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Date 17-19 Oct. 1977

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 144
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Back cover]

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Remote ocean environmental data acquisition

    Page(s): 1 - 10
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    Since the summer of 1971, the NOAA Data Buoy Office has deployed numerous environmental moored data buoys possessing automated data acquisition and over-the horizon telemetry features. These buoys have been deployed off the east and west coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico and Alaska. As of summer 1977, between fifteen to twenty synoptic environmental reporting buoys located in the Gulf and deep ocean areas are in service. In addition, numerous drifting buoys have been deployed worldwide. Although the hull configuration of NDBO buoys are diverse, the environmental data which is acquired on-board the buoy and transmitted to shore have been received and processed shoreside with good performance. Near real-time synoptic reports have been delivered around the clock to various weather forecasting groups. In addition, other environmental data is used for engineering evaluation and analysis, and for the generation of monthly inputs to the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and the National Climatic Center (NCC) for archival purposes. Initially, the data link requirements were successfully met by judicious implementation of on-board High Frequency (HF) communications and cooperative shore stations. However, since program inception the long-range plans for accomplishing the environmental reporting function were to use satellites, both geostationary and orbiting, at such time that they become available. This paper will review the orderly transition from HF to satellite communications. The various phases of satellite communications from testing to operational confidence and finally to full operational satellite mode will be described. Analyses of data defining satellite communication performance in terms of link reliability and data quality will also be addressed. Finally, data acquisition and telemetry implementation will be discussed with a view towards assisting potential satellite link subscribers in scoping out their system. View full abstract»

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  • Design of moored buoy system in shallow waters

    Page(s): 11 - 16
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    Surface moored data buoys have been deployed in shallow waters in the East China Sea and the Adriatic Sea to provide meteorological and oceanographic data for use in weather forecasting and climatological studies. The buoys are of thick discus hull configuration with a diameter from 6.1 to 10 meters. The extreme conditions of large waves, high current and shallow water depth create a design problem different from that of deep water moorings. An extensive computer simulation study was conducted using the method of characteristics to determine the dynamic loads of the mooring lines, whereas the method of imaginary reaction was used to predict the watch circles of the mooring systems. The effects of the mooring scope, line size, and ocean environment on the design configuration are discussed. The buoy systems designed have been deployed successfully. View full abstract»

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  • An expendable telemetry buoy for coastal oceanography

    Page(s): 17 - 21
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    An inexpensive telemetry data buoy system has been developed. The telemetry link is made via an HF ground wave. Ten channels of data are collected from each of seven buoys and transmitted with 8-bit accuracy and quadruple redundancy once every 15 minutes in a frequency-shift-keyed format. The data are received and recorded on cassettes with a commercial grade recorder. Manual servicing of the recording system is required only once a day. View full abstract»

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  • A buoy mounted barometric pressure instrument for wave height measurement

    Page(s): 22 - 25
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    This paper describes the design, operation and testing of an ocean wave height sensor based on the measurement of wave-related barometric pressure variations. The work was done under the auspices of the NOAA Data Buoy Office (NDBO). Wave theory used and design of circuits to convert the continuous analog wave height signal to significant wave height, peak wave height and average wave period are described. Major sources of error inherent in the use of this principle are described along with methods employed to eliminate the errors. View full abstract»

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  • A microprocessor-based oceanographic particle data collection system

    Page(s): 32 - 35
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    An instrument has been developed for oceanographic sampling of particle density and size versus depth and temperature in a 100 meter water column. The sensor probe, although attached to a lightweight cable, is allowed to free fall, which effectively detaches it from the motion of the sampling platform and enhances the resolution of thin particle layers. Sensor information is transmitted up the cable to a small, dedicated, microcomputer module where it is digitized and stored on cassette tape with read after write verification. The microcomputer also keeps the operator informed of the status of the drop and displays the recorded data on a video monitor. View full abstract»

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  • Microcomputer-assisted flow-through ASV system

