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Date 13-15 Sept. 1976

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 137
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The Law of the Sea Conference: The Present State of the Negotiations from a U.S. Perspective

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 1 - 4
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  • The Legal Status of Installations in the Marine Environment

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 5 - 9
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  • Legal Foundation for Priority Usage of Ocean Space

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 10 - 13
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    The author predicts the legal/political effects of the Ocean Farm Project, the first true open sea mariculture project under development at the Naval Undersea Center in San Diego, Ca. He offers an approach to facilitate the projects utilization for the benefit of mankind. This includes an identification, analysis and evaluate of the physical and social impacts likely to result from the employment of such a technology including legal/political effects. This was done with a view toward recommending that a prior claim under international law be made before actual installation of the farm in the open ocean environment. The goal here would be the avoidance of international and domestic conflict constituting counter claims, such as those that have plagued the deep ocean mining industry. View full abstract»

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  • Issues in Ocean Resource Management

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 14 - 19
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    Ocean environmental relations between the industrial North and the developing South are considered. The first issue is whether multiple environmental standards for ocean pollution abatement, less stringent for poor countries, are economically rational. Multiple standards are generally more efficient, but it does not follow that developing countries should always choose lower standards than wealthier countries. Transfrontier pollution is then defined, and two causes of globally inefficient resource allocation are analyzed: uncorrected international environmental externalities, and the failure of international negotiations to secure optimal ocean pollution abatement levels without a functioning international "market" for environmental rights. Finally, the concept of environmental exploitation of the poor countries by the rich countries is examined. Estimates for marine oil pollution suggest that industrial countries do indeed make disproportionate use of the oceans for waste disposal. View full abstract»

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  • Organizing for a National Oceans Program

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 20 - 27
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  • Analysis of Strength Characteristics of Deep Sea Sediments from Potential Manganese Nodule Mining Area in the North Central Pacific

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 28 - 36
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    A very extensive vane shear testing program of sediments from potential manganese nodule mining areas was conducted in 1975 during Leg III of NOAA's DOMES program. This effort was performed in conjunction with planned USGS studies. Replicate vane shear tests were made on 51 large box cores recovered from the three DOMES study sites A, B, and C. The statistically designed coring program (nested type), combined with efforts to sample major topographical features provided an ideal opportunity to more accurately assess the strength characteristics of nodule area sediments, including the macro- and micro- variability of this parameter. Test results demonstrated that the original vane shear strengths for the majority of cores tested from all three sites agree very closely. Average original strength profiles for each site increase from approximately 0.5 to 1.0 psi in the first 3-6 inches of sediment depth, thereafter values remain nearly constant or increase to about 1.4 psi in the rest of the depths examined. Average sensitivity values (ratios of original to remolded strength) however, were higher for Site C than Sites A and B. Analysis of the vane shear strength lateral variability showed that the largest percent of the variability is contributed by differences between cores from the same station, and the next largest percent by differences between tests conducted in the same core. At all test depths, strength differences between different stations and different sites were found to be less significant. These results clearly indicate the need for more detailed sediment sampling within relatively small seafloor areas. View full abstract»

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  • Preliminary Geotechnical Properties Northeast Central Pacific Nodule Mining Area

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 37 - 39
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    Thirteen short cores raised from water depths of 4.2 to 4.5 km in the Deepsea Ventures, Inc., mining claim area during Phase 1 of the NOAA Deep Ocean Mining Environmental Study (DOMES) were geotechnically analyzed at Lehigh University in 1975-76. The sediments are predominantly fine-grained, cohesive siliceous pelagic clays having average specific gravities of about 2.3. Selected geotechnical properties, measured and averaged over the 188 to 438 mm length of the cores, are: bulk density, 1.32 Mg/m3; water contents 178% dry weight; liquid limit, 137%; plastic limit, 82%; vane shear strength, 5 kPa; and sensitivity, 3.6. Reported shear strength and sensitivity values may be slightly lower because of sample disturbance. The data reported in this investigation are similar in magnitude to data for pelagic clay and siliceous ooze previously reported in the literature. View full abstract»

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  • Nuclear Measuring Techniques in Mining and Processing of Manganese Nodules

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 40 - 45
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    By utilizing characteristic interaction processes of nuclear radiation with matter along with automatic data acquisition and reduction, nuclear measuring techniques may successfully be applied for solving various analytical instrumentation problems in mining and processing of manganese nodules. Development work performed at the Geesthacht research centre demonstrates that gamma-ray transmission spectrometry allows a reliable quasi-continuous and non-destructive determination of both the nodule drift velocity and the space concentrations of nodules, sediment and water in a conveyer flow. Such data are representative of the efficiency of collector or hydraulic lift systems and are of considerable importance in economy deliberations. Measuring devices have been designed which may be attached to a conveyer pipe in the deep-sea. For elemental analyses of manganese nodules a rapid nuclear method based on fast-neutron activation techniques has been developed that allows determinations of the most relevant metals without sample treatment, thus being particularly suited for quasicontinuous applications. View full abstract»

