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Aerospace and Navigational Electronics, IRE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date June 1962

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • IRE Transancitons on Aerospace and Navigational Electronics

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): c1
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  • IRE Professional Group on Aerospace and Navigational Electronics

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 51
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  • The Editor Reports

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 52
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  • 1962 Pioneer Award in Aerospace and Navigational Electronics

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 53 - 55
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  • Ludlow B. Hallman, Jr.

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 56
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  • Introduction to Aerospace Vehicular Digital Communications

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 57
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  • Digital Communications between Aerospace Vehicles and Stations on the Ground

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 58 - 66
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    This tutorial paper presents an introduction to the problems of communications between aerospace vehicles and stations on the ground. The possible types of aerospace-to-ground communication links are described and classified according to the mode of signal propagation and according to obtainable range. The suitability of carrier frequencies throughout the electromagnetic radiation spectrum from very-low radio frequencies to light frequencies is discussed for the various types of links. Considerations of the information needed for the selection of modulation and demodulation techniques are presented, and factors which influence the practical value of digital coding are introduced. A discussion of the mutual influence of various parameters on the transmitter power requirement concludes the general survey. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Reliable Long-Distance Air-to-Ground Communication Systems Intended for Operation under Severe Multipath Propagation Disturbances

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 67 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A survey of the principal methods of improving the reliability of long-range digital communication systems introduces the subject. Special modulation techniques as well as redundant transmission of pulses, redundant in time and in carrier frequency, are described as methods to counteract the effects of multipath distortion in connection with the proper special demodulation and diversity reception techniques. It is shown that for an air-to-ground communication system, in which Doppler shift has to be considered in addition to the multipath distortion, high reliability can be obtained if quantized frequency modulation (QFM) and time redundancy are properly applied. To make the protection against multipath distortion most effective, the transmitted signal must have a wide frequency band. The optimum time diversity requires interleaving the redundant pulses and, therefore, requires complex logic circuitry for its instrumentation. The design characteristics of an ¿optimum¿ air-to-ground long-range digital communication system are described. In the concluding section, it is indicated how one can apply the design principles for an ¿optimum¿ long-range communication system (as described) to the design of narrow bandwidth system with relatively simple instrumentation. View full abstract»

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  • FAA Development in Aircraft Data Communications

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 79 - 84
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    The application of digital techniques to aeronautical air traffic control communications has been under study in the United States for more than fifteen years. During the past four years active development and evaluation programs have been conducted by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) on specific experimental equipment intended to provide guidance in the establishment of parameters for a universal system. Equipment has been developed using both low data rates and relatively high data rate approaches. Both systems utilize existing airborne voice communication equipment. The major effort was spent on the development and evaluation of an experimental ¿Automatic Ground-Air Communication System¿ referred to as AGACS. This two-way time division multiplex system was designed primarily for operation at 750 bits per second, and provided both frequency-shift keyed carrier (FSK) and tone-shifted amplitude-modulation (FSK-AM) options. The second equipment was developed under a program for ¿Analysis of Advanced Data Transmission Techniques¿ and utilized data rates in the range from approximately 30 to 200 bits per second. Audio tone-shifted (FSK-AM) modulation was used. The equipment developed is described and the results of the test evaluation is given. Guidelines are presented for future efforts. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Selective Communications

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 85 - 90
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    Digital techniques promise to be a major factor in future aerospace communications systems. Voice is cumbersome, slow and redundant, and does not make efficient use of the frequency spectrum. The digital approach permits the use of very narrow bandwidths, reduces redundancy and utilizes a constant loading factor. Selective addressing means that those not concerned with a message are not bothered by it, a very important factor in reducing distraction and fatigue of crew members in high performance aircraft. This paper describes terminal equipment developed for test and evaluation by the Air Force. The AN/URA-22 Control Monitor equipment provides for transmission of up to 456,976 different four-letter selective addresses, and recognition of individual, group and general calls, each of which can be any preassigned four-letter call. Remote switching is provided through the use of two mode characters, giving up to 676 possible combinations. The fieldata code is used. Mode characters and addressor call are displayed at the receive end. The AN/URA-29 Digital Data equipment adds message capability, using both words and alpha-numeric characters to provide three word messages, followed by up to 48 alpha-numeric characters in three lines of 16 characters each. Insertion is by simple push-button matrix and the message being composed is displayed. Received messages are displayed on receipt in plain language. The composed message is retained in storage until cleared. Operation of both equipments is explained in detail. View full abstract»

