Proceedings of the 1991 IEEE Seventeenth Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference

4-5 April 1991

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 112
  • Establishing constitutive relationships for soft biological tissues

    Publication Year: 1991
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (58 KB)

    Summary form only given. An algorithm is presented by which stress-strain relationships, or constitutive equations, for various soft tissues may be developed, and some of the pitfalls affecting the process are discussed. These concepts are illustrated using the lung as an example. Four elements are required for analysis of the deformation of a body: (1) the geometry of the body in question, (2) a ... View full abstract»

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  • Detection of EEG transients by changes in dimensional complexity

    Publication Year: 1991
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (31 KB)

    Summary form only given. A simple box accounting algorithm is applied to measure the fractal dimension of electroencephalography (EEG). Artificial transients of varying EEG characteristics are embedded. The change is noted in the fractal dimension within a window that is passed along the entire time series. Three embedded evoked potential spikes 100 ms apart buried anywhere in the time series are ... View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating the validity of the Oxylog in adults at rest and during exercise

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):147 - 148
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (163 KB)

    The reliability of a portable oxygen consumption meter (Oxylog) before its clinical utilization is determined by comparing simultaneously collected data from an Oxylog and a Medical Graphics 2001 metabolic cart during rest and bicycle ergometer exercise in normal adults. The results indicate differences in oxygen consumption and inspiratory ventilation values between the two systems. It is propose... View full abstract»

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  • Proceedings of the 1991 IEEE Seventeenth Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (Cat. No.91CH2997-5)

    Publication Year: 1991
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (12 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Modeling amplitude-modulated (AM) tone encoding behavior of cochlear nucleus neurons

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):5 - 6
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB)

    An attempt was made to understand the mechanisms underlying the response of the cochlear nucleus (CN) neurons, specifically the choppers, to the AM tone. The AM tone excitation via the auditory nerve fibers was modeled as a combination of DC, AC, and a zero-mean Gaussian noise current at the soma of the model neuron. The DC represents the high frequency carrier beyond the neuron's phase-locking li... View full abstract»

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  • Body surface area measurement with structured light

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):95 - 96
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)

    The image processing steps and algorithms used to recover the range data from a single camera image are outlined. Curve and surface representation and area computation methods are described. Calculating the area is done in five steps: camera and projector calibration; image capture and processing; reconstruction of the 3-D points by triangulation; segmentation of the area; and calculating the area... View full abstract»

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  • A model of knee motion in the sagittal plane

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):273 - 274
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (204 KB)

    A two dimensional mathematical model of knee motion in the sagittal plane was developed. The cruciate ligaments were modeled as a crossed four bar linkage. The mathematical model uses a series of vector loops and scalar equations to solve for all linkage parameters. The model requires 11 equations to solve for 11 unknowns. The equations were driven with a linkage angle that is directly related to ... View full abstract»

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  • Performance optimization of the pulsatile synchronous LVAD based on myocardial energetics and cardiac output using a computer simulation

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):183 - 184
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)

    When myocardial infarction compromises cardiac output, treatment sometimes involves the application of a pulsatile synchronous left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The authors use a computer simulation to explore the possibility of optimal phasing of pump cycle with respect to events in the cardiac cycle from the standpoint of improved myocardial energetics and system flow. Central to the simula... View full abstract»

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  • Electrically evoked emissions and acoustic trauma

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):213 - 214
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)

    By studying the nature of the cochlea's ability to produce an acoustic response to electrical current stimuli the authors analyze the mechanism of the active process present in mammalian hearing. A microelectrode is inserted into scala media and sinusoidal electrical current is passed through the organ of Corti. This produces an acoustic emission at the frequency of electrical stimulation. The aut... View full abstract»

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  • Analyzing biological signals with CMAC, a neural network

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):3 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB)

    The neural network CMAC (Cerebellar Mode Arithmetic Computer) is discussed. CMAC is used as the main control device in an effort to develop a brain-computer link. If a person intends to move his/her eyes up, down, left, or right, it is hypothesized that a distinct electroencephalogram pattern exists for each intended direction. The CMAC could then be trained to recognize these four directional pat... View full abstract»

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  • Shape-based interpolation [CT and MRI]

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):93 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)

    The need for shape-based interpolation is discussed, and some quantitative experiments are reported which were done to evaluate the relative performance of a number of interpolation methods for tomographic imaging of the human body. The datasets used for comparing the methods were three different sets of computer tomography (CT) slices of human heads and a set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) s... View full abstract»

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  • A comparative study of rowing biomechanics

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):271 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)

    The author describes an instrumentation package that has been developed to collect data for the study of rowing biomechanics. Currently, this system is interfaced with a Concept II rowing ergometer. The system acquires and analyzes handle and footstretcher kinetics as well as handle, limb segment and seat kinetics. Given these measurements, a biomechanical model of ergometer rowing can be develope... View full abstract»

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  • An interactive thresholding scheme to extract myocardium from a sequence of two dimensional echocardiograms

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):197 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB)

