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Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), 2010 8th IEEE International Workshop on

Date 18-21 May 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 48
  • [Front and back cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • [Title page]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): i - iv
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): v - viii
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  • Message from the General Co-Chairs

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): ix - xvi
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (63 KB)  

    The series of IEEE Workshops on Factory Communication Systems has become established as a widely known and respected forum for researchers and practitioners from industry and academia involved in the wide area of communication in automation. This year's issue, WFCS 2010, is co-sponsored by the IEEE Industrial Electronic Society, the research center INRIA Nancy - Grand-Est and the Laboratoire Lorrain de Recherche en Informatique et ses Applications (LORIA UMR 7503). Additional support comes from Nancy University, the CNRS (GDR MACS), the local government institutions (Région Lorraine), and the French department for Research and Education as well as sponsors from industry for the Industry Day. View full abstract»

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  • Sponsored by

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): xvii - xviii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Performance indicators for wireless industrial communication networks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1245 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The recent improvements of the wireless networks performance offer a valuable opportunity also in the context of industrial communication systems. However, these systems are often subjected to such tight reliability requirements as well as timing constraints that wireless communications, especially in an interfered scenario, can hardly comply with. A thorough performance assessment is hence needed both at the design stage and during the typical operating life. In such a direction it is important to define some performance indicators that can monitor the main parameters of industrial communication systems employing wireless networks. In this paper a set of performance indicators for polling-based industrial communication is introduced. Then, two case studies of industrial communication systems that make use of two different wireless networks (namely the IEEE 802.11 WLAN and the IEEE 802.15.4 WPAN) are presented and the relevant performance indicators are experimentally measured. The purpose is to show how the performance indicators may provide useful insights in the behavior of the systems as well as how they may be positively influenced by a careful selection of some key parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Predictable real-time communications with improved reliability for IEEE 802.15.4 based industrial networks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 13 - 22
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1222 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Emerging industrial applications requiring reliable wireless real-time communications are numerous. Using existing standards such as IEEE 802.15.4 is essential for reasons of interoperability and cost efficiency. However, since 802.15.4 is unable to provide predictable channel access, real-time guarantees cannot be given. Further, the noisy wireless channel makes reliable communications particularly challenging. By adding a deterministic medium access method and a transport protocol with a truncated retransmission scheme to 802.15.4, we jointly enforce reliability and predictability. We evaluate our solution analytically by real-time schedulability analysis including retransmissions, and by computer simulations. We show that the message error rate can be improved by several orders of magnitude while keeping the utilization penalty at reasonable levels. View full abstract»

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  • Channel capture in noisy wireless contention-based communication environments

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 23 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nowadays, as in many other domains, wireless communications are a hot topic in Industrial Automation. Nevertheless, their deployment in real-time applications has been mostly conducted in tightly controlled environments, given the potential threats posed by Denial of Service attacks resulting from interference. Hence, the support of communications providing timeliness guarantees in open wireless environments is an important research topic, not only for soft real-time applications, in general, but mainly for real-time applications with demanding timeliness requirements. This paper addresses the challenge of providing real-time communications in open wireless environments, specifically in the 2.4 GHz ISM band encompassing contention-based interference sources. It presents a novel MAC technique named bandjacking, which allows capturing and maintaining a communication medium with bound delay and jitter in the presence of interference produced by contention-based communication technologies. Furthermore, a proof of concept addressing the proposed technique is experimentally validated through a set of trials, demonstrating the feasibility of bandjacking for the support of real-time wireless communications in open environments. View full abstract»

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  • Optimising PROFINET IRT for fast cycle times: A proof of concept

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 35 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1433 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The PROFINET IEC 61158 standardized Real Time Ethernet (RTE) protocol, Class C, has traditionally been limited by an artificially imposed 250us cycle time, originating from the requirement to ensure that full-sized legacy Ethernet frames can be transmitted in a single cycle through a network. Occasionally, especially in the case of high performance motion-control systems, this minimum cycle time is inadequate implying that if PROFINET is to be used in such applications either the PROFINET standard must be modified, or another protocol is used. This paper describes the implementation, in a low-cost FPGA, of a completely PROFINET compatible IP including several performance enhancements of the PROFINET standard and associated design features enabling PROFINET to be used in applications with cycle times lower than 31.25us. The paper includes a critical evaluation of the results including comparisons with other RTE protocols. View full abstract»

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  • On the accuracy of the distributed clock mechanism in EtherCAT

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 43 - 52
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1249 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    EtherCAT is a network protocol conceived for the use in factory automation environments, which relies on realtime Ethernet technology and is characterized by very high efficiency. Besides high performance, support for synchronous operation is provided as well thanks to a mechanism known as distributed clock, which enables sampling and actuation to be carried out with highly-accurate timings. This can be profitably exploited, for instance, in motion control applications. In this paper several aspects concerning the behaviour of the distributed clock mechanism have been analysed and the accuracy it achieves evaluated by means of measurements carried out on a real network set-up. Results confirm that very good precision is effectively achieved. View full abstract»

