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Date 8-8 June 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 43
  • [Title page]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Copyright notice]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Executive Committee

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1
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  • Negative input resistance and real-time active load-pull measurements of a 2.5GHz oscillator using a LSNA

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (11902 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A large-signal measurement-based methodology to design oscillators using the Kurokawa theory is presented in this paper. Measurements of the negative input resistance and device line of a 2.5 GHz HEMT oscillator versus frequency and power, and its optimization using real-time active load-pull (RTALP) for the 2nd and 3rd harmonics are performed with a large signal network analyzer (LSNA). As a result, the maximum output power of the oscillator is increased from 31.0 mW to 38.8 mW. Finally self-oscillation is verified using a load tuner to yield an output power and frequency of oscillation in reasonable agreement with the Kurokawa analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Inter-laboratory comparison of CMOS distortion measurements

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (12520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a measurement comparison of distortion in a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor low-noise device operating under weakly nonlinear conditions. Issues that commonly arise in performing and interpreting nonlinear measurements are discussed, such as power and wave-based representations and the effects of terminating impedance on intermodulation distortion. We demonstrate that the increased confidence provided by a measurement comparison can help to diagnose issues with a device model that was initially derived from DC I/V curves and their derivatives and then compared to RF measurement. View full abstract»

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  • Tuning range analysis of load pull measurement systems and impedance transforming networks

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8058 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper studies, by mean of a mapping between the Smith chart and impedance plot, the different aspects that impact the tunable range at the DUT reference plane in a passive load pull measurement system. The utilization of an impedance transforming fixture is considered and the technique to choose the right transformation ratio is presented. Finally, a method to encircle the absolute tunable region of a load pull system is explained, considering the use of any impedance transforming network. View full abstract»

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  • True differential stimulus gives additional insight into nonlinear device behavior

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6506 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Known n-port VNA calibration procedures in conjunction with consistent wave normalization and power calibration provide a and b waves at the calibration plane with correct absolute amplitude and relative phases. VNAs with two sources that are adjustable in amplitude and relative phase can be used for the generation of true error-corrected differential and common-mode stimulus signals. A special correction procedure has been developed that takes source crosstalk via the DUT into account. Applying these stimulating signals, single-ended or mixed-mode n-port-S-parameters can be determined. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization for multiport VNA vector error correction

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4778 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multiport vector error correction leverages the techniques that apply to two-port error correction. In some testset configurations the load match at any particular port may take on multiple distinct values that must be characterized. As the number of ports increases it becomes important to find ways to minimize the number of connections required to calibrate the VNA. This paper presents techniques for optimizing the calibration both from the point of view of minimizing the number of calibration steps as well as utilizing TRL, Unknown Thru and QSOLT calibration without requiring dual reflectometers at each testport. View full abstract»

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  • VNA error model conversion for N-port calibration comparison

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 10
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7413 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines the extended 12-term error model commonly used in commercial multiport vector network analyzers, introduces a generalized multiport error model, and applies this error model for the purposes of general N-port comparison of calibrations. These tools have been implemented in a commercially available calibration and measurement software product. Previous work demonstrated the utility of these tools in the estimation of calibration error associated with ignoring coupling and for evaluating measurement system repeatability. Equations are presented for bidirectional conversion between an extended 16-term-like error model and the extended 12-term model as well as for calculation of DUT-specific and worst-case multiport calibration comparison error bounds. View full abstract»

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  • A robust broadband calibration method for wafer-level characterization of multiport devices

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4866 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the theory and practical results of the new multiport calibration procedure especially suited for wafer-level device characterization over a wide frequency range. An analysis of the currently available multiport calibration approaches was carried out. The advantages and drawbacks of each approach are demonstrated. It is shown that a robust wafer-level multiport calibration procedure should combine the strengths of both 7-term and 10-term based algorithms. It should also provide reference-match measurements on each VNA measurement port and be insensitive to the behavior of highly-reflective standards and the design of transmission standards. Corresponding to these requirements, the definition of the advanced multiport RRMT+ algorithm is given. The results of a practical experiment proved the theory and demonstrated the advantages of the new multiport RRMT+ calibration procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Highly accurate frequency/time domain characterization of transmission lines and passives for SiP applications up to 65 GHz

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (13944 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Accurate determination of the characteristic impedance determines the accuracy of the characterization of transmission lines and passive devices. In this paper, we present a novel, time-domain based procedure for the complex characteristic impedance determination. The method is insensitive to changes in the reference plane and the parasitic shunt admittance at the probe tips. For highly accurate passives characterization, a modification of the Thru-Reflect-Line (TRL) calibration algorithm is proposed. It enables the use of the TRL method to de-embed components having the ports on different metallization levels. Additionally, a comprehensive overview and evaluation of both frequency and time-domain methods for characteristic impedance determination is included for completeness. We present measurement results of transmission lines and spiral inductors fabricated in MCM-D technology on low-and high-resistivity substrates up to 65 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • A bilateral comparison of on-wafer S-parameter measurements at millimeter wavelengths

