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Semiconductor Manufacturing Science Symposium, 1991. ISMSS 1991., IEEE/SEMI International

Date 20-22 May 1991

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  • IEEE/SEMI International Semiconductor Manufacturing Science Symposium (Cat. No.91CH2993-4)

    Publication Year: 1991
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Modeling the performance of cluster-based fabs

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 8 - 14
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB)  

    The economic performance of cluster tools is evaluated by modeling a hypothetical cluster-based fab, where almost all of a 0.6-μm DRAM (dynamic random-access memory) process flow is performed in cluster tools. A conventional fab under the same cost constraint running the same flow is also modeled as a base for comparison. From this model, a number of inherent differences between cluster-based fabs and conventional fabs are observed and described. Monte Carlo cost-based simulations are then run on the two fabs to compare the potential cost and throughput time performance of the fabs. Results suggest that the cluster-based fab can operate at considerably reduced throughput times for a relatively small cost per wafer premium. Modeling the cluster-based fab revealed a number of fab design and management issues that are much less significant or nonexistent for conventional fabs. These issues include configuration and scheduling, lot size, and scaling the fab View full abstract»

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  • The intelligent microelectronics factory of the future

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 30 - 34
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (33)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB)  

    It is projected that semiconductor device manufacturing near the year 2000 will be carried out on silicon wafers as large as 300 mm in diameter. Minimum geometries will approach 0.18 μm for the 1024 Mbit DRAM. Chip (device) sizes will be as large as 450 sq. mm. This will require a new manufacturing paradigm. It is projected that the factory of the future will come very close to actual intelligent microelectronic manufacturing. The factory computer will have dynamic planning and scheduling along with process/equipment diagnosis and prognosis. Cost-effective, highly reliable processing equipment will evolve based on a cluster concept. These computer-intensive, intelligent clusters of process equipment will be linked to the factory computer. The computer will download and change recipes for each wafer. Process control technology of the 1990s will used smart sensors in the equipment to drive the process to the target value. Model predictive process control with feedback and feedforward will replace traditional statistical process control View full abstract»

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  • A new knowledge-based expert system for inspection of ULSI process flow

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 85 - 88
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)  

    A knowledge-based expert system for ULSI manufacturing has been developed in order to describe and inspect the process flow and generate data automatically for wafer control and other systems, maintaining data compatibility for ULSI fabrication. This system consists of four subsystems: a process flow generation system, a process flow inspection system, a data generation system, and a data translation system for controlling the process flow. All programs are run on a personal computer connected to a host computer in the manufacturing system. The knowledge-based expert system has proved to be a useful controlling method for semiconductor manufacturing. In particular, this system is very effective for ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) device manufacturing because of the large flexibility in the process flow description, the process flow inspection, automatic generation of wafer controlling data, and data standardization for other systems View full abstract»

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  • Performance evaluation of lot dispatching and scheduling algorithms through discrete event simulation

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 21 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The effect of wafer factory production rules on factory capacity, WIP (work in process), and cycle time is investigated. Algorithms involving lot start rules, equipment loading rules, and lot priority assignment rules are evaluated. Specific rules are found optimum for the factory analyzed here. The spread between worst-case and best-case operating rules is quantified. More importantly, during the course of the investigation it became apparent that reliable methods of rule enforcement and verification are vital, because the tendency is for the undisciplined factory to settle toward worst-case, operating rules View full abstract»

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  • Automated malfunction diagnosis of a plasma etcher

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 62 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The authors present a prototype tool for real-time diagnosis of equipment malfunctions in IC fabrication processes. The approach taken focuses on integrating quantitative empirical models with qualitative knowledge-based methods. The diagnostic system uses evidential reasoning techniques to identify malfunctions by combining various sources of noisy information which originates chronologically from three primary sources: before processing (maintenance diagnosis), during processing (on-line diagnosis), and after processing (in-line diagnosis). The system has been implemented on the Lam Research Autoetch 490 automated plasma etcher located in the Berkeley Microfabrication Laboratory View full abstract»

