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Object/Component/Service-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing Workshops (ISORCW), 2010 13th IEEE International Symposium on

Date 4-7 May 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 39
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
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  • [Title page i]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): i
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  • [Title page iii]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): iii
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  • [Copyright notice]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): iv
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): v - vii
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  • Message from MoBE-RTES 2010 Co-chairs

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): viii
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  • Message from WORNUS 2010 Workshop Chair

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): ix
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  • Message from SORT 2010 Workshop Co-chairs

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): x
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  • Workshop Committees

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): xi - xii
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  • Flexible Resource Management for Self-X Systems: An Evaluation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 10
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (434 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In classical real-time systems the resources for an application are allocated at system start so that every resource request can be fulfilled in future. This would lead to much internal waste of resources in the case of modern Self-X systems, because these systems have highly dynamic resource consumptions. The Flexible Resource Manager (FRM) was developed to overcome this problem. The manager puts temporarily unused resources at other applications' disposal. In this paper the FRM approach is evaluated by concrete application examples and randomly generated applications. View full abstract»

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  • A Self-Organizing Distributed Reinforcement Learning Algorithm to Achieve Fair Bandwidth Allocation for Priority-Based Bus Communication

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 11 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (742 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to the raising complexity in distributed embedded systems, a single designer will not be able to plan and organize the communication for such systems. Therefore, it will get more and more important to relieve the designer in that task. Our idea is a communication system that is capable to organize itself to satisfy predefined properties. In this paper, we want to solve the problem of establishing fair bandwidth sharing on priority-based buses by using simple local rules on the distributed system to avoid a single point of failure and cope with online system changes. Based on a game theoretical analysis, a multi-agent reinforcement learning algorithm is proposed that establishes fair bandwidth distribution. The main idea is to penalize nodes that claim too much bandwidth by the other nodes. We experimentally evaluated the algorithm with different parameter settings. The algorithm showed to converge to a fair solution in any experiment. This means the system is able to completely self-organize without global information for our assumptions. In addition, we could figure out that we can configure a trade-off between convergence speed and computation effort. We hope this is a small first step towards totally self-organizing real-time systems. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Distribution of Time-Dependant Tasks in Heterogeneous Environments

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 21 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we present a new approach to distribute tasks connected by causal dependencies within a heterogeneous environment, e.g. several resources communicating with each other or a processor grid. Our approach uses an artificial hormone system for task distribution which is able to meet real-time constraints. Several enhancements of the artificial hormone system are made such as partial suppressing of tasks and distributed task termination. View full abstract»

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  • Locality-Aware Extension of pi-Calculus to Model Self-Organizing Behavior in Massively Distributed Embedded Systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 29 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (322 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Massively Distributed Embedded Systems (MDES) such as Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are gaining increasing attention, since they enable a broad range of novel applications starting from monitoring oceans to exploring distant planets. WSNs consist of hundreds of nodes that have typically very limited recourses (computational, memory, energy, etc.) and are deployed in a dynamic environment, where they have to continuously adapt to new conditions. Due to the small-size requirement of the nodes, they are highly resource-constrained. Because of that, the amount of functionality that may be present in each node is limited. Therefore, cooperation between nodes is needed in order to accomplish complex tasks. These facts turn the design of applications for WSNs into a challenge. A promising approach how to deal with it is to use the emergent self-organization metaphor. In this paper a new process algebra (PA) called "Locality-aware extension of π-Calculus" is presented. The algebra is one of several techniques included in a new design methodology for the design of self-organizing behavior in MDES. The method is based on π-Calculus and allows a highlevel description of interactions among processes. As the most important characteristic of self-organization is the restriction of interactions to neighboring elements (localized interactions), we extend the π-Calculus with locality awareness, a necessary abstraction to allow the modeling of self-organization in MDES. To get full locality awareness in π-Calculus, we extended it with concepts for modeling spatiality, probability and time. Moreover, new types of channels are included to cover various types of communication such as distribution, broadcast and aggregation. In order to validate this new PA, we successfully model a self-organizing clustering algorithm for WSNs. View full abstract»