    Page(s): 36 - 42
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    A microcomputer has been adapted for use with a flow-through anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) instrument developed by the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC). The ASV instrument was originally developed to provide near-real-time analysis of trace metals in seawater. Four years experience with this system in the coastal waters of Florida, Peru and California showed that many ancillary instruments such as pH meters, specific ion meters and fluorometers could be added to better define sharply varying ocean environments. To coordinate the operations of these instruments and to deal with the very large amount of raw data that would be generated, a Motorola 6800 microcomputer was added. Two major system software routines were developed for this application: the first controls ASV instrumentation while the second is a monitor program that enables the system to function as a "stand alone" microcomputer Thus equipped, the system should greatly facilitate trace metal investigations in the field by increasing the amount and accuracy of the data obtained while decreasing routine manual operations. Moreover, with substitution of a simulator for the wet-chemistry electromechanical unit, the system can serve as a tool for developing new software and hardware without investing in new, unproven equipment. The system can be expanded or modified within constraints of size, weight and available memory. View full abstract»

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  • Palau: Native paradise or petroleum superport?

    Page(s): 43 - 48
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    Numerous environmental groups, scientists and humanists have gone on record concerning that incomparable biological resource, the coral reefs and limestone islands of Palau. The Trust Territory, which governs Micronesia, is due to be dissolved in 1981 but there is little economic base for independence. Its strategic location, remoteness and low population have led to Palau as a potential site for superport development. International politics, secrecy, spying and rumored pay-offs seemed to leave Palauans virtually without a voice in the decision making. View full abstract»

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  • The delaware approach to coastal/oceanic awareness studies K-12

    Page(s): 49 - 52
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    Education means change of behavior. Ideally, education moves the individual from lack of interest and ignorance to increasing appreciation and knowledge and finally to action. The development of coastal areas and marine resources will be influenced by how well our society understands coastal and marine affairs. Since attitudes and values develop very early in life, it follows that school children represent a fertile population group for cultivation. The knowledge and sensitivity developed in school studies will form an enduring base for democratic decisionmaking throughout life. The implementation of marine environment education necessitates the development of coordinated, multidisciplinary learning experiences from kindergarten through high school. Also essential is the initiation of college and in-service courses on marine environment for the school teachers. Marine environment education must continue throughout the individual's life in order to accommodate for developments in marine science and for changing economic circumstances, environmental requirements, and the new products developed from marine resources for the nation's markets. To reach the millions of citizens requires a greatly expanded use of the mass media and the involvement of government and private agencies, universities, and marine industries. Educational activities at the community level are also necessary to reach the citizenry. View full abstract»

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  • Dolphin - Flexibility for submarine research and development

    Page(s): 53 - 57
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    The USS DOLPHIN (AGSS-555) is the U. S. Navy's deep-diving research submarine designed to test advanced submarine structures, sensors, weapons and machinery systems. Purely experimental in nature, she serves as a platform for scientific investigation at unprecedented depths for a fully operational and independent submarine. Utilizing its large payload (over 11 metric tons) and highly versatile instrumentation suit, many civilian and Navy activities have employed DOLPHIN for testing a multitude of technologically advanced and complex equipments. DOLPHIN operates as a unit of the U. S. Submarine Force, U. S. Pacific Fleet, under Commander, Submarine Development Group ONE. Long-range project planning is performed by the DOLPHIN Advisory Group of the Naval Sea Systems Command in Washington, D. C. Technical project guidance and local scheduling/ coordination is handled by the DOLPHIN Project Branch of the Naval Ocean Systems Center in San Diego, where DOLPHIN is homeported. View full abstract»

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  • Concrete LPG storage barge

    Page(s): 70 - 71
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  • Landsat data availability from the eros data center and status of future plans

    Page(s): 88 - 91
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    The Department of Interior's EROS Data Center, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, was established in 1972, in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, to serve as a principal dissemination facility for Landsat and other remotely Sensed data. Through the middle of 1977, the Center has supplied approximately 1.7 million copies of images from the more than 5 million images of the Earth's surface archived at the Center. Landsat accounted for half of these images plus approximately 5,800 computer-compatible tapes of Landsat data were also supplied to users. New methods for processing data products to make them more useful are being developed, and new accession aids for determining data availability are being placed in operation. The Center also provides assistance and training to resource specialists and land managers in the use of Landsat and other remotely sensed data. A Data Analysis Laboratory is operated at the Center to provide both digital and analog multispectral/multitemporal image analysis capabilities in support of the training and assistance programs. In addition to conventionally processed data products, radiometrically enhanced Landsat imagery are now available from the Center in limited quantities. In mid-1978, the Center will convert to an all-digital processing system for Landsat data that will provide improved products for user analysis in production quantities. The Department of Interior and NASA are currently studying concepts that use communication satellites to relay Landsat data between U.S. ground stations, Goddard Space Flight Center and the EROS Data Center which would improve the timeliness of data availability. The Data Center also works closely with the remote sensing programs and Landsat data receiving and processing facilities being developed in foreign countries. View full abstract»

