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Bioengineering Conference, Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE 36th Annual Northeast

Date 26-28 March 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 175
  • Welcome from the conference chair

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  • Table of contents

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Executive board members

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Program

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  • Keynote speaker biographies

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    Provides an abstract for each of the keynote presentations and a brief professional biography of each presenter. The complete presentations were not made available for publication as part of the conference proceedings. View full abstract»

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  • MEG source localization using a frequency beamformer

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (219 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a source localization technique that exploits the high temporal resolution of neuronal magnetoencephalography (MEG) data to locate the originating sources within the head. A traditional frequency beamforming algorithm was adapted from its conventional application of providing frequency information to yield information on the spatial location of simulated neuronal signals. This novel technique incorporates actual MEG sensor locations of the closest sensors at each location in space. The approach is relatively simple to implement, yields good spatial resolution, and accurately spatially locates a simulated source in low signal-to-noise environments. View full abstract»

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  • Algorithm for pupillometric data analysis

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pupillometry is used clinically to evaluate retinal and optic nerve health by measuring pupillary function in response to light stimuli. We have developed an algorithm using murine pupillometric measurements to automate the analysis of pupillometric data. The raw data is filtered and thresholding is used to remove data caused by eye blinking, loss of pupil tracking, and/or head movement. Twelve physiologically relevant parameters are extracted from the collected data. Algorithm derived values do not deviate significantly from the manually calculated parameters (p ¿ 0.05). This algorithm can be used to establish normative values of pupillary light responses for humans, as well as wild-type and transgenic mouse strains, which can subsequently be used as reference metrics for characterizing the retinal phenotype of retinal disease. Furthermore, it will be instrumental in the assessment of functional visual recovery in humans and pre-clinical models of retinal degeneration and optic nerve disease following pharmacological or gene-based therapies. View full abstract»

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  • An augmented finite element model of femur for simulations involving frontal impacts

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (334 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An enhanced finite element model of the human femur is presented as a reliable mean for prediction of bone failure mechanism for simulations involving frontal impacts. The original finite element representation of femur which was considered in this study did not encompass node connectivity at the interfaces between cortical shaft and condylar regions. Improvements made to the original model have been highlighted. The model has been validated for recorded longitudinal forces and possibility to locate a potential bone fracture. Results obtained from these validations are more in conformance with the cadaver tests than the previous numerical model and are more reliable and accurate in injury prediction. View full abstract»

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  • The human umbilical vein as a biologic scaffold for vocal fold reconstruction

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    A variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds have been promising in various tissue engineering applications, such as the porcine small intestinal submucosa. Yet no particular scaffolds have been optimal for vocal fold regeneration. The decellularized human umbilical vein (HUV) is a novel allogeneic scaffold that has shown some promise for cardiovascular tissue engineering. This study examines the potential of the HUV as an acellular scaffold for engineering the vocal fold, in order to develop an implantable tissue substitute that can promote constructive tissue remodeling. A saline-based decellularization protocol was used to fabricate a biodegradable, acellular, three-dimensional scaffold from native HUV tissue. Histological examination and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that native cellular materials in the HUV were removed with a fine three-dimensional structure of proteins and proteoglycans well preserved. Primary human vocal fold fibroblasts were seeded on the abluminal surface of the acellular HUV scaffold and cultured for 21 days. Significant proliferation and infiltration of the fibroblasts in the scaffold were observed. These data supported the promise of the HUV scaffold for vocal fold regeneration and restoration. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of wear-debris particles on RAW 264.7 cells

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wear-debris particles from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and metals has been implicated in periprosthetic osteolysis and cellular response to them depend on their size and dose. Response to larger particles has been previously studied, but there are no specific studies examining biological response to simultaneous administration of both UHMWPE and Ti particles less than 0.2¿m in size. Our lab has developed a standardized and reproducible technique to isolate, characterize and fractionate both particles into 3 distinct size ranges [1.0-10.0¿m (micron), 0.2-1.0¿m (submicron) and 0.01-0.2¿m (nano)] and furthermore minimize clumping, which facilitated disaggregation and isolation of individual particles. RAW 264.7 cells were treated for 24h, 48h and 72h with various doses and sizes of both particulates simultaneously. Cell membrane damage was measured by quantifying lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. The cells elicited a dose and size dependent response to the nano-particulates at the highest dose. At 72h there was a significant increase in LDH released by cells treated with the nanoparticles as compared to untreated controls as well as to larger particles. To mimic in vivo conditions, further studies are being conducted and will involve administration of dual wear particulates that will help understand cellular response to wear particulates. View full abstract»

