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Sensorless Control for Electrical Drives (SLED), 2010 First Symposium on

Date 9-10 July 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • [Title page]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Message from the chairmen

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3
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  • SLED 2010 organisation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 4
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 5 - 7
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  • Author's index

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 127
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  • Robust encoderless speed control of a synchronous machine by direct evaluation of the back-EMF angle without observer

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 8 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (234 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an encoderless field-oriented control scheme for a permanent-magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) based on the back-EMF voltage. A polar stator coordinate representation is used to design a simple and robust position and speed estimator. The angle of the rotor is directly calculated based on stator current and voltage measurements as well as on knowledge of stator resistance and stator inductance. The estimated angle is filtered and used directly for current and torque control. Furthermore, an algebraic equation to estimate the speed is proposed. The direct estimation scheme is shown to be robust to parametric uncertainties and easily extendable with filters to cope with measurement noise. The estimator outputs are driftless, even under parametric offsets and without any feedback compensation. As advantages, there is no need to design an asymptotic observer, the parametric robustness is improved, there is no open-loop integration and no complicated tuning of feedback mechanisms, and the dynamics are very good. The scheme is validated experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • Sensorless capability of permanent magnet synchronous machines due to saturation- and reluctance-based coupling effects

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 14 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (362 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper shows the theoretical derivation of sensorless capability of a permanent magnet synchronous machine due to saturation- and/or reluctance-based coupling effects. Only due to an introduction of coupling terms in the rotor-oriented inductance tensor a dependency of double the electrical rotor position can be calculated. View full abstract»

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  • Encoderless field-oriented control of a synchronous reluctance machine with a direct estimator

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 18 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (214 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a rotor position estimator for encoderless control of a synchronous reluctance machine (SynRM). Because of strong rotor saliency, the magnetic flux generated by the stator currents is deviated and induces an orthogonal position-dependent voltage at nonzero speed. Exploiting this effect, the mechanical angle is directly calculated based on a linearized model in stator coordinates, avoiding use of an asymptotic observer and initial position information. The influence of parametric uncertainties and of nonlinearities on position accuracy is analyzed. A stability proof is provided for closed-loop encoderless field-oriented current control with proportional controllers under uncertainties. Even through the model parameters are linearized in an arbitrary setpoint, the control scheme is stable in a wide operation range. Encoderless startup is possible. Experimental results are provided. View full abstract»

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  • Sensorless control of five-phase brushless DC motors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 24 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (425 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The present paper shows a rotor position estimation technique for a five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor based on a back-EMF observer, focusing the attention on the design criteria that could be used to construct the sensorless strategy. Due to the polyphase structure of the machine this estimation method deals with a proper linear transformation which allows representing the five-phase motor through an equivalent two-phase model. After a short overview on the back-EMF model for the five-phase motor, the linear transformation and the observer-based estimation technique are presented. The analysis emphasizes on the choice of the observation dynamics through a proper design strategy of the related gain matrix and on some robustness criteria useful to enhance the sensorless strategy. Simulation and experimental results showing the response of the observer during transient and steady-state operation are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Flux weakening method for sensorless PMSM control using torque decoupling technique

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 32 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (206 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The present paper describes a new flux-weakening (FW) algorithm for speed control of permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) using a sliding mode observer (SMO) for rotor speed and position estimation. In flux weakening techniques needed to applications requiring constant torque and power operation, the produced torque is depended on the negative d-axis stator current applied to waken the magnetic flux of the permanent magnets. The proposed method uses a simple torque decoupling technique to regulate the q-axis reference current embedded into the speed controller. A flux weakening controller (FWC) is used to adjust the d-axis stator current based on the q-axis reference voltage. The performance of the overall control system is examined using Matlab/Simulink facility. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed flux weakening control method. View full abstract»

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  • Differential magnetic anisotropy - prerequisite for rotor position detection of PM-synchronous machines with signal injection methods