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  • A layer-2 multicast forwarding policy for a generic Real-time Ethernet system

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 53 - 60
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (866 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the layer-2 based forwarding rules for a Real-time Ethernet (RTE) proposed in, and its applications to multicast streaming. The proposed approach is based on topologically addressed structures, and maintain all the route information within the multicasted frame header. This allows having no database in the MAC bridges, which reduces the forwarding delays, caused by address searching and processing efforts. Also the paper presents a routing technique to control the flooding effect of multicast traffic. A model-driven development approach has been adopted to verify the concept by using simulation technique, and a PC-based emulation technique is proposed for further investigation. View full abstract»

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  • On the upper bound of transmission unreliability in memoryless backoff contention

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 89 - 98
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (747 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper addresses the problem of evaluating the unreliability of transmission, undertaken by a given station according to the CSMA scheme with the memoryless backoff and uniform probability distribution for choosing the contention slots. The analysis is carried out both for the unified backoff and multiple backoff contention. The presented results show that the upper bound on the transmission unreliability of a given station is paradoxically independent of the number of contending stations both for the unified backoff and for the multiple backoff. These results are conflicting with the intuitive expectation that the chance to transmit successfully using a given number of contention slots decreases with the number of the contenders. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability improvement achievable in CAN-based systems by means of the ReCANcentrate replicated star topology

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 99 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Despite there is a growing interest in using star-based networks for distributed control systems, the reliability benefits of this topology have not been appropriately quantified. Thus, in previous work we modelled, by means of Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs), the system reliability that can be achieved with CAN and a simplex star we proposed for it called CANcentrate. These models quantitatively compared the system reliability of CAN and CANcentrate when permanent hardware faults occur. However, the strategy that underlies these models was not suitable, in terms of computation time, for ReCANcentrate, a replicated star we more recently proposed for CAN. This paper thoroughly describes a new model that overcomes this drawback and, then, demonstrates that ReCANcentrate can boost the system reliability. Although this paper addresses CAN-based networks, the results herein presented can be extrapolated to other field-bus technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic analysis of security policies in industrial networks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 109 - 118
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (645 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The protection of ICT systems is a topic whose importance has been dramatically growing in the last years. In fact, their increased interconnection, both internal and through the Internet, besides having provided higher and inexpensive flexibility (e.g. remote access, management and configuration), has also made them more subject to a wide range of (remotely exploitable) attacks and damages. This paper shows how security policies for industrial systems can be defined in the framework of standard recommendations, and especially checked with the help of an automatic analysis tool, thus leading to a set of security policies whose design and implementation match the expected security requirements. In particular, a suitable example highlights how the tool can profitably help through the steps from the design to the implementation of security policies in an industrial network. View full abstract»

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  • A distribute-merge switch for EtherCAT networks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 121 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1172 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    EtherCAT is a popular industrial Ethernet solution conceived mainly for connecting control applications to remote I/Os. Because of its high communication efficiency - that achieves cycle times well below 1ms-it can be profitably adopted for motion control systems as well, which are known to have tight timing constraints. In this paper, a solution is introduced and described that is based on a suitable switch able to operate at the level of single EtherCAT telegrams. Such an approach achieves increased network performance by reducing propagation delays. In addition, a satisfactory degree of compatibility is ensured to the existing EtherCAT devices and applications. View full abstract»

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  • Flexible, efficient and robust real-time communication with server-based Ethernet Switching

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 131 - 140
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1379 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The information exchanged in Networked Embedded Systems is steadily increasing in quantity, size, complexity and heterogeneity, with growing requirements for arbitrary arrival patterns and guaranteed QoS. One of the networking protocols that is becoming more common in such systems is Ethernet and its real-time Ethernet variants. However, they hardly support all the referred requirements in an efficient manner since they either favour determinism or throughput, but not both. A potential solution recently proposed by the authors is the Server-SE protocol that uses servers to confine traffic associated to specific applications or subsystems. Such an approach is dynamically reconfigurable and adaptive, being more bandwidth efficient while providing composability in the time domain. This paper proposes integrating the servers inside the Ethernet switch, boosting both the flexibility and the robustness of Server-SE, allowing, for example, the seamless connection of any Ethernet node. The switch is an FTT-enabled Ethernet Switch and the paper discusses two specific ways of integrating the servers, namely in software or in hardware. These options are described and compared analytically and experimentally. The former favours flexibility in the servers design and management while the latter provides lower latency. View full abstract»

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  • On optimal communication spanning trees in embedded Ethernet networks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 141 - 150
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In network design, the Optimal Communication Spanning Tree (OCST) problem is to find a spanning tree that connects the network entities and satisfies their communication requirements with minimal total cost. In an embedded Ethernet network, we organize the full duplex links into bundles and install these bundles into ducts. The traditional OCST problem does not take into account this fact. In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model of the communication cost of an embedded Ethernet network. We propose novel algorithms to find an OCST. Their principle idea is that they iteratively examine a set of neighboring trees that differ in one duct and choose the tree with the lowest cost. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the algorithms in terms of the quality of the solution found as well as the running time. View full abstract»

