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Robotics and Automation, IEEE Journal of

Issue 5 • Date October 1987

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • An overview of robot calibration

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 377 - 385
    Cited by:  Papers (71)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1095 KB)  

    An overview is given of the existing work on robot calibration, and some of the basic issues are identified in calibration and improvement of robot precision. Modeling, measurement, identification, and correction issues in robot calibration are discussed, and some of the unresolved questions are identified. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic hybrid position/force control of robot manipulators--Description of hand constraints and calculation of joint driving force

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 386 - 392
    Cited by:  Papers (144)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (590 KB)  

    For the application of robot manipulators to complex tasks, it is often necessary to control not only the position of a manipulator but also the force exerted by the hand on an object. For this purpose, Raibert and Craig have proposed the hybrid position/force control method. In this method, however, the manipulator dynamics has not been taken into account rigorously. The dynamic hybrid control method is proposed, which takes the manipulator dynamics into consideration. Constraints on the end effector are described by a set of constraint hypersurfaces. Then the basic equations for dynamic hybrid control are derived. It is shown that if the manipulator is not in a singular configuration, the desired position and force at the end effector can be simultaneously realized. Finally, a basic structure of the dynamic hybrid control system with a servo compensator is given. View full abstract»

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  • A closed-form solution for inverse kinematics of robot manipulators with redundancy

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 393 - 403
    Cited by:  Papers (52)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1010 KB)  

    A closed-form solution formula for inverse kinematics of manipulators with redundancy is derived using the Lagrangian multiplier method. The proposed method is proved to provide the exact equilibrium state for the resolved-motion method. The repeatability problem in the resolved-motion method does not exist in the proposed method. The method is demonstrated to give more accurate trajectories than the resolved-motion method. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic sensor-based control of robots with visual feedback

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 404 - 417
    Cited by:  Papers (301)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1451 KB)  

    Sensor-based robot control may be viewed as a hierarchical structure with multiple observers. Actuator, feature-based, and recognition observers provide the basis for multilevel feedback control at the actuator, sensor, and world coordinate frame levels, respectively. The analysis and design of feature-based control strategies to achieve consistent dynamic performance is addressed. For vision sensors, such an image-based visual servo control is shown to provide stable and consistent dynamic control within local regimes of the recognition observer. Simulation studies of two- and three-degree-of-freedom systems show the application of an adaptive control algorithm to overcome unknown and nonlinear relations in the feature to world space mapping. View full abstract»

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  • Visual enhancements in pick-and-place tasks: Human operators controlling a simulated cylindrical manipulator

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 418 - 425
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (916 KB)  

    A visual display system serves as an important man-machine interface for efficient teleoperations. However, careful consideration is necessary to display three-dimensional information on a two-dimensional screen effectively. A teleoperation simulator is constructed with a vector display system, joysticks, and a simulated cylindrical manipulator to evaluate various display conditions quantitatively. Pick-and-place tasks are performed, and mean completion times are used as a performance measure. Two experiments are performed. First, effects of variation of perspective parameters on human operator's pick-and-place performance with monoscopic perspective display are investigated. Then visual enhancements of monoscopic perspective display by adding a grid and reference lines are investigated and compared with visual enhancements of stereoscopic display. The results indicate that stereoscopic display does generally permit superior pick-and-place performance, while monoscopic display can allow equivalent performance when it is defined with appropriate perspective parameter values and provided with adequate visual enhancements. Mean completion time results of pick-and-place experiments for various display conditions shown are observed to be quite similar to the normalized rms error results of mannal tracking experiments reported previously. View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of position and rate control for telemanipulations with consideration of manipulator system dynamics

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 426 - 436
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (949 KB)  

    Position and rate control are the two common manual control modes in teleoperations. Human operator performance using the two modes is evaluated and compared. Simulated three-axis pick-and-place operations are used as the primary task for evaluation. First, ideal position and rate control are compared by considering several factors, such as joystick gain, joystick type, display mode, task, and manipulator work space size. Then the effects of the manipulator system dynamics are investigated by varying the natural frequency and speed limit. Experimental results show that ideal position control is superior to ideal rate control, regardless of joystick type or display mode, when the manipulation work space is small or comparable to the human operator's control space. Results also show that when the manipulator system is slow, the superiority of position control disappears. Position control is recommended for small-work-space telemanipulation tasks, while rate control is recommended for slow wide-work-space telemanipulation tasks. View full abstract»

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  • Coordinating the motions of robot arms in a common workspace

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 437 - 444
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (809 KB)  

    A time/space planning system to coordinate the actions of two robot manipulators for transfer movements in a "sparse" environment is reported here. The collision avoidance reasoning guarantees that arms will arrive safely at their destination by temporally delaying or by altering the path of one arm. End effectors are constrained to follow elliptical motions. The performance of the system is sufficient in normal circumstances to drive an execution module in real time with tool tip speeds of about 3 in/s. View full abstract»

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  • A maximum pipelined CORDIC architecture for inverse kinematic position computation

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 445 - 458
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1244 KB)  

