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Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (ICCCE), 2010 International Conference on

Date 1-3 Aug. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 111
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Front matter]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): i - xv
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Factorial design of experiments for comparative study of lactic acid esterification with ethanol and n-butanol

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
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    Two-level, three-factor full factorial design of experiments was applied in this study to elucidate a relationship between operating variables and lactic acid conversion in esterification with ethanol and n-butanol. The variables of interest are reaction temperature (65-85°C), initial alcohol-to-lactic-acid molar ratio (1:1-5:1), and catalyst loading (1-5 %w/v). Conversion of lactic acid in esterification reaction was found to be enhanced by independently increase of all the parameters and simultaneously increase of reaction temperature and reactant molar ratio, as well as reactant molar ratio and catalyst loading. However, raising the reaction temperature and using larger catalyst loading in the system where the initial reactant molar ratio was low did not lead o any enhancement of the acid conversion. It was showed statistically that, with all the variables in the range studied here, the initial alcohol-to-lactic-acid molar ratio was the most significant variable of the process. A linear model to predict conversion as function of operating variables was also constructed, and the conversion calculated from the model was in excellent agreement with those obtained experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • A new technique for photovoltaic module performance mathematical model

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 6 - 10
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (141 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a method for modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays. The modeling method and the proposed circuit model are useful for power electronic designers who need a simple, fast, accurate, and easy-to-use modeling method to simulate the PV systems. The parameters extraction and the model evaluation are demonstrated using Matlab and Excel link as a new technique to facilitate input/output data of solar module simulink model such as weather conditions and solar module parameters. One-diode equivalent circuit is employed in order to investigate I-V and P-V characteristics of a typical 150W solar module. This model and new technique will be more recommended because the solar module parameters are obtained directly from manufactures catalogs. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy modeling and optimization of biochemical processes: A case study

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 11 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an application of a neuro-fuzzy modeling approach in order to characterize essential behavior of biological processes. The gathered information from experiments was employed to develop a fuzzy model for an enzyme-catalyzed esterification process. The accuracy of developed model was validated by comparing the response of the model and actual data from experiments. A model-based optimization was preformed to obtain the best operating conditions by using the developed model for esterification process. The optimization was carried out for global and constrained solutions. The obtained results show the accuracy and feasibility of proposed algorithm for optimization of biological processes. View full abstract»

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  • Ethanol production from rice straw using ultrasonic pretreatment

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 16 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1513 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pretreatment is one of the approaches to yield the higher saccharification process leading to optimization of ethanol yield. The effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on ethanol production from rice straw was studied. A 0.16 kW/L ultrasonic treatment was applied to treat rice straw during enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process. The enzymatic hydrolysis process was carried out at 50°C and pH 4.8 by using a commercial enzyme and followed by fermentation with S.cereviceae. Morphological structure of rice straw was analyzed by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the glucose concentration was detected by biochemistry analyzer. The result showed that the structure of rice straw after ultrasonic treatment showed a breaking of lignin and exposition of cellulose surface. The glucose concentration of the pretreated rice straw increased significantly by 57.65% (p = 0.003) when compared to the untreated rice straw. The total ethanol concentration of the untreated was not obviously different from the pretreated rice straw. Results revealed that ultrasonic treatment could enhance the ethanol production from rice straw. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrasonic pretreatment enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 20 - 23
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    Rice straw can be utilized to use as a raw material for production of biofuel due to its content with a high amount of sugar in a form of 35-40% w/w cellulose and 25-30% w/w hemicelluloses. The effect of ultrasonic treatment to enhance the saccharification process of the enzymatic hydrolysis from rice straw was investigated. Two frequencies at 20 and 24 kHz of ultrasonic treatment were used for 80 min on rice straw before the enzymatic hydrolysis was applied by using commercially available enzyme cocktails: Accellerase™ 1000, Cellic CTec and NS 50013 at 50°C for 48 h. The result was found that the glucose concentration of pretreated rice straw was significantly higher than that of untreated rice straw (p <; 0.0001). At frequency of 24 kHz, the glucose concentration of all enzymes was significantly greater than that of enzymes at frequency of 20 kHz (p<;0.0001). When treating the rice straw with the Accellerase™ 1000 was yield significantly the highest glucose concentration among the other enzymes (p<;0.0001). These results reviewed that the ultrasonic pretreatment could enhance the saccharification process resulting in the acceleration of enzymatic hydrolysis. View full abstract»