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  • Quantitative acoustics near the sea floor

    Page(s): 92 - 97
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    For more than a decade the Deep-Tow group of the Marine Physical Laboratory has been developing acoustic systems for near-bottom geophysical studies of the deep sea floor. A major aim of this work has been the detailed measurement of those properties of the sea floor which affect acoustic propagation. Such properties include the slope of the bottom, the acoustic reflectivity of the sea floor and of buried interfaces, and the attenuation of sound in marine sediments. The extreme lateral variability of such properties in the deep ocean makes near-bottom measurements important. This need has resulted in the development of narrow beam altimeters for accurate depth and slope determination, a computerized seismic profiling system for measurement of sea floor reflectivity and attenuation at 4 kHz, and computerized side-scan sonar systems for acoustic backscatter and bottom slope determinations. These systems were designed to provide real-time processing and displays of acquired data. This paper discusses the development and application of these systems, as well as some of the results which illustrate the extreme variability of sea floor acoustic properties which have been observed by these systems. View full abstract»

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  • Specialized drive waveforms for the parametric acoustic source

    Page(s): 98 - 101
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    In addition to its narrow beamwidth and wideband capability, the underwater parametric acoustic source has the advantage of maintaining a relatively constant beamwidth over a wide range of difference frequencies. However, for some applications the beamwidth of the difference frequency is narrower than desired or adjustable beamwidth is required. This paper describes techniques by which the beamwidth at a given difference frequency can be increased and varied over a 3 to 1 range by controlling the input waveform and amplitude to the transducer. The effect of the waveform changes on the harmonic content of the difference frequency energy is also discussed. The relatively low efficiency of the source prompts investigation of methods to increase overall efficiency. Techniques to improve efficiency through the use of waveforms suitable for switching drivers are described and supported by experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Sonar imaging with the synthetic aperture technique

    Page(s): 102 - 106
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    It is well known that the coherency content of acoustic signals propagated in the ocean has been exploited in signal processing schemes to enhance the signal-to-noise performance of sonar systems. Currently, acoustic imaging techniques which rely on coherency are being developed. Recently, some of these techniques have passed from laboratory curiosities to hardware systems. Two such applications are acoustic holography and synthetic aperture sonar (SAS). This paper reviews the basic principles of the SAS technique. The characteristics which are useful for some present day problems will be discussed. Limitations of the SAS method caused by the ocean environment will be noted in general terms. View full abstract»

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  • Project ocean search: It's not too late

    Page(s): 110 - 112
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  • International training programs: The base for technology transfer

    Page(s): 113 - 116
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    Although the general field of marine sciences has received considerable attention over the past 15 years, institutions in a number of different countries still find it difficult to provide modern facilities for training and research and, consequently, lack trained individuals to deal with the ever-increasing problems and pressures of coastal development and pollution. Over the past four years, the Duke University Marine Laboratory has conducted an "International Training Program in the Marine Sciences" providing opportunities for approximately 70 young scientists from the developing countries to participate in formal course work, undertake an independent research project under the supervision of one of the resident Laboratory staff, and become familiar with new laboratory techniques and equipment. In addition, these scientists participate in a variety of seminars pertinent to the general theme of the relationships of marine organisms to the estuarine, shelf and oceanic environments, and the way in which these organisms may have been adapted to specific physical, chemical, geological, and biological factors within these diverse environments. This program has been funded by the Rockefeller Foundation and UNESCO. View full abstract»

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  • The SCARAB undersea vehicle system

    Page(s): 117 - 118
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