    A cost-effective coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC) architecture is described for the computation of inverse kinematic position solution based on a functional decomposition of the closed-form joint equations. The functional decomposition shows a limited amount of parallelism with a large amount of sequentialism in the flow of computation and data dependencies and reveals the requirement for computing a large set of elementary operations: multiplications, additions, divisions, square roots, trigonometric functions and their inverse. However, these elementary operations, in general, cannot be efficiently computed in general-purpose uniprocessor computers. The CORDIC algorithms are the natural candidates for efficiently computing these elementary operations and the interconnection of these CORDIC processors to exploit the great potential of pipelining provides a better solution for computing the inverse kinematic position solution. The functional decomposition of the inverse kinematic position solution into a set of computational tasks can be represented as a directed task graph. The inclusion of input data modifies the task graph to an acyclic data dependency graph (ADDG). The nodes of the ADDG correspond to the computational modules, each of which can be realized by a CORDIC processor. The operands or data move along the edges, each of which connects a pair of nodes. Due to different paths and computation time for each CORDIC processor, operands may arrive at multi-input modules at different arrival time, causing a longer pipelined time. Delay buffers may be inserted at various paths to achieve a balanced ADDG. The optimal buffer assignment problem is reduced to an integer linear optimization problem which can be solved easily by computers. The realization of the balanced ADDG results in a maximum pipelined CORDIC architecture with a minimum number of delay buffer stages for the computation of inverse kinematic position solution. View full abstract»

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  • Model building of three-dimensional polyhedral objects using 3D edge information and hemispheric histogram

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 459 - 470
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1933 KB)  

    An algorithm for extracting edges and plane regions of a polyhedral object in a three-dimensional (3D) range image is described. The object may be Convex or nonconvex. A model of the object is built with the regions extracted. Possible extension to cylindrical objects is also considered. The range images are obtained with a novel range-finder camera that can produce 128 × 256 or 256 × 256 surface element (surfcels) images. The edge detection is accomplished in five steps and yields edges one surfcel wide. The region-finding algorithm relies on the concept of the "hemispheric histogram." The histogram is built with the normals of groups of surfcels (patches) forming the image. Analysis of the hemispheric histogram gives global information on the surface orientation of the visible regions of an object. Once these regions are extracted, they are expanded with a region growing process. Geometric properties of the regions are computed by a simple contour following algorithm. Then, a relational model of the regions is built. The model gathers information that is independent of the position and orientation of the object ill the reference plane and could be Used for object recognition in an unsupervised 3D vision system. View full abstract»

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  • Task-space tracking with redundant manipulators

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 471 - 475
    Cited by:  Papers (51)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (539 KB)  

    A controller for redundant manipulators with a small fast manipulator mounted on a positioning part has been developed. The controller distributes the fast motion to the small fast manipulator and the slow gross motion to the positioning part. A position reference is generated on-line to the positioning part to avoid singularities and the loss of degrees of freedom. The task-space position vector is augmented by the generalized coordinates of the positioning part. Feedback linearization and decoupling are then applied in the augmented task space to obtain a model consisting of decoupled double integrators. These decoupled double integrators are controlled by the use of linear quadratic optimal control. In the optimal control problem the performance index is chosen so that the task-space position reference is tracked with a high bandwidth while the reference to the positioning part is tracked with a low bandwidth. The controller has been applied to a simple planar redundant manipulator and an eight-link spray painting robot in simulation experiments. These simulations showed that a high bandwidth was possible with moderate actuator torques. View full abstract»

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  • Language-aided robotic teleoperation system (LARTS) for advanced teleoperation

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 476 - 481
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1214 KB)  

    The language-aided robotic teleoperation system incorporates two sets of teieoperational languages with a master-slave manipulator. One offers flexible means, called software jigs, to specify motion constraints superimposed on operational motion, simplifying task motion. The other offers an easy method of teaching elementary tasks which frequently appear in teleoperation. Re-execution of the thus-taught program is effectively utilized. View full abstract»

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  • Model predictive heuristic control of a position servo system in robotics application

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 481 - 485
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (509 KB)  

    A recently proposed method of control, namely model algorithmic control (MAC) or, equivalently, model predictive heuristic control (MPHC) is analyzed with a view to its implementation for the position control system. The formulation of the MPHC strategy to positional servo system is presented; both the regulators and the tracking problems are studied and the simulation and experimental results obtained indicate that the MPHC results in a good performance even under the conditions of large time-varying changes in the parameters of the system. View full abstract»

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  • Classical control design for a flexible manipulator: Modeling and control system design

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 485 - 489
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)  

    A Lagrangian dynamics approach is used to model the planar motion of a manipulator consisting of two flexible links and two rotary joints. The equations are linearized and represented by a transfer function matrix. In addition a multivariable control system is designed by a technique based on classical methods. View full abstract»

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  • International symposium on robot manipulators--Modeling, control, and education

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 490
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    First Page of the Article
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): c4 - 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

This Journal ceased production in 1988. The current retitled publications are IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering and IEEE Transactions on Robotics.

Full Aims & Scope