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  • The UL ISO 9000 registration process

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 106 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB)  

    The ISO 9000 Series consists of five documents which address quality concepts, guidelines, system elements, and system models. The first standard, ISO 9000, describes quality concepts and provides guidelines for the use and selection of a specific quality system model. ISO 9001, 9002, and 9003 describe those quality system models. The ISO 9000 registration process is described here View full abstract»

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  • Industrial standards: the development process

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 35 - 38
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    It is pointed out that the development of industrial standards challenges standards setting bodies both intellectually and intrapersonally. The majority of these organizations depend upon the cooperative efforts of volunteers who are generally associated with companies that compete with each other in either the production or use of the commodity of interest. An historical perspective is provided which highlights the somewhat surprising fact that the most effective stimuli for standards developments have involved wars and tragic events. Two recent efforts in standards development are examined, and the lessons apparent in the success of one and the failure of the other are drawn View full abstract»

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  • A practical standard procedure for contamination measurements on wafer surfaces: experimental verification

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 119 - 123
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    The SEMI E14-90 Standard defines a method for calibrating surface contamination measurement tools based on polystyrene latex spheres and sampling statistics, background noise measurement, data analysis, and decision criteria. It is pointed out that the standard will be practical only if two different measurement tools, calibrated according to the defined procedure, give similar results on wafers with particles from process tools. The authors report a series of studies which address this issue. Measurements by two tools made by the same manufacturer but located in different factories are compared: a Tencor Surfscan 5000 at Perkin Elmer in Wilton, CT, and a Tencor Surfscan 4000 at IBM in East Fishkill, NY. Measurements by four tools made by four different manufacturers are also compared: a Tencor Surfscan 4500, an Inspex 20/20, an Esstek 8000, and a PMS SAS 5800. The studies demonstrated that it is possible to make accurate comparisons along several measurement tools, including tools at different facilities, if there is a good room environment and careful wafer handling procedures View full abstract»

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  • Utilizing an integrated yield management system to improve the return on investment in IC manufacturing

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 25 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The authors describe how a yield management system (YMS) could be designed to provide tools to quickly find and fix process and equipment defect problems in 16 Mbit DRAM IC manufacturing. The proposed system design consists of the KLA 2110 wafer inspection system (with sensitivity down to 0.25 μm for 16 Mbit DRAM manufacturing), optical and SEM (scanning electron microscope) defect review stations, wafer prober stations, reticle inspectors, a dielectric failure detection system, a defect image storage unit, an analysis workstation, and a host computer where work-in-process and yield information is stored View full abstract»

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  • Long term cost of ownership: beyond purchase price [chip manufacture]

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 39 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    An economic cost of ownership model is developed to estimate the total cost per wafer for a given process operation. The model incorporates fixed and variable costs and process tool specific as well as fab specific cost inputs. While all the variables can affect the final outcome, it is shown that the long-term cost per wafer for a given process is directly proportional to both mechanical throughput yield and defect densities. Wafer cost is also extremely sensitive to throughput, which affects both the fixed and variable cost components. Due to the nonlinear relationship of wafer cost and factors affecting equipment utilization capability, cost reduction through reliability improvement may be effective depending on where the nominal baseline points are located on the curves. Changes in inputs such as initial equipment costs or engineering support hours have less impact on the final cost per wafer since these variables affect only one cost component of the model View full abstract»

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  • VLSI process monitoring system

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 136 - 138
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    The authors describe the development and implementation of an in-situ continuous monitoring system for B/323, a VLSI manufacturing line. B/323 is a Class 10 facility with 132000 sq. ft. of VLF cleanroom surrounded by a Class 10 K controlled perimeter. The manufacturing process in B/323 consists of micron and submicron semiconductor technologies. These technologies require defect densities of less than one particle/wafer/process. These requirements can only be maintained by an in-situ continuous monitoring system at the point of distribution and the point of use. This monitoring system will give the controls needed to control and eliminate process contamination caused by room environment, process liquids, and gases View full abstract»

