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Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region (RAAD), 2010 IEEE 19th International Workshop on

Date 24-26 June 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 84
  • Time-optimal motion planning for robots

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 11 - 23
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (786 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    At the practical application of robots, the part processing time has a key role. The part processing time is an idea borrowed from manufacturing technology. In robotics it mostly means that the robots tool-centre point should go along some given path and the tool orientation in every point should also have the given values. These two requirements have to be satisfied at the same time. In the present paper we propose a method which provides the motion in every point of the path with the possible maximum velocity. In fact, we divide the path to transient and cruising parts and require the maximum velocities only for this second part. The given motion is called “Time-optimal cruising motion”. We demonstrate on an example the simplicity of the approach. Using the parametric method of motion planning, we give the equations for determining time-optimal motions. Not only the translation motions of tool-centre points but, also the orientation motions of tools may be optimally planned. The time-optimal motion planning is also possible for free paths (PTP motions). A general approach for this problem is proposed, too. In the paper, some parts are devoted to the deeper understanding of the optimization problems. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless synchronization protocols for collaborative robotic and sensor environments

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 25 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we consider the problem of time synchronization in collaborative environments of robots and intelligent sensors. Due to its superior performance, the Precision Time Protocol (PTP) has been implemented and tested using various topologies of complex, multi-hop networks. Two distinct approaches have been studied. The first one uses boundary clocks, while the second uses a transparent clock for the intermediary nodes. A set of experiments and simulations have been conducted with the OMNeT++ environment. Finally, we propose and discuss a modified version of the PTP protocol, specifically designed to consider the particular problems of networks with mobile robotic nodes. View full abstract»

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  • A novel approach to the Model Reference Adaptive Control of MIMO systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 31 - 36
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5203 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The “Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC)” is a popular approach from the early nineties to our days. Its basic idea is the application of proper feedback that makes the behavior of the controlled system identical to that of the “reference model” that normally is simple enough to control. The idea has many particular variants with the common feature that they are designed by the use of Lyapunov's 2nd (“direct”) method that normally applies a quadratic Lyapunov function constructed of the tracking error and further additional terms. Though this approach normally guarantees global asymptotic stability, its use can entail complicated tuning that may have disadvantages whenever very fast applications are needed. In this paper an alternative problem tackling, the application of “Robust Fixed Point Transformations (RFPT)” in the MRAC technique is recommended. This approach applies strongly saturated, multiplicative nonlinear terms causing a kind of “deformation” of the input of the available imprecise system model. Instead parameter tuning that is typical in the traditional MRAC it operates with a simple convergence guaranteed only within a local basin of attraction. This technique can well compensate the simultaneous consequences of modeling errors and external disturbances that normally can “fob” the more traditional, tuning based approaches. As a potential application paradigm the novel MRAC control of a “cart - beam - hamper” system is considered. The conclusions of the paper are illustrated by simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Open manufacturing control with agile reconfiguring of robot services

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 37 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (377 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper describes a new, open control paradigm for discrete, repetitive shop floor production, designed as a solution for agile manufacturing reengineering through (a) multi-agent robot service reconfiguring and (b) implementing the robot service access model (RSAM) in a distributed, semi-heterarchical production planning, scheduling and execution control architecture. This distributed architecture integrates two layers with generic functionalities: (1) Dynamic reconfiguring of the resource (robot-vision) service access model RSAM through a multi-agent system organization; (2) Holonic manufacturing scheduling (robot allocation), control and tracking based on the PROSA holarchy and the Intelligent Product technology - implemented through intelligent embedded devices (acting as Active Holon Entities) which use OpenEmbedded Linux as real-time operating system. Experimental results are reported from production scenarios tested in the two shop-floor platforms of the Laboratories AIP-PRIMECA (University of Valenciennes) and CIMR (University Politehnica of Bucharest) composed by robot-vision workstations. View full abstract»

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  • Quadrotor control based on partial sensor data

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 43 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (310 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A miniature quadrotor helicopter is an underactuated nonlinear system. Usually several types of sensors are used to control it. This article focuses on the emergency situation, when only few sensors are available. These sensors are mainly the inertial ones. Certainly, these sensors are not enough for normal maneuvering, but the controlled system should be able for horizontal stabilization and safe landing. Two types of control are presented. The first is a casual LQ state feedback. The disadvantage of this type of control in real environment is shown. The second control algorithm is an H control method. The control design starts from a very simple linear model. The parameter measurement of the linear system is shown. The goal of this article is to handle the uncertainty in the behavior of the real system. View full abstract»