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  • The IDOE/NSF Manganese Nodule Project: A Review of Progress

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 46 - 54
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    The Seabed Assessment Program of the Offices for the International Decade of Ocean Exploration, U. S. National Science Foundation has sponsored an inter-university project of research on marine manganese nodules since 1972. The project is studying the origin of manganese nodules and attempting to discern what processes lead to ore grade concentrations of minor metals within them. Significant progress has been made in understanding mineralogy, growth rates, sediment age, mode of formation, sediment interstitial fluid compositions, the role of organisms and the seafloor setting in which nodules are found. Future research in the project will be more process oriented than it has been in the past. View full abstract»

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  • NOAA's New Office of Marine Minerals

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 55
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    A new Office of Marine Minerals has been established in the Department of Commerce's National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The new office serves as a focal point for NOAA's new and expanding programs in marine minerals. It also has planning, coordinating and certain operational responsibilities. During the past year the new office has initiated various plans and studies. An important example in environmental assessment involves the development of a plan for a multi-phased "Assessment of Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Onshore Processing Activities Associated with Deep Ocean Mining" in response to Congressional request and concerns of others. A contract on the first phase has already been awarded. One of the major areas of involvement was in determining national needs in marine minerals. A major workshop was convened in Silver Spring, Maryland in early 1976 to review past and present NOAA activities in marine minerals including those conducted by the Marine Minerals Technology Center (MMTC) and Sea Grant and to assess future national needs. Approximately eighty persons from academia, industry, government and NOAA participated. This is the first time such a widely based marine minerals workshop was ever held. This paper will also review some of the highlights of this meeting held in Silver Spring. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Prospecting Methods Applied to Shallow-Water Mineral Exploration

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 56 - 66
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    The applicability of two electrical prospecting methods-controlled-source audiomagnetotellurics (AMT) and resistivity profiling with surface- and bottom-towed arrays-to underwater mineral exploration was tested in shallow waters along the north shore of Keweenaw Peninsula in Lake Superior. These methods were first used in Copper Harbor, where there are known underwater copper veins, and later applied in Great Sand Bay to determine whether offshore extensions of onshore copper veins exist. They proved successful in detecting conductivity anomalies associated with known underwater veins, lithologic boundaries, and sands with a high heavy-mineral content. Probable copper veins located along underwater projections of onshore veins were discovered in both areas. These methods hold promise in exploration for placer and vein deposits in the shallow marine environment. View full abstract»

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  • The Engineering, Manufacturing and Installation of Submarine Telephone Cable Systems

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 67 - 78
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    This paper is for the non-telecommunications engineer or scientist who is interested in the sea and who may have wondered about some things in the submarine cable business but never bothered to ask. It discusses the beginnings of transocean cable telephony and the state of the art today. The activities required to bring a modern seacable system into being, what is being done to reduce interruptions, and what cable does if anything to the environment, are discussed. A forecast of possible future cable developments is made. View full abstract»

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  • Submarine Power Cables

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 79 - 82
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    Since shortly after the first submarine telegraph cable installations in the early 1800's, underwater power cables have been implanted and used. Initial acceptance and use of such cables was slow, however, and only accellerated in the past half-century with the replacement of natural rubber insulations. This paper will look into many of the considerations involved in the installation and utilization of submarine or underwater power cables in the long lengths required in most systems. Some of the design considerations involved, some of the types of cables employed, a survey of some of the electrical considerations involved, the dynamics and mechanics of installation will also be discussed. Some thoughts on the future of submarine power cables will be presented. View full abstract»

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  • New Developments in Lightweight Electromechanical Cables

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 83
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  • Analysis and Test of Torque Balanced Electromechanical Mooring Cables

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 84 - 89
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    A method for stress and torque analysis of a steel armored Electromechanical mooring cable is presented and is compared with test results. The cable studied in this paper has an electrical core around which is helical wound two layers of armor. When the armor wires are loaded they develop torque and rotate. They also move radially; the amount of movement depends on the core hardness. This paper will limit itself to a soft core. Equations are developed to determine cable torque, torque unbalance, rotation, wire elongation, and stress. Empirical data is presented to determine cable modulus and elongation. Finally, this paper discusses actual torque balance and cable strength tests of electromechanical cables. Computed results are compared to test data for two cables. Very good agreement was achieved with test data in both cases. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Torque-Free Cables Using a Simulation Model

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 90 - 93
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    Torque-free operation is an essential performance requirement in today's ocean cable constructions. Torsional information is needed to properly select, design and specify cables. The fastest and most economical way of obtaining such information is by model simulations. Several models have recently been developed for specific purposes. One of these models, the helical model TAWAC developed by CEL, applies to both single and multistrand steel cables. For a given twist and elongation, TAWAC yields the corresponding torque and tension. An example is given to demonstrate the usefulness of TAWAC in cable selection, design and specification. Two multistrand cables with steel armors are simulated by TAWAC and the torsional response was found to be inadequate for the intended applications. By varying the pitch lengths nearly true torque-free designs were achieved. View full abstract»

