laboratory examinations to preserve data that is used for formulating opinions with regard to electrical matters. These include a discussion on photography, documentation, evidence collection, and examination results. Examples of common electrical and mechanical items with corresponding explanation are provided as an aid to properly interpreting the physical characteristics of the collected evidence so that the basis of opinions are founded upon generally understood scientific principles. Concepts are described such as arcing, melting, eutectic and chemical degradation of electrical conductors. Analysis and developing an opinion is covered with examples of how to present findings to a jury. View full abstract»

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  • Protection of outside plant conductors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (84 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper takes a comprehensive view of metallic conductors run to outside environments, and explores the physical and electrical protection schemes that must be applied in various regions of the world. Included in this discussion are the protection of AC and DC input power conductors, telecommunication conductors, alarms and signal conductors, and coaxial cabling. View full abstract»

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  • Applied Safety Science and Engineering Techniques (ASSET™): Taking HBSE to the next level

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Applied Safety Science and Engineering Techniques (ASSET™), takes HBSE to the next level by expanding HBSE concepts and integrating other safety science and engineering techniques, including risk management, systems and reliability engineering, functional safety and human factors, to address many different forms of harm, hazards and susceptibilities across a broad range of products and applications. View full abstract»

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  • Conducting high frequency electrical measurements — Case study using a TASER M18 device

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A number of measuring instruments are currently available for conducting dc and low frequency electrical measurements. However, to achieve a high degree of accuracy in high-voltage, high-frequency measurements for pulse power applications at low repetition rates requires careful adherence to established electrical procedures. Measurement errors may be introduced due to a variety of reasons. Parasitic elements may also play a significant role. The authors conducted a series of electrical tests to determine the output current waveforms and the power dissipated for a device operating at a high voltage and high frequency with a low duty cycle. The device of choice was a new TASER® M18, used in the “drive-stun” mode and connected to eleven load resistances. Output current waveforms were recorded. The power dissipated in the various load resistances was also computed. The authors further compare their results with a series of measurements reported in the article, “Forensic Engineering Analysis of Electro-Shock Weapon Safety,” by James A. Ruggieri, P.E. This article was published by the Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers, Vol. XXII, No. 2, December 2005, p. 19-48. In this article, Mr. Ruggieri reported his measurements of the electrical power outputs for the M18, alleging that as the output resistance decreased, the “Power Contributing Interval” (PCI) and consequently the output power, increased substantially. This paper also presents comparisons of the waveforms generated by the authors versus those presented by Mr. Ruggieri, and graphically compares the values of the calculated output power. This paper illustrates the importance of adhering to proper measurement techniques when conducting high-voltage, high-frequency measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal shutdown characteristics of insulating materials used in lithium ion batteries

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (941 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The lithium ion (Li-ion) battery market has undergone tremendous growth since its conception in 1990. Projections have indicated that the Li-ion battery market in the United States will top $9 billion in the next 3 years. Several factors including technical innovation, increased use of sophisticated consumer electronic gadgets and surge in high efficiency power sources for industrial applications have been the key in propelling the market demand for these products. Despite the positive trends, safety concerns related to the use of Li-ion batteries remain and may impact the market growth in future. Product recalls due to rechargeable batteries overheating and thereby posing a fire hazard to consumers have occurred as recently as April 2010. Research efforts have been undertaken to develop new separator materials with increased dimensional and thermal stability at high temperatures to make the Li-ion batteries safer for use. The separator is an electrically insulating polymer material that is engineered to have pores that allow lithium ions to shuttle back and forth between the battery's electrodes during the charge and discharge cycles. This paper presents an introduction to separator materials used in commercially available Li-ion batteries and a discussion of their thermal shutdown characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Safety considerations for smart grid technology equipment

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Smart grid technology can be viewed as a merging of power systems, information technology, telecommunications, switchgear, and local power generation, along with other fields that were once electrical technologies of separated industries. As these technologies become merged, much of the safety considerations will have to be merged and reconciled as well, particularly at interfaces. This paper explores the safety considerations that should be addressed in the design of smart grid technology equipment, particularly in low-voltage AC power applications operating below 1000 V AC. It discusses existing product safety standards involved in smart grid technologies and known regulatory issues. It also looks at existing product safety requirements of the non-merged technologies and analyzes the affect on safety for this equipment when they become merged. View full abstract»

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  • Safety issues and damage to equipment with both Smart Grid and home network connections