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  • Incorporation and characterization of alpha-helical peptide-based anchors into bead-supported lipid bilayer membranes

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Our aim is to design alpha-helical peptide complexes to enhance their stability and biological feasibility for the study of membrane proteins and their interactions. In on-going work, we employ (K3A4L2A7L2A3K3) as anchoring molecules, where conjugation of the peptide with fluoresceine isothiocyanate (FITC) allows one to access a variety of chemistries (such as introducing fluorescent dye, etc.) for orthogonal modification. These peptides partition within NHS-PEG3000-NHS which function as in vitro models for interactions with the membrane, will be incorporated into mimic lipid bilayer membranes (such as DOPC) supported by microbeads. We could control the receptor site densities on lipobeads by varying the mole fraction of different lipids and ligands. Moreover, the secondary structure of peptide within these micelles is characterized with circular dichroism. Lateral fluidity of the fluorescently tagged peptide is analyzed via fluorescence imaging microscopy (Confocal Microscopy) and quantified using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) techniques. Variations in the peptide sequence allow us to rationally investigate the influence of sequence on peptide anchor stability. View full abstract»

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  • Zinc oxide nanoparticle and polymer antimicrobial biomaterial composites

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    Particulate zinc oxide (ZnO) is a known antibacterial agent. Studies show that reducing the size of ZnO particles to nanoscale dimensions further enhances their antibacterial properties. Polymers, like all biomaterials, run the risk of harboring bacteria which may produce an antibiotic-resistant biofilm. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles, to form a composite, may reduce undesirable bacteria activity. The purpose of the present in vitro study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of ZnO nanoparticles when incorporated into a polymer biomaterial. Staphylococcus aureus were seeded at a known cell density onto coverslips coated in a film of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with varying concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles. Samples were maintained for 24 or 72 h. Crystal violet staining indicated a reduced presence of biofilm on ZnO nanoparticle and polymer composites compared to pure polymer. Live/dead assays provided images to confirm reduced presence of active bacteria on samples with ZnO nanoparticles. Development of this technology may improve biomaterial effectiveness for applications, such as endotrachial tubes and implanted biomaterials, which are prone to bacterial infection. View full abstract»

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  • The correlation between change in near-dissociated phoria and vergence dynamics

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (215 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Visual fatigue is defined as weariness or discomfort localized in either the head or the eye after a visually demanding task. The etiology of visual fatigue is insufficiently understood in vision research. This study investigates the correlation between changes of near-dissociated phoria versus vergence dynamics defined as the ratio of convergence average peak velocity to divergence average peak velocity. Four degree convergence and divergence eye movements as well as phoria levels were recorded using an infrared eye movement monitor from five subjects. Preliminary data show a high correlation between the changes in phoria versus the change in vergence dynamics. Results suggest that the amount of changes in the two parameters, phoria and vergence dynamics, are one of many factors which may infer why some people are more prone to visual fatigue than others. View full abstract»

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  • The cerebral vascular enhancement effect in establishing diffusion tensor imaging protocols

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    The focus of this paper is to investigate the significance of the cerebral vascular enhancement effect on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets and in establishing appropriate DTI imaging protocols. Two DTI scans are performed on each subject during the same imaging session. Between DTI scans, 22 minutes of a visual tracking experiment and 3 minutes of an alternating breath hold experiment are performed. These functional tasks, in particular the breath hold task, increase the blood flow and volume to study the vascular enhancement between the two DTI scans. Data collected from seven healthy control subjects are analyzed in DTI Studio and quantified using fractional anisotropy (FA). ROIs were selected in close proximity to the blood supply from three main cerebral arteries (posterior, middle, and anterior). Preliminary results suggest that there is a significant cerebral vascular enhancement effect between a DTI scan performed at the beginning of the experiment versus a DTI scan performed at the end of the experiment. View full abstract»