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  • Recycling of waste cured epoxy molding compound as a filler in poly (vinyl chloride) composites

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 24 - 29
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    Pulverized mold residue of cured epoxy molding compound was reused to produce poly (vinyl chloride) composites with the aim to recycle resources in a more profitable and environmental concern way. The mold residue powder with functional groups on the surface was reactive to polar resins as the results of FT-IR spectrum (FT-IR). Mechanical tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), vicat softening point test (VST) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study effects of the adding content of the mold residue powder and molding parameters on properties of the PVC composites. The results showed that when molding pressure was fixed at 15 MPa, the optimum molding temperature and molding time were 200°C and 10 min, respectively. The maximum adding content of the powder was up to 70 wt%. When the mold residue powder content was 60 wt%, the PVC composites molded under optimum conditions showed excellent mechanical properties, with tensile strength of 30.33 MPa, flexural strength of 60.74 MPa and flexural modulus of 6.2 GPa. The DSC and VST test showed that the presence of the mold residue powder improved the heat resistance of the PVC composites. All the above results indicated that the reuse of mold residue powder as a filler in the PVC composites represented a promising way to recycle resources and resolve the environmental pollution problems. View full abstract»

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  • Discovering new competivive dengue DEN2 NS2B/NS3 inhibitors using similarity searching

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 30 - 34
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (100 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several flaviviruses are important human pathogens, including dengue virus, a disease against which neither a vaccine nor specific antiviral therapies currently exist. QSAR study was carried out with the purpose of searching new competitive dengue inhibitors with similar properties to the existence inhibitors (i.e. data set). The approach began with the development of rigorously validated QSAR model obtained using multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) with conventional correlation coefficient (r2) value of 0.82 and cross-validated correlation coefficient (r2CV) value of 0.65 and partial least squares (PLS) technique with r2 value of 0.82 and r2CV value of 0.74. The model showed a good correlative and predictive ability having a predictive correlation coefficient (r2pred) of 0.80. The validated QSAR models were then employed in mining the database which consisted of 45,917 compounds. The degree of similarity (based on Euclidean distance and Tanimoto coefficient) between the compounds probed from the data set and those in the database were calculated using the same set of descriptors in the QSAR model. A total of 7 compounds were short-listed and finally the inhibition constant of these compounds were calculated and predicted to be competitive dengue inhibitors. View full abstract»

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  • Identification of citrinin biosynthesis gene under the ultrasonic induction of Monascus purpureus

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 35 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (219 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Polyketide synthases are multifunctional enzymes that involve the synthesis of pigments and mycotoxin which is normally known as citrinin. The gene involving citrinin biosynthesis especially, acyltransferase in polyketide synthase gene of M. purpureus TISTR 3541 isolated in Thailand as the wild type and the ultrasonic induced mutation of this wild type as the mutants (generations 1-4, G1-G4) was investigated. The transcription level of the acyltransferase in M. purpureus TISTR 3541 wild type (G0) and of mutants (G1 to G4) was studied by using RT-PCR with the actin gene as a positive control. The nucleotide sequences were analyzed by using Automated DNA Sequencing. Results showed that the nucleotide sequences of acyltransferase in polyketide synthase gene of M. purpureus mutants and wild type were absolutely similar. When the sequence comparison was aligned, the obtained nucleotide sequence showed 100% sequence similarity with pksCT gene that involving in citrinin biosynthesis in M. purpureus. The RT - PCR results were in agreement with real - time PCR analysis which was showed that shape intact DNA band of M. purpureus TISTR 3541 G2 more than other generations resulting in the better acyltransferase expression than others. View full abstract»

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  • Spectroscopic study of Hg (II)-complex with 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde 4-ethylthiosemicarbazone