    The authors describe an interactive thresholding scheme to extract myocardium from a sequence of two dimensional echocardiograms (2DEs). An expert operator interactively picks a few points that are on the myocardium as the object points, and a few background points. The computer classifies the rest of the points of the image as myocardium or the background by comparing the echodensity at each poin... View full abstract»

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  • Phase plane analysis of post extra-systolic potentiation

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):181 - 182
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB)

    Improved cardiac function after a spontaneous extrasystole in an anesthetized mongrel dog preparation was analyzed based on left ventricular pressure measurement only. Experiments were performed on open-chest anesthetized dogs. Left ventricular pressure (LVP) was measured with a Millar type catheter-tip pressure transducer inserted through an isolated femoral artery and advanced to the left ventri... View full abstract»

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  • Volumetric analysis and three dimensional reconstruction of the human orbit from serial tomographic cross sections

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):103 - 104
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    In order to gain quantitative information regarding the clinical status of the human orbit in different states of injury or disease, a system is developed to compute the orbital volume and surface area from serial tomographic cross sections. The system can also perform three-dimensional reconstructions of the human orbit from the input data. Fracture patients were examined with the instrument. The... View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of 2D and 3D techniques for the determination of normal pediatric running kinematics

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):279 - 280
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)

    Two methods used for the computation of joint rotation angles associated with running are compared. The first is a full 3-D technique which allows for the determination of up to three axial rotations at each lower limb segment joint. This method is used as the basis for comparison with a relatively straightforward 2-D computational alternative. In this way, the validity of the 2-D approaches typic... View full abstract»

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  • Neural modeling of the DCN: cross-correlation analysis using short-duration tone-burst stimuli

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):211 - 212
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB)

    A computer model of an isofrequency patch of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) was created to explore possible mechanisms for various stimulus-dependent features observed in the cross-correlations of spike trains from type-II-type-IV unit pairs. Consistent with the functional inhibitory type-II-type-IV interaction, model I-cells provide inhibitory input to model P-cells. Simulated short-duration B... View full abstract»

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  • An artificial neural network for studying binaural sound localization

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):1 - 2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB)

    A three-layer neural network is used to solve the problem of extracting relative azimuth and elevation positional information from signals detected by two directional receivers that are spatially separate. This is analogous to the ability of owls to localize the position of sound sources based solely on the properties of the signals reaching the two ears. Although the network implemented does not ... View full abstract»

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  • Computer simulation of electrophoretic separation process

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):89 - 90
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)

    A mathematical model for three-dimensional laminar steady flow of an incompressible viscous neutrally charged carrier fluid mixed with an electrically charged fluid is presented. All magnetic fields are neglected. Thermally induced buoyancy is incorporated via Boussinesq approximation while including Joule heating effects. Numerical results demonstrate the detrimental effects of numerical dissipat... View full abstract»

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  • Extracting knowledge from case databases

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):267 - 268
    Cited by:  Patents (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)

    The FGP machine is a software architecture that uses similarity-based reminding to make the domain knowledge contained in the data explicit, and then brings that knowledge to bear on information retrieval and machine learning tasks. The FGP machine's goal is to use the cases themselves to drive the system. The system should reason on the basis of specific cases and groups of cases, and should ther... View full abstract»

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  • Three-dimensional cardiac dynamics of the closed chest canine

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):195 - 196
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB)

    A noninvasive, three-dimensional imaging system was used to map the left and right epicardial shapes and surface displacements over the cardiac cycle for 11 canine subjects. Average displacements were calculated for each time period and for different areas of the heart surfaces. Volume changes and the movements of the center of mass were calculated. For the ventricular areas, significant expansive... View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):179 - 180
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB)

    A theoretical model of the left ventricle capable of predicting shape and size in relation to the loading and metabolic conditions is presented and applied to the study of hypertension-induced hypertrophy (HIH). Oxygen consumption per gram tissue is imposed as the control parameter. HIH is produced by progressively increasing mean aortic pressure (MAP) on the normo-tensive model. The focus is on t... View full abstract»

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  • The use of projective invariants in image standardization

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):101 - 102
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)

    An attempt is made to solve the problem of image standardization through processing techniques so as not to burden either the patient or practitioner with cumbersome mechanical devices. Instead of using mechanical devices to keep the imaging geometry the same, geometric relationships among features of the anatomy that remain the same are used to standardize the geometry. The fundamental concept of... View full abstract»

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  • Application of a neural network in recognizing facial expression

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):206 - 207
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)

    Input to the neural network program consists of facial images from a video source. The program uses the back propagation algorithm to train the network and to classify input data based on the subject's posed facial expression. Training and testing were performed with multiple individuals. The network was trained on a set consisting of 34 happy and 34 sad images from five different subjects. Additi... View full abstract»

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  • Structural stability prediction for thermoplastic ankle-foot orthoses

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):231 - 232
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB)

    A thermoplastic ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) is an orthotic appliance which extends from the calf to the foot. The solid ankle AFO (SAAFO) is used to provide forces and moments to correctly position the lower leg and foot so that more normal stance is achieved. The SAAFO is a thin shell structure, usually 3/32 to 3/16 in. thick, thermally vacuum formed to a cast representing the patient's lower leg, ... View full abstract»

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