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  • A MATLAB-based image registration graphical user interface system for 31P NMR and 1H MR images of the lower leg

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    Measuring energy metabolism in patients with acute and chronic heart failure is an important research tool for understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and developing new treatments. Measuring energy metabolism of the lower extremities using 31P NMR imaging, may establish an alternate method of studying the pathophysiology of heart failure. The 31P NMR imaging technique yields extremely low spatial resolution, making image registration with this modality problematic. In previous studies, 31P NMR images were registered manually with 1H MR images to correlate the image information with physical space. This process takes a great deal of time for the physician. Therefore, a MATLAB-based image registration system has been designed to automate this process for the physician to improve both time and registration efficacy. View full abstract»

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  • Visual cortical circuits revealed using fMRI and ICA

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    This research used the Infomax ICA algorithm to search for independent circuits within the functional activity evoked during saccadic and vergence tracking fMRI experiments. Image processing determined independent components from each subject's data and then identified which components had high correlation between subjects. Using the individual independent components that had high correlation between subjects, a group ICA was performed. The temporal properties between ROIs were then examined. The results of this study indicated that there are two separate spatial pathways; fronto-parietal and cerebellum, involved in oculomotor tracking tasks and the cerebellar pathway was delayed compared to the fronto-parietal component. View full abstract»

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  • Functional connectivity in oculomotor movements

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (390 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Neuroimaging via fMRI reveals that the neural networks behind the visual system are one of the most complex systems for processing information regarding the external world. Ocular movements can be classified as conjugate saccadic or disconjugate vergence eye movements. Motor learning is another highly complex function residing in the cortical and subcortical regions of the brain that utilizes both cognitive and motor regions. This study explores the neural activity and connectivity between regions of interests using a Granger-causality analysis. The primary findings of this investigation are 1) saccadic and vergence eye movements share common neural activity in terms of participation of cortical and subcortical regions 2) there are more influences / connections in vergence functional activity compared to saccadic activity and 3) there are more influences / interconnectivity during the prediction experimental sequence compared to the random tracking experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Saccade correlation to adaptation of progressive lens amongst presbyopes

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    This study's aim is to ascertain whether the amount of saccades during convergence has any relation to a person's preference of progressive additive lenses (PALs). Since patients who are better adapters to PALs have faster vergence dynamics, we presume those who do not adapt well must have an alternative to compensate for their slower vergence system. The goal of this experiment is to compare the eye movements of those who adapt and those who do not adapt when performing a double-step stimulus experiment. Of the presbyopes studied, eight subjects wear PALs daily, while the other seven could not adapt to PALs. Results concluded that presbyopes who could not adapt to PALs have an increased amount of saccades when performing the convergence experiment as compared to that of those who could adapt. View full abstract»

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  • Multifunctional superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPION) for treating orthopedic and biofilm infections

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (250 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As with all surgical procedures, implantation comes with the added risk of infection. The inability of antibacterial therapy to treat persistent infection demonstrates the need for a more advanced therapeutic approach. The goal of this proposal is, for the first time, to use superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) to treat infection on biomedical devices. The hypothesis of this study is that SPION could be used as a modular tool for comprehensive infection treatment including disease targeting, infection control, and therapy feedback. View full abstract»

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  • The vergence transient component from a GMCA correlates to progressive lens acceptability

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (979 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Presbyopia is part of the aging process where the eye losses the ability to focus at different depths. Progressive additive lenses (PALs) are routinely prescribed to facilitate the accommodation system for those with presbyopia. However, it is unknown why some individuals are more likely to adapt to PALs compared to others. Eighteen subjects who had all tried PALs participated in a vergence motor learning experiment. Peak velocity was measured. A generalized morphological component analysis (GMCA) was applied to ensemble vergence response data to dissect responses into their preprogrammed transient and feedback controlled sustained component. Results show that subjects with a greater peak velocity were more likely to adapt to progressive lenses. The transient component from GMCA was highly correlated to peak velocity suggesting that the larger the magnitude of the transient component the more likely a presbyope was to adapt to PALs. View full abstract»

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  • Injectable multifunctional scaffold for spinal cord repair