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (980 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Equipment getting power from the Smart Grid often has connections to the home network, a configuration which during a lightning storm is prone to safety issues and damage. Lightning can occur as direct strikes to a service, or as nearby strikes which induce currents in a service. Protection against these events is important, and existing standards deal with these. But there is a situation that existing standards have not considered, and it can result in a shock hazard and equipment failure. This potential failure is caused by Ground Potential Rise (GPR), in a site which has two or more ground references; for example AC power grounded at the service entrance at one side of a house, and a phone line grounded via a surge protector at the opposite side. The GPR produces a voltage gradient between the two ground references. This high voltage is a potential shock hazard. It can also cause a breach of basic or enhanced insulation, with damage and potential exposure to hazardous voltages resulting. This paper discusses GPRs; how to test an equipment to see if a GPR will cause a problem; and what to do if it does. View full abstract»

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  • EU RoHS Recast: Is your company ready, are your products ready

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (50 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since 2003 when the initial RoHS directive was published, there has been a plan to review and update the directive. In December 2008, a draft of this review was publically available. Since then, several meetings have taken place and additional updates to the draft are available. There are expected changes, as well as unexpected changes, which are under discussion. This paper will discuss these points; the conference presentation will discuss the most recent updates and status. View full abstract»

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  • Preparing for product environmental compliance: A method for the madness

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (49 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Companies are continuing understand the need for a general approach to product environmental compliance. It must begin with a process and continue by filling in the details for each product's environmental compliance. Companies are also more aware of the needed to support an audit and demonstrate compliance, not simply collecting and storing the data. Document, Gather, Evaluate, Review, and ultimately Defend. View full abstract»

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  • Automotive paint spray booth safety — How a paint booth makes a dangerous operation less so

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (549 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper that is being proposing to present will describe, in detail, the Certification process of Auto Body Shop-style paint spray booths (PSB's), found in almost all auto body shops, and the differences between those PSB's that carry a third party certification will differ greatly from the PSB's that do not carry any such certification. It will also describe the methods that previously certified booths will need to be re-inspected, and will also identify the common methods in which a certified booth can be made to operate such that it is in violation of applicable codes and standards, such as those written by National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), OSHA, and even state and local codes. This paper will be written to be of interest to industrial risk insurers with customers in the automotive field, electrical, mechanical, and fire inspectors, codes compliance officers, certification authorities, and even manufacturers of this equipment and within the vicinity of this equipment. The paper and presentation will describe the common pitfalls found during our evaluations, and will provide evidence as to why the safety standards have been written to address these very special products, which have warranted their own article in both the National Electrical Code, and the Canadian Electrical Code. Also described in the article will be the different types of hazards - electrical, mechanical, and physical - that are typically found in paint spray booths, mixing rooms, and related operations. This paper will not be a complete certification checklist, but will outline the basic premises used by Intertek in the certification of paint spray booths. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of high frequency voltage stress on air insulation and solid insulation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2529 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Air insulation and solid insulation are the most common approaches to achieve adequate electrical insulation. However, with the increase in instances of high-frequency voltage stress, there are important differences in dimensioning these product safety approaches. This paper discusses the phenomenon of partial discharge, and its impact on the behavior of clearances, creepage distances, and solid insulation respectively. To shorten the learning curve for a new procedure for determining clearances, a flowchart developed to identify the key distinguishing factors to be considered is also presented. Finally, a case study of an example switch mode power supply is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Ensure product safety with hazardous locations and solid-state lighting certification

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (617 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper will give an overview of how hazardous locations are defined and discuss protection methods to mitigate explosion risks in hazardous locations. This paper will also identify requirements applicable to each protection concept in North America, European Union and the rest of the world. Additionally, the paper will discuss the safety requirements and standards landscape for LED lighting. View full abstract»

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  • Audio level safety limits and their impact on personal music player

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1167 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Personal music players have become very common in the past decade, yet we haven't had time to see the cumulative impact of higher audio levels for longer durations on the hearing of the general public. A number of industry and governmental organizations are interested in setting audio safety limits before a large number of users risk hearing damage. Much of the existing research and regulation for safe audio levels is based on occupational exposure, yet these limits are often used as the basis for proposed audio limits for personal music players. Occupational limits are based on a fixed intensity for a defined period which is not necessarily representative of audio played on personal music players. Regulations imposed for the safety of one type of user may prevent the music player from being adequately used by listeners of other types of audio programming. This paper will look at a number of topics covering audio safety. It will discuss the basic mechanisms of audio induced hearing damage. Next, it will look at existing sound level regulations and proposed regulations along with the potential impact of those regulations. Next it will cover audio level measurement methods for personal music players, the applicable standards defining those test methods and the impact of different headphones on those measurements. Finally, it will cover the audio level profiles of different types of programming frequently played on personal music players. Using this information, various scenarios will be discussed for limiting audio levels and the risk of hearing damage from personal music players. These techniques range from a fixed maximum audio level through user acknowledged overrides to real-time dynamic level sensing and control. View full abstract»

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