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 40 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (668 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is well known that rotor position detection at very low speed and at standstill is only possible with signal injection methods, because at vanishing speed the different methods using the induced voltage (back EMF methods) are not suitable. All signal injection methods need as a prerequisite the existence of a magnetic anisotropy of the machine over a wide range of operating conditions. This document presents first the basic theory of electrical machines to derive the needed machine properties which are the prerequisite for rotor position detection at standstill with signal injection methods. Different machine designs with concentrated windings will be analyzed in view of the differential magnetic anisotropy by means of finite element field calculations. Results from prototype measurements will also be presented and compared with the theoretical findings. View full abstract»

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  • Seamless integration of a low-speed position estimator for IPMSM in a current-controlled voltage-source inverter

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 50 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (355 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the seamless integration of high-frequency test voltages for IPMSM rotor-position estimation in the discrete-time current-controller with fixed sampling frequency of a voltage-source converter. Pulsed test voltages are used that don't interfere with the current samples taken to control the phase currents. For this purpose, an asymmetric pulse-width modulator is applied. As a result of this strategy, the controller output influences the test voltages and consequently the current response from which the rotor position is estimated. Therefore, in this paper, a first strategy is studied in which the applied test voltages are computed taking into account the controller output. A second method is discussed as well in which the controller output is slightly delayed so that this output has no influence on the test signals. Despite the disadvantage of a small time delay, compared to the first method, no additional calculations are required to compute the test voltages. View full abstract»

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  • Position sensorless control of PMSM by synchronous injection and demodulation of alternating carrier voltage

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 56 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Synchronous machines with surface mounted permanent magnets (SMPMSMs) are very popular in industry due to their high efficiency and simple design and are therefore of special interest for position sensorless control. These types of machines typically have small inherent saliencies resulting in a low signal to noise ratio when measuring the rotor position using injected high frequency test signals. It is therefore necessary to avoid any interference between the current controller and the injected signal to achieve the highest possible performance under sensorless control. This paper proposes a novel method for integrating an alternating carrier injection scheme into a current control loop without requiring the commonly used band-pass filter. It uses a strictly synchronous injection and demodulation approach. This allows the high frequency components of the stator current to become completely invisible to the current controller and additionally to eliminate the dead time in the current control loop. Furthermore the demodulated alternating carrier will be unaffected by the fundamental component even during transient conditions. Moreover the proposed decoupling method does not require any motor parameter adjustment. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation and applications of sensorless control for synchronous machines in industrial inverters

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 64 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper discusses the state of the art of implementations and applications of sensorless control in industrial frequency inverters. Implementations for speed and position controlled drives are shown using either EMF based flux estimators or an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with signal injection to evaluate the saliencies of the machines for speed and position detection. Applications are presented for both methods, and it is discussed why the numbers of industrial applications are limited today and in which application fields the propagation of sensorless drives can be extended. View full abstract»

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  • High performance control of PMSM

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 72 - 77
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (381 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposed a new switching scheme for controlling permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The voltage source inverter (VSI) is represented as event driven system with 23 modes of operation. The switching among these modes is governed by the supervisory control approach. The salient future of the switching control is system order reduction, decoupling in the design procedure, insensitivity in plant parameter changes and disturbance rejection. Simple implementation makes concept of switching control very attractive in power electronic and electrical drives. The high performance hybrid control algorithm designed by proposed approach can be easily implemented on modern FPGA platforms. View full abstract»

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  • Carrier signal injection alternatives for sensorless control of active magnetic bearings

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 78 - 85
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes different forms of carrier (high frequency) excitation for sensorless control of three-pole active magnetic bearings. Three options are compared: rotating injection, pulsating injection at a fixed angular position, and pulsating injection at an angular position synchronous to the minimum reluctance axis. Criteria for comparison include sensitivity to displacement changes, parameter and operating point dependence and signal processing burden for signal isolation. Theoretical derivations, simulation results and experimental results are included. The system model and the practical implementation will be shown to share similarities with high frequency injection sensorless methods for AC machines but also to have significant differences mainly on how pulsating carrier signals are used. View full abstract»