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5561 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on a comparison of measurements that has taken place recently between two UK-based measurement facilities - the University of Leeds and the National Physical Laboratory. The comparison involved making complex S-parameter measurements of a commercially available co-planar waveguide calibration substrate. Most measurements were made at frequencies up to 65 GHz, although some measurement data was obtained up to 110 GHz. Subsidiary investigations also looked at measurement repeatability and the effects of using different VNA calibration schemes. A breakdown of the likely error processes affecting these measurements as a function of frequency is also given leading to rudimentary uncertainty estimates for such measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental analysis of on-wafer de-embedding techniques for RF modeling of advanced RFCMOS and BiCMOS technologies

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6916 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on hardware measurement of 45nm RFCMOS and 130nm SiGe BiCMOS wafers, we present the first experimental investigation of the accuracy of various de-embedding techniques for high-frequency (up to 110GHz) on-wafer s-parameter characterization. The results clearly show that 4-port COMPLETE de-embedding offers accurate results only if the non-ideality of resistor standards is properly taken into account by using a newly developed technique. The industry-standard open-short (OS) de-embedding causes error at frequencies above 30GHz, and the pad-open-short technique significantly improves de-embedding accuracy over OS and, therefore, becomes an attractive approach since it only requires one more test structure than OS. The effects of gate electrostatic-discharge protection diodes on de-embedding accuracy for RFCMOS FETs are also presented and a technique is proposed that minimizes the associated errors. View full abstract»

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  • Design and analysis of inductors for 60 GHz applications in a digital CMOS technology

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3813 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    RFIC designers of on-chip transceivers for 60 GHz applications face the trade-off between lumped and distributed design techniques, due to the on-chip wavelength of approximately 3 mm. This paper demonstrates that the lumped approach is favorable for realizing 60 GHz inductive components in digital CMOS technologies. Advantages in area consumption, Q-factor and the range of achievable component values are shown using simulations and measurements. Simulations of lumped inductors using the electromagnetic field solver HFSS are compared with measurements and different topologies for the lumped inductor are investigated and compared. The measurement results reveal that a planar unshielded topology yields the best inductor quality for 60 GHz circuits in a digital CMOS technology. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of low dielectric constant materials

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (13987 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Materials with low dielectric constants offer great chances for applications were losses, low thermal influences and phase stability are important. One of these applications is earth observation by SAR's. Syntactic foams is a promising material but its properties with respect to homogeneity are not well investigated. A new method provides qualitative characterization with good geometrical resolution. View full abstract»

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  • ANN modeling of synthetic cold loads

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Preliminary results are presented for artificial neural network (ANN) models of the available output noise temperature of a FET-based synthetic cold load. Two different ANNs were studied for this application: the radial basis function (RBF) and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) backpropagation (BP). The best average relative error (ARE) and maximum local relative error (MLRE) results for the model of incident noise temperature versus load impedance were 0.1439% and 1.1544% respectively. The best ARE and MLRE results for the model of incident noise temperature versus load reflection coefficient were 0.1810% and 1.5044% respectively. View full abstract»

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  • A new technique for measuring the resonant behavior of power amplifier bias circuits

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (16650 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new and simple technique for measuring the magnitude and phase of low frequency components of bias circuits of power amplifiers is described. The Low-Frequency probe technique is implemented to determine modulation bandwidth and low frequency behaviors of power amplifiers and is also useful in determining the resonant frequencies of peripheral components causing potential instability and oscillations. The construction, set-up and calibration of the probe are discussed and supported by simulation and measurement results. View full abstract»

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  • A study of a variable-capacitance drain network's influence on dynamic behavioral modeling of an RF power amplifier

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5171 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An investigation of the complex-valued parameters of two different dynamic behavioral models due to changes in the drain decoupling network of a PA has been performed. The study is based on complex-envelope measurements on a real PA. The complex coefficients of the parallel Hammerstein (PH) and the optimal pole placements of the Kautz-Volterra (KV) models are analyzed. It is concluded that the parameters follow smooth, predictable functions and that the KV poles give a robust description of the PA's memory effects compared with the PH model. View full abstract»

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  • Hicum and BSIM3V3.2.4 non linear behavior validation In RF BICMOS SiGeC 0.25µm process for bipolar and CMOS transistors