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  • Pneumatronic unit for motion of bows

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 49 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (542 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper describes the result of a theoretical and experimental research activity oriented to the design and realization of a low-cost pneumatic unit able to drive bows in relative motion respect to strings in bowed musical instrument. Pneumatic technology reduces costs and the proportional control allows the flexible programming of motion laws. The unit is specifically conceived to support laboratory tests of interest of violin makers and researchers. Results of specific experiments are collected and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Hierarchical myoelectric control of a human upper limb prosthesis

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 55 - 60
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (354 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Myolectric control is nowadays the most used approach for electrically-powered upper limb prostheses. The myoelectric controllers use electromyographic (EMG) signals as inputs. These signals can be collected from the skin surface using surface EMG sensors, or intramuscular, using needle sensors. No matter which method is used, they have to be processed before being used as controller inputs. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an autoregressive (AR) model representation and a neural network, for EMG signal classification. The results have shown that combining a low-order AR model with a feed-forward neural network, a rate of classification of 98% can be achieved, while keeping the computational cost low. We also present a hierarchical control architecture and the implementation of the high-level controller using Finite State Machine. The solution proposed is capable of controlling three joints (i.e. six movements) of the upper limb prosthesis. The inputs of the high-level controller are obtained from the classifier, while its outputs are applied as input signals for the low-level controller. The main advantage of the proposed strategy is the reduced effort required to the patient for controlling the prosthetic device, since he only has to initiate the movement that is finalized by the low-level part of the controller. View full abstract»

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  • Multimodal control interface for an anthropomorphic gripper

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 61 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents an intuitive interface for controlling a three fingered anthropomorphic robotic hand in both virtual and real environments. The study presented in this paper will be focus on developing a multimodal interface that will be used for interacting with the Barrett hand. The main problem in using the WIMP metaphor for interacting with the Barrett hand is the increased number of degrees of freedom which must be manipulated with the mouse and the keyboard. In this case the gripper has three fingers with one degrees of freedom for each finger and another one for spreading two fingers. So the interface must deal with a total number of four degrees of freedom which in certain conditions will need to be manipulated simultaneously. The approach is using a multimodal interface based on voice commands, tele-manipulation and smart mobile devices remote controlling. View full abstract»

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  • Safe and reliable human-robot interaction in manufactory, within and beyond the workcell

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 65 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (486 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper discusses the concept of the integrated safety monitoring system for the human-robot interaction domain. These main elements are the advisory, computer aided expert system, the safety mode controller and the human awareness interface. The introduced approach allows to ensure the required level of safety for the collaborative tasks performance in manufacturing setup within or beyond the robotized workcell. The generated protocols of the expert system, safety criteria (danger index) and functional modes are the determining elements of the safety framework. The expert system, which inference engine is built on the fuzzy theory application, provides designer with an explicit workcell ergonomic and human factor analysis, task related hazards and risk category evaluation. Safety mode controller functional algorithm is based on the safety modes monitoring parameters definition and their continuous control. It is represented as a separated unit that monitors interconnected elements in compliance with the safety criteria and predefined transition rules. The proposed human warning system, mounted on the individual wrist and interconnected with the overall safety system, suppose to alert an operator about the system current state by imparting vibrotactile and visual cueing in compliance with predefined rules. View full abstract»

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  • Exercise device for upper-extremity sensory-motor capability augmentation based on magneto-rheological fluid actuator

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 71 - 74
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Resistance exercise has been widely reported to have positive rehabilitation effects for patients with neuromuscular and orthopaedic disorders. This paper presents the design of a versatile rehabilitation device in the form of a rotation joint mounted on the adjustable arm support that provides a controlled passive resistance during strength training of hand muscles. The resistance is supplied by a rotational magnetorheological actuator controlled with regards to the force feedback information. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and is reconfigurable for different usage conditions. The experimental evaluation results show that the usage of magnetorheological actuator is advantageous to the electrical motors in the cases of passive resistance based exercise. View full abstract»

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  • Human-robot collaboration by intention recognition using probabilistic state machines

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 75 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (574 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Combining the intelligent and situation dependent decision making capabilities of a human with the accuracy and power of a robot, performance of many tasks can be improved. The human-robot collaboration scenarios are increasing. Human-robot interaction is not only restricted to the humanoid robots interacting with the humans or to the mobile service robots providing different services but also industrial robots opens a wide range of human-robot collaboration set-ups. Intention recognition plays a key role in intuitive human-robot collaboration. In this paper we present a novel approach for recognizing the human intention using weighted probabilistic state machines. We categorize the recognition task into two categories namely explicit and implicit intention communication. We present a general intention recognition approach that can be applied to any human-robot cooperation situation. The algorithm is tested with an industrial robotic arm. View full abstract»