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  • Consistency Challenges in Self-Organizing Distributed Hard Real-Time Systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 39 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (668 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Allowing real-time systems to autonomously evolve or self-organize during their life-time poses challenges on guidance of such a process. Hard real-time systems must never break their timing constraints even if undergoing a change in configuration. We propose to enhance future real-time systems with an in-system model-based timing analysis engine capable of deciding whether a configuration is feasible to be executed. This engine is complemented by a formal procedure guiding system evolution. The distributed implementation of a runtime environment (RTE) implementing this procedure imposes two key questions of consistency: How do we ensure model consistency across the distributed system and how do we ensure consistency of the actual system behavior with the model? We present a synchronization protocol solving the model consistency issues and provide a discussion on implications of different mode-change protocols on consistency of the system with its model. View full abstract»

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  • Managing Variable and Cooperative Time Behavior

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 49 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (363 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is about the requirements and architectural considerations that provide a SORT system with processes for observing, modeling, simulating, predicting, deciding, and acting in an external environment. For our purposes, "real time'' (RT) means coordinated with an external source of time or with sequences of events over which the system has no direct control. It is this unpredictability in the timing of responses that is the hardest constraint on a real-time system design, especially when it is known a priori that the system cannot keep up with all important events, and that "as fast as possible'' is not appropriate for some external interactions. We will describe a testbed that we are developing as a student team project at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona) to experiment with SORT strategies, and a set of games that we will use to benchmark performance. Then we will describe some useful technical background from several areas: reasoning and representation processes, situation theory, levels of meaningfulness in knowledge, and activity loops. Finally, we show how these concepts apply to SORT agent knowledge and coordination. Our contribution here is to outline a set of problems (in the form of cooperative games) that we hope others in the community will adopt as one method for benchmarking models, methods, strategies, and other processes used in SORT systems. View full abstract»

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  • Optimisation of Energy Consumption of Soft Real-Time Applications by Workload Prediction

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 63 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (347 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Embedded real-time systems often operate under energy constraints due to a limited battery lifetime. Modern processors provide techniques for dynamic voltage and frequency scaling to reduce energy consumption. However, while the processor possibly operates at a lower clock frequency, the running applications should still meet their deadlines and thus set some limits to the use of scaling techniques. In this paper, we propose auto correlation clustering (ACC) as a technique to predict the workload of single iterations of a periodic soft real-time application. Based on this prediction we adjust the processor performance such that deadlines are exactly met. We compare our technique to the broadly implemented race-to-idle (RTI) and identify situations where ACC can gain higher energy savings than RTI. Additionally, ACC can help saving energy in multithreaded processors where RTI can be applied only with a high overhead if at all. View full abstract»

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  • Towards Scalability and Reliability of Autonomic Systems on Chip

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 73 - 80
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (331 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Autonomic Systems on Chip provision VLSI systems with the capabilities of self-organization, self-healing and self-optimization, thereby allowing them to adapt to their environment and improve their functionality through run-time learning. This paper presents our current status of work on autonomic SoC architectures, beginning with a robust, self-correcting processor data path architecture and progressing to reinforcement machine learning techniques for self-optimization and self-organization at run time. An outlook of our future work and upcoming challenges in regard to autonomic systems on chip is then presented as a basis for discussion at the SORT workshop, and with the organic computing community in general. View full abstract»

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  • Developing Self-Managing Embedded Systems with ASSL

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 81 - 89
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (954 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This research targets formal modeling of embedded systems capable of self-management. In our approach, we use the ASSL (Autonomic System Specification Language) framework as a development environment, where self-management features of embedded systems are formally specified and an implementation is automatically generated. ASSL exposes a rich set of specification constructs that help developers specify event-driven embedded systems. Hardware is sensed via special metrics intended to drive events and self-management policies that help the system handle critical situations in an autonomous reactive manner. We present this approach along with a simulation case study where ASSL is used to develop control software for the wide-angle camera carried on board NASA's Voyager II spacecraft. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Self-Organizing Autonomous Clustering for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 90 - 97
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to realize hierarchical routings that should be executed in large-scaled mobile ad hoc networks that vary their topologies considerably with time, we have developed autonomous clustering with high scalability and adaptability. In autonomous clustering, an entire network is divided into disjoint subnetworks (called clusters), and they are maintained by periodically sending messages within the clusters. This paper proposes real-time self-organizing autonomous clustering, in which interval and power for transmitting such messages are dynamically changed depending on variation of mobility and density of the clusters. Since their mobility and density can be estimated by local information obtained in the clusters and according to their respective change the clusters are self-organized in real-time way, the proposed real-time self-organizing autonomous clustering can contribute to enhancement of its scalability and adaptability. View full abstract»