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  • Integrating process communication in building information models with IFC and LON

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 221 - 230
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (874 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Building information modeling (BIM) establishes a rich data model over the life cycle of a building. The information gathered during the architectural design phase, engineering, and construction serves as up-to-date processing base for facility and building management during a building's operation phase. Recent projects include more and more building automation system related modeling details to provide accurate product data information. This paper discusses enhancing BIM with process communication data, taking the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) as BIM data format example and the Local Operating Network (LON) as building automation control network with functional profiles and network variable (NV) mechanism. View full abstract»

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  • Heterogeneous co-simulation platform for the efficient analysis of FlexRay-based automotive distributed embedded systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 231 - 240
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1370 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Validation front-loading using simulation is required to save efforts and support decision making during the development process. For automotive distributed embedded systems, the fast increasing system complexity usually prevents the use of simulation encompassing the entire communication architecture. The simulation is then focused to single domain and/or components. We present in this work a heterogeneous co-simulation model of a FlexRay based system comprising simulation models from the software components down to the waveforms within the FlexRay electrical cables. This platform enables the efficient analysis of the assembled system and more especially of the interactions between the components. The description of the models is supported by three test campaigns in order to highlight the importance of holistic simulation as well as the potential of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Conformance testing of variable driven automata

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 241 - 248
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we address the conformance testing problem for timed constrained critical systems. We propose a new model adapted to describe such systems. The model is called Variable Driven Timed Automata (VDTA) and is a variant of timed automata in which events are variable assignments and all transitions are urgent. We present a sound and exhaustive on the fly testing algorithm for such systems. As an application of our approach, we propose a case study on a “Bi-manual command” system. View full abstract»

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  • A MODBUS extension for inexpensive distributed embedded systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 251 - 260
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1047 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The MODBUS protocol on TIA/EIA-485 is a proven fieldbus that provides client-server data exchange between industrial devices with minimal hardware requirements. However, a few aspects of the protocol are not adequate to fulfill the needs of a contemporary distributed embedded system, especially for what concerns address space size, guaranteed bandwidth allocation, and controlled handover between multiple masters. This paper shows how MODBUS can be extended, in a backward-compatible way, to address these shortcomings. The extension is very simple and does not require any additional hardware, hence it is suitable for inexpensive, distributed embedded systems. The proposed extension was implemented with little development effort, starting from a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) protocol stack, for which the source code is readily available. View full abstract»

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  • Networked control system (NCS) on a network CAN: On the quality of service (QoS) and quality of control (QoC) provided by different message scheduling schemes based on hybrid priorities

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 261 - 270
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1640 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The message scheduling is an important mechanism in the context of Networked Control Systems. The message scheduling is, in several networks, mainly based on static priorities associated to the messages (for example the network CAN). This static priority scheme has intrinsic limitations and so here we will consider scheduling strategies based on hybrid priorities. Three hybrid priority schemes, resulting from our previous works are first presented. Then we compare the Quality of Service (QoS) offered by these schemes to a process control application and we evaluate the resulting Quality of Control (QoC). View full abstract»

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  • Event-based control: Overview and generic model

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 271 - 279
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (414 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The event-based sampling and control gained much interest in last years, since they allow better resource utilization and a straightforward implementation. A large number of different event-based approaches and algorithms have been proposed. This diversity may confuse a practical engineer that has to implement an event-based control and is not sure what approach he should choose. This paper attempts to classify different event-based control methods by introducing an appropriate generic model. Different variants of realization of event-based elements are characterized. At the end, it is demonstrated how the methods developed until now can be described using the introduced model. View full abstract»

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  • A new AODV-based routing protocol adequate for monitoring applications in oil & gas production environments

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 283 - 292
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (650 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Monitoring applications in onshore oil and gas production environments are usually based on wireless solutions. Most part of nowadays applications rely upon outdated technologies, based on the use of analog radios and inefficient master-slave communication topologies. In this paper, we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies to monitor oil and gas production environments. More specifically, we consider a mesh topology for the communication network and we analyze the performance of three different routing algorithms: the classic AODV algorithm, an hierarchical routing algorithm and our own proposed version of a simplified AODV. A simulation assessment of these 3 algorithms is done using the Network Simulator NS-2, upon data from a real topology of onshore oil wells monitoring. View full abstract»

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  • DIVAN: A network calculator for the off-line performance analysis of Virtual Automation Networks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 293 - 302
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1926 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Communication solutions based on Ethernet technologies are becoming popular in many industrial environments. The next step is to build Virtual Automation Networks (VAN) on top of these technologies using public and private networks. Not only the performance estimation of local industrial networks is important, there is a demand to estimate performances of VAN connected industrial domains. This paper describes a VAN simulation framework which can assess the performance of different Real-Time Ethernet (RTE) networks in a heterogeneous environment. With valid models, parameters and network configurations, the performance results which complied to the metrics in IEC 61784 can be delivered. View full abstract»

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