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  • Paperless manufacturing-a challenge now and in the future

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 89 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (452 KB)  

    In 1988, VLSI San Antonio Wafer Fab was started with and continues to utilize a paperless CIM (computer-integrated manufacturing), engineering, and inventory system, including lot-based, time-event-based data tracking. The author describes the implementation of this paperless manufacturing system and the benefits derived in cycle time improvement, process improvement, wafer traceability, and real-time engineering information availability. In addition, problems and difficulties of implementation and maintenance of the system as well as future directions are described View full abstract»

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  • Designing particles out of the deposition process-titanium nitride films

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 124 - 128
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    A reactive sputtering process for deposition of high-quality TiN films was demonstrated. Continuous process/hardware improvement has enabled achievement of a robust TiN production process in VLSI manufacturing. The source of the particles produced during reactive sputtering has been identified. Analysis of the results indicates that the particles are produced at the target surface and are a strong function of the process parameters. By optimizing the process parameters the particle density on the TiN films has been reduced by a factor of 16, from a previous average of >2.3 particles/cm2 to ⩽0.15 particles/cm2 for particles 0.5 μm and over. A brief discussion on particle measurement gauge capability and caution in interpretation of the particle data on TiN films is also presented View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of the SEMI `Generic Equipment Model' using object-based cell technology

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 102 - 105
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB)  

    A method was sought for developing a general-purpose automation platform for a large-capacity 4 Mbit DRAM production facility. Various technological approaches were evaluated ranging from simple messaging systems to programmer toolkits to an `object-based cell' approach that meets the stated goal of `enabling' the process engineer. Because of the message passing and dynamic binding nature of object-based cell technology, principal elements of the SEMI (Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International) Generic Equipment Model (GEM) could be implemented in a straightforward manner, including event classes, finite state machine control, spooling, logging, material movement control, data reporting, and process program management. The SEMI GEM definition document was used as a generic template for specifying particular production applications as well as the general capabilities for equipment management View full abstract»

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  • Manufacturing lithography value/cost analysis

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 44 - 54
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    A long-term value/cost of ownership model is presented which examines those parameters which most significantly differentiate lithography equipment and influence product innovation and productivity. These parameters are stepper throughput, overlay, yield, utilization, process automation, and a future technology path. Available market specifications for these stepper parameters are used in the model for comparison. It is concluded that flexible upgradeable high-throughput steppers operating simultaneously at full performance specification result in the lowest manufacturing cost per good die View full abstract»

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  • The IBM statistical process control implementation program: an interactive videodisc approach

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 1 - 3
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    IBM recently developed a unique training program to support statistical process control (SPC) needs. The mission was to create a high-quality laser interactive videodisc course for the IBM InfoWindow system. Specialists involved in the venture included professionals in the areas of script writing, video production, instructional design, testing, set design, art, and interactive videodisc production. The product includes not only the videodiscs but materials designed to assist a management team in implementing SPC in their manufacturing setting. A carefully designed sequence of implementation meetings carries an SPC team through the process of establishing on-line controls. All examples in the course are from the semiconductor industry View full abstract»

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  • Real time statistical process control for plasma etching

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 113 - 118
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB)  

    The development and the application of a real-time statistical process control (SPC) scheme are presented. Based on time-series and multivariate statistics, this scheme can accommodate real-time sensor readings such as can be collected from a single-wafer plasma etcher via the SECSII communications protocol. The scheme has been successfully applied on a Lam Rainbow plasma etcher, and it has been able to detect internal machine shifts that cannot be seen with classical SPC procedures View full abstract»

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  • Bibliography of books and articles related to manufacturing: 1991