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  • A new proposal of rotor position estimation in IPM motor drives based on PWM current harmonics

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 86 - 92
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1429 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper investigates successfully the possibility of extract rotor position information of Interior Permanent Motors from PWM current harmonic contents. To this aim, a general description of PWM voltage harmonics is at first given. Current harmonics are then derived assuming an anisotropic rotor. It is proved that rotor position information can be derived if single edge PWM is adopted. A speed and position estimation scheme is illustrated and the new rotor position estimation technique is then validated by simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Reducing the parameter dependency of Encoderless Predictive Torque Control for reluctance machines

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 93 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Encoderless Predictive Torque Control without Signal Injection utilizes internal information of a predictive torque controller to obtain the angle of the rotor saliency. When applying this approach to the reluctance machine the circulation of the current caused by the rotation of the strong saliency needs to be compensated by a parameter dependent term. This paper presents a new technique for compensating the circulation without knowledge of machine parameters. As a result the encoderless control scheme is free of motor parameters and the Predictive Torque Controller gains robustness. The approach is derived mathematically for a reluctance machine and verified with measurement results. View full abstract»

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  • Speed-sensorless stator-flux-oriented control of induction motor drives in traction

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 100 - 106
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Indirect Stator-Quantities Control (ISC) combines the principle of stator-flux-orientation proven successful in Direct Self Control (DSC) with Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM). High torque dynamics and robust behaviour against input voltage disturbance are achieved in the whole operation range including field-weakening. After careful correction of inverter-voltage errors and dc portions in the stator fluxes and currents not necessary for the actual operation point the difference of the stator-current space vectors in the machine and in the controlled model is employed for speed and stator resistance estimation, allowing to dispense with speed sensors. A special flux management allows infinitely slow change between driving and braking. View full abstract»

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  • Extended Kalman Filter for sensorless control of induction motors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 107 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (230 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with speed and rotor flux estimation of induction motors via Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The filter is designed starting from a discrete time model obtained by means of a first order discretization of the original nonlinear model of the induction motor (IM). In order to obtain accurate estimation of the above mentioned variables, the load torque is included into the state variables and then estimated, thus constructing a sixth order EKF. Experimental results are shown with reference to a closed loop sensorless control system, consisting of a 750 W induction motor supplied by a voltage source inverter, a cascade controller consisting of four PI control loops and the designed EKF which gives the feedback variables. Comparison with a fifth order EKF, which does not include mechanical equation in the model, is carried out by means of simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. View full abstract»

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  • Saliency tracking based sensorless control of AC machines exploiting inverter switching transients

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 114 - 119
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (386 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Control of ac machines at zero frequency usually requires the presence of a rotor speed sensor. Sensorless control is so far possible around zero frequency when exploiting inherent saliencies of the machine. Current techniques use injected high frequency signals or the machine's step response to extract and identify magnitude and position of inherent saliencies. In this paper, a new method is presented to determine the inherent asymmetries using only the information provided during the switching transients of the machine current. While known techniques need an injected high frequency voltage, specific switching patterns, or modifications in the PWM scheme to exploit the current reaction, the proposed method is able to extract the necessary information from the transient current signal that directly follows the steep voltage change of the switching transition. Thus, the standard PWM scheme can be applied without modifications. Measurement results are presented to show the influence of the saliencies on the switching transition current ripple. View full abstract»

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  • IM rotor parameters analysis with an intentionally created saliency

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 120 - 126
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the analysis of induction motor (IM) with an intentionally created saliency, rearranging the rotor bar geometry, so as to allows a sensorless detection of the IM rotor position. A finite element (FE) procedure, based on the d- and q-axis model of the IM, is used to compute the d-and q-axis parameters of the machine. The proposed procedure is useful for both analysis and design of the machine evaluating the sensorless control capability of the IM. The FE procedure focuses on the prediction of the IM parameters variation, the effect of slot harmonics, and the impact of the rotor skewing on the rotor parameter. View full abstract»

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