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 40 - 43
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    This study reported on a newly synthesized Hg (II)-thiosemicarbazone complex. The complex was characterized using uv-visible spectrophotometry. The mercury (II) - 4-(Dimethylamino)benzaldehyde 4-ethylthiosemicarbazone (DMABET) in methanol had a maximum absorbance (λmax) at 374 nm, whereas the λmax for DMABET in methanol was 356 nm. At optimum pH i.e. pH 4 λmax had shifted to 381 nm. The molar stoichiometry of the complex obtained by the Job's and mole ratio methods was Hg: DMABET = 1: 4. It was found from Job's method data that the stability constant of Hg(II)-DMABET complex is 9.24×106 and ΔG = -9.55 Kcal/mol at 25 ± 2°C. View full abstract»

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  • High pressure CO2 adsorption in functionalized graphite nanoplatelets

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 44 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (197 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The growing needs of fossil fuel energy pose a great challenge in the control of CO2 emissions in our atmosphere. Adsorption can be considered to be one of the more promising methods for CO2 capture. In the present work, graphite nanoplatets were prepared by acid intercalation followed by exfoliation technique. These graphite nanoplatelets were further functionalized and characterized by different characterization techniques. The CO2 adsorption capacity was measured using high pressure Seiverts' apparatus and the results have been discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Study of the synthesis of TNT and Pt/TNT catalyst for CO photocatalytic oxidaiton

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 47 - 50
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (877 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, we synthesized titania nanotubes (TNTs) by a hydrothermal process from commercial P25, and prepared Pt/TNT catalysts by impregnation. To evaluate their catalytic activity, we reacted the TNTs and Pt/TNTs photocatalytically with carbon monoxide (CO). These investigations indicated that the efficient removal of CO could be attributed to the high dispersion of Pt on the TNT (123.4 m2/g, 0.39 cm3/g). Pt/TNT(C) displays a high CO conversion activity of about 99%, which is superior to that of P25. The CO conversion was optimum when the reaction was performed at room temperature with an O2 concentration of 10%, a CO concentration of 500 ppm, and a space velocity of 1.79×104 h-1. View full abstract»

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  • The permeation performance of SBA-15/CAP/PVDF blend membranes

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 51 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (530 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To improve the mechanical strength of cellulose acetate (CA) membranes, porous inorganic/organic hybrid membranes were prepared via phase inversion technique from casting solution composed of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), mesoporous SBA-15 materials, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). The effects of PVDF content and modification with SBA-15 on membranes structure, and properties were characterized in terms of fieldemission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and pure water flux. The results showed that due to the decrease of crystallinity of CAP membranes, the modified CAP-PVDF blend membranes exhibited a high level of water permeation along with the increasing the content of PVDF. Furthermore, after incorporated with SBA-15, it was observed that the pure water flux through the SBA-15/PVDF/CAP hybrid membranes was obviously affected by the incorporated SBA-15 and formed membrane morphology. All different CAP-PVDF weight ratio membranes showed a similar pure water flux of approx. 100 L/m2/h. View full abstract»

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  • The factors affecting on Bitumen Emulsion properties

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 55 - 59
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (370 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Need to proper roads and highways will increase with increasing automotive industry and development of cities and countries. Among petroleum products used in road construction and asphalt application for soil stability and adhesion between layers of asphalt are bitumen soluble and Bitumen Emulsions. Bitumen Emulsions are subset of water emulsion that in this type of emulsion dispersed phase is lipophilic and continuous phase is hydrophilic, for mixing these two phases used surface activating agents called emulsifier. Bitumen Emulsions are under other similar emulsion laws hence; basically Bitumen Emulsions from Thermodynamic point of view are unstable fluid and disperse. Considering the importance and benefits of using Bitumen Emulsions, this paper tries to show influence of various factors such as emulsion source, type and amount of emulsifier, particles size of emulsion and other properties of the emulsions are determined. View full abstract»

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  • Preparation and characterization of PPSU/PEI blend membranes

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 60 - 62
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (189 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Polyetherimide (PEI) ultrafiltration membranes were surface modified using crystalline PPSU polymer additive through thermal-induced phase inversion method. The pure and blend membranes were characterized in terms of differential scanning calorimetry, morphology and pure water flux. The effects of polymer concentration and blending ratio on membrane structure and properties were investigated. The results indicated that the blending PEI with PPSU in the casting solution led to a decrease in crystallinity and an increase in surface and internal pore size and porosity of the membranes, which in return increased the pure water flux of the blend membranes. View full abstract»