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  • A multi-behavior algorithm for auto-guided movements in surgeon assistance

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 81 - 86
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (790 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on autonomous movements to aid the surgeon to perform certain tasks. Robotic assistants have solved the drawbacks of Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) and provide additional skills to the surgeons. However, some authors argue that these systems could lengthen the operating time. The solution is the automation of certain maneuvers that help the surgeon during a surgical maneuver. This work proposes control architecture for a surgical robot capable of performing autonomous movements. In this way, a trajectory planner based on a behavior concept computes the required velocity vector of the surgical instrument hold by the robot. View full abstract»

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  • Maneuvers recognition system for laparoscopic surgery

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 87 - 92
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1382 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The work presented in this paper is focused on movement recognition as a first step to achieve the automation of a two-arm-surgical-robotic-system in the laparoscopic surgery environment. In order to accomplish coordination between the surgeon and the robotic assistant, a system able to recognize and differentiate between certain standard maneuvers should be developed. The new user interface is based on this maneuvers recognition system, which models the surgeon behavior. This interface consists of the data acquisition and the recognition system. The maneuvers are modeled with Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and are trained off-line. The system has been tested in some in-vitro experiments as in tissue cutting, suturing and transporting. View full abstract»

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  • An integrated device for saffron flowers detaching and harvesting

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 93 - 98
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1033 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work is concerned with a mechanical system designed to harvest Crocus Sativus (saffron) flowers. The system is conceived as a shoulder portable device with two main parts: the first one is specifically designed to detach the flower containing three stigmas, which are the costly final product; the second one is aimed to collect the detached flower through a vacuum collector. The system is carried by the human operator on his back. This paper describes the operating principle of the detaching and of the harvesting devices. The former device imitates one of the procedures followed by the pickers but with the peculiarity that allows to harvest the flower without separating it from its leaves, which is a significant advantage since it simplifies the mechanical detachment of the flower. The paper also deals with some experimental tests in the laboratory carried out in order to highlight the dynamic behaviour of the detaching and of the harvesting devices. View full abstract»

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  • Robotic cell with redundant architecture and force control: application to cutting and boning

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 99 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nowadays, companies in the abattoir and meat-cutting sector are encountering increasing difficulties in meeting their labor requirements. Therefore, the mechanization of these professions has become essential. The first part of this article involves on in-depth study of operators' expertise, so as to translate their actions into automatable operative tasks and to identify the constraints of robotization. We detail more particularly a cutting strategy using a bone as a guide which shows the complexity of the process. The analysis of the cutting and task constraint parameters involves the use of a kinematically redundant robotized cell with force control. Then the cell model is developed, and experimentation is performed. This study was carried out within the framework of the SRDViand project in cooperation with meat industry partners. View full abstract»

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  • A setup of mobile robotic unit for fruit harvesting

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 105 - 108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (438 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The description of a mobile robotic unit for fruit harvesting was illustrated in this paper. The setup of the system was developed to harvest date palm fruit which is the most common fruit in Saudi Arabia. The system was based on readymade industrial robotic arm. View full abstract»

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  • Measuring the time needed for training a neural network based on the number of training steps

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 109 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Artificial neural networks play an important role in robot programming by demonstration. In this paper we present a method for artificial neural network training. The main idea of this method is to train the artificial neural network with all of the data, before the current training step, and at a certain step the network is already trained a huge number of times. Some features of the quality of neural network training, using this method, were presented in. Because the method uses all of the data before the current training step, in this paper, we are concerned about training time and computing time comportment of the neural network. A software application for obtaining training time based on the number of training steps was designed. This software application implements the training method on an unidirectional multi-layer neural network and prints into a graph the training time and computing time. The results obtained using the software application and important conclusions towards the training and computing time comportment are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Programming and control of humanoid robot football playing tasks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 115 - 118
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (601 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The goal of our research was to create an application which could be used to program the humanoid robot with tasks needed to play football. The design of our system enables us to program sequential tasks. The tasks are constructed from a programmed logic interface and pre-programmed motions. This system is easy to use and can be adapted to perform different tasks. Because of its characteristics the system was used to demonstrate basic concepts of mobile humanoid robots to students. View full abstract»

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  • The process control for P-single operators