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 145 - 148
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    The bibliography presented is broken down into five major areas: just-in-time methodologies, corporate strategy, quality, financial methods, and periodicals. The bibliography is not exhaustive but aims to give a good cross section of the books and articles that cover the above topics View full abstract»

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  • Equipment start-up in a manufacturing environment

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 55 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The authors present the methodology used to install and start up a new plasma etcher for production in a 1.0 micron/CMOS manufacturing line. It was demonstrated that a coordinated effort by equipment engineering, process engineering, technology development, equipment maintenance, and a vendor/partner can result in a quality-oriented start up. A specification was written to incorporate the procedures for installation, start up, equipment baselining, process characterization, and transfer to production on new equipment. It is noted that an ongoing relationship with a vendor/partner and all groups within the fabrication area will enable continuous improvement to the existing equipment and any new equipment being purchased View full abstract»

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  • Measuring perceptions and expectations of service quality

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 98 - 101
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    The author describes a method of generating a set of survey questions for measuring the perceptions and expectations of service quality of goods and services flowing between units in a semiconductor manufacturing company. The results are presented in a graphical form that assists interpretation and discussion. In addition, the alignment of goals and objectives between the supplier and customer units can be determined View full abstract»

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  • Semiconductor manufacturing education at San Jose State University

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 109 - 112
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    The many aspects of semiconductor manufacturing education at San Jose State University, CA, are documented. San Jose State has benefited greatly from interaction with local semiconductor companies. The curriculum and programs which result from this interaction are discussed as a general model for semiconductor manufacturing education at other universities. The traditional undergraduate and graduate curriculum is listed and briefly discussed. The Master of Science Degree, a cross-disciplinary program taken on a part-time basis by practicing semiconductor manufacturing engineers, is discussed in detail. Two special semiconductor related entities are described. The Center for Electronic Materials and Devices is a research center with a focus on education. The Applied Technology Institute for Microelectronics provides specific education and training for improvement of the semiconductor work force. Laboratory short courses on microfabrication are held in the IC labs. A recent National Science Foundation grant supports microfabrication laboratory workshops in the IC labs View full abstract»

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  • Efficient and practical experimental designs for high volume manufacturing

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 139 - 144
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    An experimental design technique that permits process optimization studies to extend beyond process average response curves and that optimizes with respect to primary (main) variables and secondary (tolerated) variables is described. The method modifies W.J. Diamond's (1981) approach for the inner array and modifies G. Taguchi's (1986) approach for a high-volume manufacturing environment and is experimentally efficient. It is capable of estimating average effects of primary and secondary variables, effects of primary variable process variances, and the process average/variance interrelationship. In using advanced experimental design techniques, three major goals have been achieved; (1) increased manufacturability, (2) improved quality, as shown by a reduction in outgoing DPPM levels, and (3) streamlined assembly processes and decreased cycle time View full abstract»

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  • The focus of computer integrated manufacturing in the Japanese semiconductor industry

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 80 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    In Japan, the focus of CIM (computer integrated manufacturing) for semiconductor manufacturing is to implement the CIM concept in synchronization with a business vision, human resources, an organization design, and new technology. It is a long-term strategy backed by a team of dedicated people, capital, and a meticulous plan based on the individual company culture. It is suggested that, to bring US semiconductor manufacturing back into the competitive arena of the 1990s, US industry should learn from the Japanese and map out a feasible US strategy. An intelligent computer integrated manufacturing strategy is proposed View full abstract»

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  • Shop floor control in ASIC assembly

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 15 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
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    The paperless integrated manufacturing system (PIMS), a tandem-based shop floor control system, and its implementation in ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) final manufacturing are discussed. The lot tracking and data collection features of PIMS are reviewed. Production problem solving that utilizes a structured query language (SQL) to analyze the collected data is described. Two online SQL reports and their applications are presented to show the effectiveness of the ASIC shop floor control program View full abstract»

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