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  • A Vector Magnetometer System for Detection, Tracking, and Survey of Submerged and Buried Transmission Cables and Lines from Controlled Submersible Vehicle

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 94
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    A vector magnetic gradiometer array has been developed for the purpose of detecting, tracking, and surveying undersea, sub-bottom transmission cables and lines. The system is designed to be carried by the SCARAB vehicle or similar controlled submersibles. The basic sensor unit in the array consists of a combination of a 3-axis fluxgate vector component magnetometer and a single axis gradiometer utilizing a pair of aligned fluxgate sensors. Theoretical models of the magnetic fields of extended (linear) cables and lines are presented. These models are compared with empirical data obtained from magnetometer measurements in the vicinity of real cables having intrinsic ferromagnetic materials of high permeability and carrying electric currents. Data outputs for various sensor array geometries are compared, and criteria for optimum sensitivity of detection, tracking, and survey are discussed. Results of field tests of the system are presented and evaluated. The applications of the system for A.C. tone detection are also considered. View full abstract»

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  • United Nations Activities in Marine Information Exchange

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 95 - 98
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    Land-locked as well as maritime nations are displaying an increasing interest in the enormous potential of marine resources. The investigations engendered by this interest require - and generate - both scientific and technical information about the marine environment and the means of coping with that environment. The importance of prompt and accurate dissemination of such information on an international basis is recognized by the United Nations, and its Ocean Economics and Technology Office has been asked to encourage such interchange. The authors will give a summary of the UN's current and forthcoming activities in this area. View full abstract»

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  • Teleprocessing in Scientific Information Exchange: The NSF Role in Innovative Research

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 99
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    The essence of technology transfer is the effective passing of information, which requires that the receiving party accept new-to-him information in organized form. This is no small requirement in a period of exponentially increasing volumes of scientific observations and their technical applications. Traditional methods of scientific and technical communications will not be adequate to assure timely and discriminating dissemination of this information, and the National Science Foundation has established a program to support research in novel methods. Special emphasis is placed on use of audio and video telecommunications, computers and automatic means of recording, storing, disseminating and retrieving information. The author will cite specific examples of projects for which grants have been made and will describe the directions in which the NSF hopes to stimulate research and development. View full abstract»

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  • The MIT/Marine Industry Collegium

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 100 - 103
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    The MIT Marine Industry Collegium is a partnership between the MIT Sea Grant Program and sponsoring companies, that is based on two premises: first, that the MIT Sea Grant Program can help a diverse industrial constituency by bringing to its attention the business implications or market opportunities resulting from selected marine research activities; second, that MIT and other Sea Grant institutions can benefit from interaction with industrial members, who provide critiques and evaluations of research activities and proposals, who suggest research subjects for independent on-going projects, and who provide important data for research and advisory services at MIT. Eighty corporate members participated in the Collegium Program which was initiated in July 1975. This technology transfer program has provided a vehicle for members to work together, with the MIT Sea Grant Program and with other Sea Grant institutions. View full abstract»

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  • Computer Image Processing in Marine Resource Exploration

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 104 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Pictographic data or imagery is commonly used in marine exploration. Preexisting image processing techniques (software) similar to those used on imagery obtained from unmanned planetary exploration were used to improve marine photography and side-scan sonar imagery. Features and details not visible by conventional photo processing methods were enhanced by filtering and noise removal on selected deep-sea photographs. Information gained near the periphery of photographs allows improved interpretation and facilitates construction of bottom mosaics where overlapping frames are available. Similar processing techniques were applied to side-scan sonar imagery, including corrections for slant range distortion, and along-track scale changes. The use of digital data processing and storage techniques greatly extends the quantity of information that can be handled, stored, and processed. View full abstract»

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  • Natural Hazard Losses from Coastal and Offshore Phenomena

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 114 - 115
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    A nation whose coastal areas, offshore as well as onshore, are becoming more intensively developed and utilized must recognize the potential property damage as well as loss of life and cost of injuries that may result from increasing vulnerability to natural hazards such as hurricanes, accompanying tornadoes, and other storms. These will have an impact on communications as well as boat and vessel accidents, also near-shore and off-shore installations. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of safe and effective use of the marine environment and the need for increasing attention and evaluation. Perhaps nowhere is the need for environmental data and analysis so great as it is in dealing with environmental hazards. View full abstract»

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  • Marine Radar Interrogator-Transponder (MRIT)

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 116 - 122
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper reports on the development of a Marine Radar Interrogator-Transponder (MRIT). Unfortunately, all vessel paints on a radar PPI look alike. As a result, when a ship master caught in a fog is trying to use his radio-telephone to work out a maneuvering plan with another vessel, it is difficult for him to identify which blip on the PPI is the source of the voice on the radio. One solution now receiving worldwide attention is to fit all vessels with active transponders. MRIT's are an advanced form that provide not only target identity and "clutter-free" target paints but also maneuvering information and such data as target's course, speed, draft, safe or dangerous cargo, etc. Mounted on a fixed navigation aid they can also function as racons. The paper describes the operational parameters and reviews the system bench tests and sea trials. View full abstract»

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