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 119 - 123
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (343 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The architecture described in this article belongs to a class of dynamic data flow architectures, in which the operand process control significantly affects the performance parameters as well as the system characteristics of the given architecture. The main component of the presented architecture is the multifunctional pipeline unit, which handles processing of data tokens representing the instructions of the program. This article describes the pipelined single operand data flow operators process control. View full abstract»

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  • New approach of the navigation control of small size UAVs

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 125 - 129
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In unmanned aerial vehicle operations as well as in aviation the airflow direction and speed plays a major role. The wind speed may limit the use of aircraft, and determines the direction of the takeoff and landing. In the case of small size UAVs (0.5 - 4 m wingspan, 0.5 - 10 kg takeoff weight) the strength and the direction of the wind is quite important, because the airspeed of the vehicle is in the same scale, and the turbulence can affect the flight path. The general methods of wind measurement cannot be applied onboard of the UAV. Although the ground measured wind data is sufficient for the takeoff, but it is irrelevant when the UAV is landing in a different place, e.g. on a far field. In that case, the wind speed and direction must be measured onboard the vehicle, before the landing maneuver. The aim of the research is the real time determination of the dominant wind data with the onboard sensors. View full abstract»

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  • Polynomial control technique for adaptive positioning within sub-micrometer scale

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 131 - 136
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1039 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes an experimental approach to the positioning of a MEMS production system with a nano - scale resolution. Presented production system works on the basis of friction based piezo electric motors, which are being very hard for modeling. It is even being hard to describe this motors using classical mathematical functions, or to define them using other well known control procedures. Sophisticated control techniques are often required for successful positioning of such systems. In our work we present a simple control technique based on experimental results and polynomial equations. Presented polynomial control technique fulfils demands for positioning in sub-micrometer scale. Theory and practical results of proposed control technique are given within this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Robotic control system for hydraulic telescopic handler

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 137 - 142
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (359 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Automation is supposed to improve working conditions and safety in construction industry, as it already did in manufacturing industries. This paper presents the development of a robotic control system for a commercially available hydraulic telescopic handler. The target application for the telescopic handler is semi-automated assembly of facade panels. The base handler was upgraded with two additional hydraulic axes, position sensors and closed-loop control system, while the original handler safety assurance mechanisms were preserved. The control approach is based on a PI controller with velocity feedforward and valve overlap compensation. The direct and inverse kinematic models of handler mechanism were developed to enable control of end-effector motion along a straight line in Cartesian coordinate system. The motion performances were evaluated following the ISO 9283 standard with payload of 2000 kg. Results show the repeatability of positioning bellow 7.0 mm and the straight line tracking error smaller than 63 mm. View full abstract»

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  • 3D graphical simulation of an articulated serial manipulator based on kinematic models

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 143 - 148
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (339 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a portable 3D graphical simulator for a Fanuc M-6iB/2HS articulated robot. The mechanical structure is modeled using OpenGL functions implemented in Qt Framework. The robot motions are simulated based on the direct and inverse kinematics equations also presented in this paper. The simulator features include quick motion, step-by-step simulation, 3D scene control functions, objects selection functions and motion algorithms like joint interpolated motion and linear interpolated motion. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of interaction tasks for pneumatic soft robots using SimMechanics

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 149 - 154
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Soft robot arms, driven by novel pneumatic actuators with Rotary Elastic Chambers (REC), are well suitable for assistive and service tasks. However, the control of such robots is quite difficult because of high nonlinearities in actuators dynamics in addition to robot arm models. In this paper the recently developed Simulink-based program library “SoftRob” for simulation of the soft robots with REC actuators is described. A new adaptive admittance control scheme for pneumatic soft robots is proposed. The approach imitates the human force control capacity to regulate the contact force by adapting the arm stiffness. The algorithm is assumed to be realized without explicit force measurement, i.e. without the use of expensive external force sensors. The proposed control scheme is tested in simulation on example of a planar 2DOF model. View full abstract»

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  • CAD based techniques for workspace analysis and representation of the 3C̲RS parallel manipulator

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 155 - 160
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2128 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a set of techniques, based on a geometrical approach, for workspace determination and analysis. These techniques are applied for design study of a novel modular parallel manipulator, 3-CRS, with 6-DOF. The proposed method is implemented in the CATIA CAD environment, which provides powerful tools for graphical programming and geometric feature handling. A new type of workspace representation is introduced allowing a fine simultaneous characterization of the translation and orientation capacities of the mobile platform. View full abstract»

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