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  • Permeation performance of Cellulose acetate propionate/polyvinylidine fluoride blend membranes by phase inversion

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 63 - 66
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    In this study, cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were selected to prepare porous-blend membrane by wet phase inversion method. The effect of the CAP and PVDF concentration of the casting solution on membrane morphology structure and thermal stability was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC). The pure water flux by the developed CAP/PVDF blend membrane was also studied and discussed. Results showed that blending CAP with PVDF reduces the relative crystallinity of pure CAP membrane, especially for CAP/PVDF=5/5 (C5P5) membrane. The relative crystallinity of CAP is reduced from 100 % to 9% and results in porous structure. By blending CAP with PVDF, the pure water flux of the membrane can be varied in a wide range of various applications. View full abstract»

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  • A multi sensor data fusion approach to fualt diagnosis of CSTR

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 67 - 71
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (101 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multi sensor data fusion has played a significant role in diverse areas. Various multi sensor data fusion methods have been extensively investigated by researchers. In this work, measured data derived from 5 installed sensors are addressed as individual evidences to infer process situation for a series of defined fault occurrences in a CSTR process plant. A multi sensor data fusion approach is developed based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory to fuse the individual evidences registered by the installed sensors for fault detection applications. An important issue relates to the mechanism this theory is employed to generate mass functions on the basis of the recorded information from sensors. Feature matrix is utilized to extract preliminary probability values and a qualitative method is then used to select mass functions. The developed technique has been successfully evaluated on the CSTR process plant. View full abstract»

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  • Estimating the feasibility of raw carbon nanotubes used as catalyst for CO oxidation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 72 - 75
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, the catalytic activities of Raw CNTs and Co/CNTs for CO removal were determined between 100 and 300°C. To confirm the characterization of Raw CNTs and Co/CNTs, the composition and morphology of two catalysts were analyzed by using XRD, SEM, TEM and Raman spectra. The results showed that the CO conversion was 98% by using Raw CNTs at 250°C and this conversion was similar to that of using Co/CNTs. Since no purification and no re-immersion steps are needed for the preparation of Raw CNTs, this application can save the preparation procedures and reduce the waste yields and costs. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of operating conditions on emission concentration of PAHs during fluidized bed air gasification of biomass

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 76 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the concern of future energy use, hydrogen is taken as an important role in energy alternatives. In addition, biomass air gasification by using fluidized bed is an efficient and advanced method for hydrogen production. Despite of energy product generation, some pollutants such as PAHs easily formed in gasification process because of tar decomposition. Accordingly, this study provides a fundamental work of emission behavior of PAHs generated under different operating conditions such as temperature, air factor, and addition of catalysts. The experimental result shows the emission concentration of PAHs decreases with the operating temperature increases, but PAHs increases with increasing of air factor. Besides, addition of CaO resulting a reduce influence on PAHs emission, but Al2O3 added in fluidized bed cause bimodal particle size segregate and reduce fluidized bed quality that leads PAHs formation during biomass air gasification. View full abstract»

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  • Removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and oxidised nitrogen in landfill leachate using vegetated constructed wetland with continuous flow through different filter media

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 80 - 84
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (305 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Performance of the vegetated horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland was evaluated for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (AN), total oxidized nitrogen (TNOx-N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) from landfill leachate. Four reactors were used, RI (granite without vegetation), RII and RIII which consists of granite and gravel with different sizes respectively and RIV contained sand and 67.5 L of charcoal. RII, RIII and RIV were planted with cattails. The leachate obtained from the site of Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill, Penang was introduced into RI at flow rate of 18 mL/min which was continuous to flow through another three reactors. The leachate was analyzed for AN, TNOx-N and NO2-N before and after the treatment in each reactor by standard methods. The overall average removal efficiency of AN and NO2-N were 86.7 % and 19.5 % respectively but negative effect to TNOx-N which was -16.3 %. The negative result shows the increased in the concentration of TNOx-N. Reactor IV performed the best for removal of AN and NO2-N which is 60.9 % and 66.2 % respectively, whereas, RII had highest performance for removal of TNOx-N of 24.1%. View full abstract»

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  • Mesoporous Cu/SAB-15 as potential catalysts for SCR NOx by CO