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3281 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with HiCUM [1] and BSIM3V3.2.4 [2] large signal validation. On contrary with traditional approach that deals with output signal at fundamental and harmonics frequencies [3], this study focuses on IIP1 and IIP3 figures of merit (FoM). In this way, two input power tones are injected at 2 GHz and 2.1 GHz in respect with the W-CDMA receive band. Thus, not only IIP1 could be compared between simulations and measurements, but also IIP3 due to intermodulations. This analysis is based on BiCMOS SiGeC 0.25μm process for RF bipolar and CMOS transistors measurements. On the one hand, an in-house load pull system based on Maury microwaves tuners is described. This bench is used to measure the DUTs at various bias points with source and load impedances close to 50 Ω. These impedances are characterized at fundamental and at carefully chosen out-of-band frequencies. On the other hand, HiCUM and BSIM3V3.2.4 simulations are compared to measurements. DC parameters and out-of-band impedances importance is highlighted. Accurate DC parameters enable obviously a right gain simulation but above all it leads to a suitable IM3 level, and thus to a precise IIP3. Moreover, it is demonstrated that H2, H3, IM2 and IM3 out-of-band impedances characterization is a necessary and sufficient criterion to validate IIP3 FoM. Finally, it will be shown that HiCUM and BSIM3V3.2.4 models allow an accurate distortion phenomena description in terms of IIP1 and IIP3. View full abstract»

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  • Noncontacting measurement of reflection coefficient and power in planar circuits up to 40 GHz

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7563 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the use of loop-coupler probes for noncontacting measurement of power and reflection coefficient in microstrip circuits up to 40 GHz. The inherent directivity of the loop-coupler probe makes it suitable for use with scalar measuring instruments such as power meters and spectrum analyzers. The probe coupling and directivity and their sensitivity to probe positioning errors are investigated. The results are summarized in a simple uncertainty budget. Measurements of reflection coefficient with a vector network analyzer are also presented and verified by coaxially contacting measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Error propagation from OSL calibration standards: Analytical solution and experimental validation

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (9337 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    OSL (Open-Short-Load) calibration is the commonly used technique for one-port RF reflection/impedance measurement. Generally, the calibration standards are assumed to be ¿perfect¿ or traceable to ¿perfect standards¿. With no doubts, the imperfections on calibration standards or process of traceability will create a second-level error for measurement. Recent attempts focus on predicting the second-level error with numerical simulations. However, direct analytical expression and experimental validation have not been demonstrated yet. In this paper, analytical solution to error propagation from OSL calibration standards is derived with introducing small perturbations to these standards and using first-order approximations. It leads to sensitivity analysis for OSL calibration with imperfect standards. In order to validate the analysis, a female-to-male adapter is adopted as an error source for OSL calibration standards. By comparing the reflection measurements for the cases of calibration with/without the adapter, the analytical solution is validated experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • Residual error models for the SOLT and SOLR VNA calibration algorithms

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2665 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Uncertainty calculation of vector network analyzers (VNAs) using the SOLT or SOLR calibration algorithms is often performed using residual directivity, match and tracking. In the literature the uncertainty equations are often stated without a derivation from a proper model equation. In this paper we derive the model equations for both the SOLT and SOLR calibration, the two cases do not result in the same model equation. The results are also compared to the commonly used expressions for uncertainty in the EA guidelines for VNA evaluation. For one-port measurements our results confirm the expressions in the EA guide but for two-ports there are significant differences. The symbolically derived model equations are verified using numerical simulations. View full abstract»

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  • A new assessment method for the residual errors in SOLT and SOLR calibrated VNAs

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2285 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The traditional residual error assessment methods for the vector network analyzer (VNA) are improved by using measurements from both SOLT and SOLR calibrations. The difference in sensitivity to residual errors for the SOLT and SOLR algorithms is utilized to assess the residual directivity, match, and tracking of both VNA ports. A two-port measurement on an airline is used in the assessment. Even though two-port measurements are used the resulting residual errors are applicable to one-port SOL measurements as well. Compared to earlier methods, which use oneport airline measurements, the number of airline connections is reduced to one fourth. Yet the quality of the assessment is improved. The residual match is now assessed independent of the residual directivity giving a better accuracy. The residual transmission tracking, which was earlier unavailable, is also obtained. For hermaphroditic connectors such as APC-7, waveguides or probed MMIC measurements, the method will also provide the residual reflection tracking, which the traditional ripple methods fails to provide at all. The method is compared to earlier assessment methods with measurements on a calibration in type-N connectors. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of MOS varactor with large signal Network Analyser (LSNA) in CMOS 65nm bulk and SOI technologies

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2906 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Here we report for the first time the non linear characterization and modeling of MOS varactor with a LSNA in bulk and SOI process. The comparison between large signal measurements and Harmonic Balance simulation using an electrical equivalent scheme based on small signal measurements validates the accuracy of the proposed model in this large signal conditions. Nevertheless, the capacitance behaviour versus biasing voltage is depending on signal power. From this, we develop a method for capacitance extraction. We highlight the difference of LSNA and small signal capacitance versus voltage revealing the deepth depletion with large signal conditions. Lastly, the parallel study between bulk and SOI process shows a difference on the capacitance induced by non linearities of the substrate capacitance with large signal analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of the substrate parameters for EM-simulators

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3830 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A technique for extraction and optimization of silicon substrate parameters is presented. The parameters are optimized to get the best fit between measured and simulated S-parameters for passive elements. Test structures were fabricated in a SiGe:C process with 5 metallization layers. The measurements were performed on-wafer. Loss and relative permittivity ¿r of each insulation layer is extracted and optimized separately. View full abstract»

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