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  • A Common System Approach to Aviation Data Communications

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 91 - 99
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    The present aviation voice communications link has evolved gradually with aviation. It was not originally designed to satisfy its current application as the primary link in military and civil control systems. As a result, as these systems have expanded the communications link has become less adequate. In the future, limitations of the communications link may become the controlling factor in the expansion of aviation. For this reason there is an urgent need for a clear definition of a general data communication subsystem approach for both civil and military application. For this definition to be complete all factors of aviation communication usage must be considered. This paper carefully reviews 1) previous studies and development of civil and military data links, 2) published requirements of different aviation users, 3) evaluation of the future expansion of civil and military requirements, 4) current digital and communications technology, 5) transition from the present system to an improved system, and 6) the economic aspects of system design. From the considerations of this review a specification and approach to a general purpose aviation data communications subsystem is drawn. This approach provides for both voice and automatic communications and can be evolved gradually from the existing voice network. View full abstract»

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  • Project Relay Digital Command System

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 100 - 103
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    The National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) has developed a coded message sequence consisting of discrete, pulse-duration-modulated (PDM) tone bursts for commanding satellites. The message consists of a sync pulse followed by some combination of six pulses, three each of zeros and ones. This code allows for 20 commands (the combination of six things taken three at a time). This paper describes an equipment developed for the Relay satellite program which demodulates the tone bursts, converts the pulse-duration modulation into a binary code, and then decodes the message into twenty discrete commands. The demodulation and PDM-to-binary code conversion functions are accomplished by conventional transistorized circuitry which is described in a general manner. The circuitry for converting the code into command pulses is a novel utilization of magnetic circuitry and is described in detail. Magnetic cores are used to provide a shift register function and in addition perform the decoding, thus eliminating the conventional diode matrix usually employed for this function. A summary of the physical and electrical characteristics of the finished equipment is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Application of LASERS to Digital Communications

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 104 - 109
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
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    Revolutionary developments taking place in the field of light generation show promise of providing a means for transmitting digital information over vast distances in space at extremely high rates. These developments stem from the generation of coherent light by devices called LASERS (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation). This paper gives a brief description of LASER operation and discusses the applicability of the device to certain aerospace vehicular digital communications requirements. An earth-moon link is an alyzed from the standpoint of beamwidth, power, and aiming requirements. It is shown that a system utilizing a coherent optical transmitter of less than 1 w and a conventional photodetector would be capable of transmitting digital information over this link at megacycle rates. The bandwidth limitation here is imposed by lack of a suitable modulator rather than by any theoretical bound, and the power level is dictated by earth background noise and a usable transmitter and receiver beam angle. Improvements which can be made on this rather simple system by increasing bandwidth and improving detection efficiency, tracking accuracy, and LASER techniques are pointed out. Curves showing basic limitations and interdependence of system parameters are plotted. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Height Transmission is One Step Closer

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 110 - 117
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    Use of automatic height transmission, the essential ¿third dimension¿ for use in the control of aircraft, has been brought closer by action taken recently at the Seventh Session of the International Civil Aviation Organization. The Session recommended adoption of technical standards that will: 1) update and improve the existing international standards for SSR, better known in the U. S. as the Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS); 2) provide specifications for 3-pulse sidelobe suppression (SLS); 3) provide standards for introduction of automatic height transmission; and 4) specify conditions under which SSR is to be implemented. It was agreed further that the sensing element of the system should use a standard pressure setting of 1013.2 millibars and that it would be necessary to refer to the system as height transmission rather than altitude reporting. Although a separate data link for height transmission is a possibility, the probable implementation data was considered too uncertain. Since air traffic is a heterogeneous mixture of civil and military aircraft, the existing SSR used by both civil and military aircraft was expanded to accommodate automatic height transmission features. It was agreed that SSR is needed to supplement the use of primary radar in air traffic control, but that each country would determine whether or not its use is required. The system specifications are appended to the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Monopulse Resolution Improvement Applied to the Air Traffic Control Problem

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 118
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  • Abstracts

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 119 - 120
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  • PGANE News

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 121
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  • Contributors

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 122 - 123
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  • Suggestions to Authors

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 123a
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  • Institutional listings

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 123b
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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased publication in 1962. The new retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems.

Full Aims & Scope