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 85 - 88
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (585 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxide (NO) technology has widely applied in a combustion process to decline the concentration of NO due to its impact on the environments concerns. In this study, mesoporous SBA-15 was used as support material to load Cu catalyst to undergo the DeNOx reaction by CO. Cu/SBA-15 catalyst were prepared by polyol method and investigated by XRD, TEM and FTIR. The results show that the NO conversion over Cu/SBA-15 catalysts is about 20% at 400°C, which is higher than the values for other Cu-based catalysts supported on Al2O3 support material. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of supports structure on the synthesis of biodiesel from canola oil

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 89 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (411 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transesterification of canola oil with methanol was investigated under a heterogeneous catalysts system. Various γ-Al2O3-, hydrotalcite-, SiO2-supported Na, Ca oxides prepared via an impregnation method were applied as solid catalyst. The influence of supports (γ-Al2O3, hydrotalcite, SiO2) structure on the activity and adsorption behavior of Na, Ca-based catalysts for transesterification was comparatively studied by FE-SEM in this study. Experiment result shows the biodiesel conversion rate is up to 93% in 1hr reaction time at 65°C when using 20NaOH/hydrotalcite as the solid catalyst. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Bayesian belief networks to fault detection and diagnosis of industrial processes

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 92 - 96
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (667 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In industrial processes, to confide the success of planed operation, implementing early and accurate method for recognizing abnormal operating conditions, known as faults, is essential. Effective method for fault detection and diagnosis helps reducing impact of these faults, extols the safety of operation, minimizes down time and reduces manufacturing costs. In this paper, application of BBNs is studied for a benchmark chemical industrial process, known as, Tennessee Eastman in order to achieve early fault detection and accurate probable diagnosis of their causes. Application of Bayesian belief networks for fault detection and diagnosis of Tennessee Eastman process in the graphical context description has not been tested yet. Success of this feature confirms capability and ease use of it as a diagnostic system in actual industrial processes. View full abstract»

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  • Research on biomass and carbon storage of Picea schrenkiana var. tianshanica community in Central Tianshan Mountain, Xinjiang

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 97 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (121 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    20 tree plots, 60 shrub plots, 100 grass plots and 100 litter plots were established in Central Tianshan Mountain to study the biomass and carbon storage of P. schrenkiana var. tianshanica - A. millefolium community, P. schrenkiana var. tianshanica - S. pohuashanensis community and P. schrenkiana var. tianshanica - S. pseudosabina community. Results showed that: (1) Biomass of above ground and below ground of P. schrenkiana var. tianshanica made up about 85.27 % and 14.73 % of the totals, respectively. Biomass of stems, branches and leaves made up 52.99 %, 29.16 % and 13.55 % of the totals, respectively. (2) Total biomass of P. schrenkiana var. tianshanica - A. millefolium, P. schrenkiana var. tianshanica - S. pohuashanensis and P. schrenkiana var. tianshanica - S. pseudosabina community was 259.94 t·hm-2, 210.97 t·hm-2 and 91.39 t·hm-2, respectively. Biomass of tree layers of three communities above mentioned was 248.1 t·hm-2, 194.3 t·hm-2 and 72.1 t·hm-2, respectively. Biomass of shrub layers of three communities above mentioned was 0.2 t·hm-2, 9.9 t·hm-2 and 17.1 t·hm-2, respectively. Biomass of herbage layers was 0.18 t·hm-2, 0.29 t·hm-2 and 0.28 t·hm-2, respectively. Biomass of litter layers was 11.48 t·hm-2, 6.54 t·hm-2 and 1.92 t·hm-2, respectively. (3) Carbon storage of three communities above mentioned was 130.87 t·hm-2, 106.00 t·hm-2 and 45.83 t·hm-2, respectively. Carbon storage of tree layers of three communities above mentioned was 124.03 t·hm-2, 97.14 t·hm-2 and 36.03 t·hm-2, respectively. Carbon storage of shrub layers was 0.11 t·hm-2, 4.94 - - t·hm-2 and 8.56 t·hm-2. Carbon storage of herbage layers was 0.08 t·hm-2, 0.13 t·hm-2 and 0.13 t·hm-2, respectively. Carbon storage of litter layers was 6.66 t·hm-2, 3.79 t·hm-2 and 1.11 t·hm-2, respectively. View full abstract»

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