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  • Realizing Real-Time Centroid Detection of Multiple Objects with Marching Pixels Algorithms

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 98 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1093 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we present a class of emergent algorithms called Marching Pixels which can be used for real time image processing in smart camera chips. Marching Pixels are based on hardware agents which are virtually crawling in a pixel grid image to find attributes like centroid, rotation and size of an arbitrary number of objects given in an image. Due to the distributed and local processing scheme of MPs reply times in milliseconds can be fulfilled. This means in that time is determined where pre-known objects are located and how they are oriented to the main axes of the image. We present an example Marching Pixels algorithm and corresponding application-specific and programmable architectures designed for the use in embedded systems. The strengths and weaknesses of those architectures concerning the realization as FPGAs and ASICs are discussed by means of hardware synthesis results. View full abstract»

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  • Towards a Model-Based Refinement Process for Contractual State Machines

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 108 - 115
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1204 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a rigorous model-based approach to the stepwise design of contractual state machines, which are a simplified form of state charts extended with declarative specifications. The approach is based on application of a set of refinement patterns, that can be validated against a formal semantics, and that are implemented using update-in-place model transformations. We describe the integrated tool support we are implementing for this model-based approach, and illustrate the approach with small examples. View full abstract»

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  • An Industrial Case Study Using an MBE Approach: From Architecture to Safety Analysis

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 116 - 122
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (673 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We discuss the initial phases of software development of a real industrial safety-related device in the railway application domain. In particular, to achieve greater confidence in the system, we illustrate the development of the system architecture (using a standard model domain-specific language), the computation of the safety integrity level and the calculation of the reliability of the whole system. We reiterate the safety analysis on the sub-systems. The proposed methodology has found immediate industrial applications. View full abstract»

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  • On the Requirements for Quality Composability Modeling and Analysis

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 123 - 129
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Real-time, embedded and safety-critical systems have to meet some quality criteria in order to provide certain reliance on its operation. The quality of a system depends on the complex composition of the quality of its subsystems. Quality composability depends on matchmaking the provided and required quality specifications. To allow for flexibility during the system design, we study composability as a configuration problem. We allow options of quality specifications to represent design choices, deployment choices, operation modes or component adaptability. This kind of assessments of system architectures is very important e.g., for COTS development. The contributions of this paper are: to study the modeling requirements to model composability analysis, to compare two modeling approaches, and to show how a model-driven environment can leverage composability assessments. The two modeling approaches, QoS-FT + OCL and MARTE + VSL, are used to attach quality specifications to system models. However, our ultimate goal is to evaluate these specifications, and we have implemented tool-support to evaluate composability using constraint satisfaction techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Providing Guidance in an Interdisciplinary Model-Based Design Process

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 130 - 137
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When developing real-time embedded systems, various professional disciplines are involved. Concerning AAS (assistance and automotive systems) in the automotive domain, the project DeSCAS (Design of Safety-Critical Automotive Systems) has identified the design streams functional development and architecture, safety measures and human factors. What has been proposed are an interwoven development process and related methodologies to cope with these different design streams and their domain specific terminology, models, methods and tools. A key aspect in the proposed methodology is formalizing domain knowledge using OWL (Web Ontology Language) [4] ontologies. Reasoning is applied to support analysis steps (impact analysis as well as hazard and risk analysis) and infer consequences of design decisions for a single stream or for the entire development process. This paper describes a toolchain prototype implementation which is used to summarize lessons learned from practical insights. The toolchain currently interweaves two development streams: functional development and architecture activities with management of safety measures. A simple emergency braking system is modeled as an example application of an assistance and automation system to illustrate the proposed proceeding. View full abstract»

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  • Architecture-Driven Development of Embedded Systems with ACOL

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 138 - 144
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Architecture-Driven Development of embedded systems involves finding the right trade-off between multiple non-functional properties at the model level. In this paper we define ACOL: a model annotation language with at its core the combination of analysis, constraint and optimization expressions. This combination results in a powerful framework for efficient architectural design space exploration, usable from the earliest phases of embedded system design. We use AADL as an example to demonstrate how ACOL can be embedded in component-based Architecture Description Languages. The functionality of ACOL is illustrated with several use cases. View full abstract»

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