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    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects thousands of Americans each year. The injury results in local cell loss in the spinal cord, interrupting the connections between brain and periphery. Current treatment options for SCI are limited due to the inability of adult neurons to regenerate in the inhibitory environment of the injured central nervous system (CNS). The primary goal of this work is to design a multifunctional, injectable hydrogel that supports neural repair following SCI. This project proposes the use of a branched copolymer based on poly(N-isopropylacryalmide) (PNIPAAm) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The thermosensitive nature of the hydrogel allows for easy implantation together with cellular grafts, and the controlled delivery of therapeutic factors. In this study, we investigated the cytocompatibility of the scaffold in vitro and also report its performance in vivo, with and without brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a rodent model of SCI. Our results show that the injectable PNIPAAm-PEG scaffold completely fills the injury site, and does not elicit a larger host inflammatory response than a commercially available gelatin sponge. In addition, we have shown that the scaffold loaded with BDNF is permissive to host axon growth. With these promising results, we suggest that an injectable PNIPAAm-PEG hydrogel can serve as a multifunctional device that will result in an effective platform technology for the treatment of SCI. View full abstract»

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  • Using an animal learning model of the hippocampus to simulate human fMRI data

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    Recent human fMRI studies have shown that the hippocampal region is essential for probabilistic category learning, memory formation-retrieval and context based performance. We present an artificial neural network model that can qualitatively simulate the BOLD signal for these tasks. The model offers ideas on the functional architecture and the relationship between the hippocampus and other brain structures. We also show that symptoms of neurobiological diseases like Parkinson's disease (PD) and Schizophrenia can be simulated and studied using the model. View full abstract»

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  • The frequency of saccades in relation to convergence and divergence dynamics

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (606 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During symmetrical vergence movements, saccades are frequently observed. This research tests the hypothesis that the brain initiates a saccade to facilitate a vergence movement when it has slower dynamics. This study analyzes the frequency of saccades in four healthy controls during near and far ranges for both convergence and divergence movements. The experiment suggests that the frequency of saccades is related to vergence dynamics because divergence at far ranges (slower movements) has a greater occurrence of saccades than divergence at near ranges (faster movements). Conversely, during convergence, subjects have a greater frequency of saccades in near ranges (slower movements) than in far ranges (faster movements). This study therefore implies that the eye may have the tendency to saccade more frequently in order to compensate for slow vergence potentially to speed target recognition over binocular fusion. View full abstract»

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  • Neural differentiation of human neural stem/progenitor cells on piezoelectric scaffolds

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    This study evaluated the neural differentiation of human neural stem /progenitor cells (hNPCs) on electrospun fibrous piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) scaffolds. We hypothesize aligned fibrous piezoelectric scaffold would provide both physical cues (via contact guidance) and local electrical activity to promote neuronal differentiation and neurite extension. hNPCs predominately differentiated into the neuronal lineage on both random and aligned electrospun PVDF-TrFE scaffolds. Less nestin-positive hNPCs were present on the scaffolds compared to laminin coated surface. The results suggest the potential use of these scaffolds in spinal cord repair and other neural applications. View full abstract»

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  • Electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering applications

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    The objective of this study was to fabricate 3-dimensional (3D) chitosan nanofiber scaffolds using an electrospinning technique and explore its potential for cardiac tissue engineering. Three culture conditions were tested: cardiomyocytes only, cardiomyocytes-fibroblasts cocultures, and cardiomyocyte-endothelial cells cocultures. The cells were seeded on 2-dimensional (2D) chitosan films and 3D chitosan nanofibers. Cellular morphology and functionality were assessed using immunofluorescent staining for alpha-sarcomeric actin (SA) and gap junction protein, connexin-43 (Cx43). In both the 2D and 3D scaffolds, only the cardiomyocyte-fibroblasts cocultures resulted in polarized cardiomyocyte morphology, fibril SA expression and Cx43 expression was higher compared to the other two conditions. In addition, the fibroblasts cocultures demonstrated synchronized contractions involving large tissue-like cellular networks. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to utilize 3D chitosan nanofibers as cardiomyocyte scaffolds. Our results demonstrate that chitosan nanofibers can serve as a potential scaffold that can retain cardiomyocyte morphology and function. View full abstract»

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