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Wireless Communication and Sensor Networks (WCSN), 2009 Fifth IEEE Conference on

Date 15-19 Dec. 2009

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  • [Copyright notice]

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  • [Front matter]

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  • Schedule

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  • Agent based Context aware Image Fusion for Military sensor networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (319 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an Agent based Context aware Image Fusion for Military sensor networks (ACIF-MSN) to form an improved infrastructure for multi-sensor image fusion. This paper considers three contexts namely temporal, emergency and computational contexts. The mobile agent used in the scheme roams around different active sensor nodes in each of the clusters to perform context aware image fusion based on predetermined signal strength using wavelet transform. Finally, once all the relevant nodes have been visited, agent transmits the fused image to the sink node. This work limits the information to only images. The scheme is evaluated using simulation models. View full abstract»

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  • G K clustering approach to determine optimal number of clusters for Wireless Sensor Networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (685 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are resource constrained system. Efficient use of resources especially, energy is most important for their life extension. Clustering is a well known technique for achieving high scalability and efficient resource allocation in WSN. One of the fundamental issues in cluster based networks is to determine the optimal number of clusters with the objective of minimizing the energy consumption. Considering its importance, a GK clustering approach is used to determine the optimal number of clusters. The study considers the deployment of 100 nodes in 100×100 m2 area for both random and random uniform distributions. View full abstract»

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  • Design of SOA based service stack for collaborative wireless sensor network

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (691 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the current decade, substantial growth in number of wireless sensor network deployments to sense a wide array of data ranging from environmental to healthcare is observed. As these WSNs are designed with the goal to serve their own organisation without futuristic idea of sharing the data with others, their architectures pose a limitation to the purpose of collaboration. A design is presented in this paper to create stack of services, interfaces and repositories for a standard WSN set-up to support collaboration which will enable data sharing in efficient way. With the help of proposed architecture, the service brokers, federal agencies and individuals can make use of these services to enrich their understanding of geo-spatial and temporal behaviour of the sensed data. The SOA comes as the ready to use technological standard to implement the stack and its invocation. View full abstract»

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  • Strong law for number of edges on surface of a unit sphere

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article, we consider `N' spherical caps of area 4¿p were uniformly distributed over the surface of a unit sphere. We study the random intersection graph GN constructed by these caps. we derive the strong law results for the number of isolated vertices in GN: for p = c/Nr, c > 0 for r < 1, there is no isolated vertex in GN almost surely i.e., there are atleast N/2 edges in GN and for r > 3, every vertex in GN is isolated i.e., there is no edge in edge set ¿N. View full abstract»

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  • City traffic congestion control in Indian scenario using wireless sensors network

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (863 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we are proposing a wireless sensor network based solution for typical indian city traffic. The objective is to understand and solve the congestion of the chaotic traffic. We are proposing to control and optimize the duration of time a signal is green, and the number of vehicles passing through the junction, in a given interval of time. Our objective is to use WSN to make the traffic signal adaptive to the dynamic traffic flow, so that the number of vehicles passing through the signal is maximized. The analysis of our proposed algorithm and our initial experiment based on simulation, we found that 7% more vehicle can be handled by the same infrastructure. This also means that by using our system model and algorithm, 7% more vehicles will pass through the same junction or on an average each vehicle will save 7% of their waiting time at the respective junction. View full abstract»

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  • Improved robust user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (452 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely used in a wide variety of applications. Deploying WSNs in unattended environments can cause various security threats. In these scenarios, provisioning user authentication is a critical issue. In this paper, we propose improved robust user authentication scheme for WSNs, which is a variation of strong-password based solution. We have analyzed security properties of the proposed scheme and compared with the previous schemes in terms of overhead cost. We have also conducted formal verification of the proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • An Optimized Lifetime Enhancement scheme for data gathering in wireless sensor networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (749 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Design of energy efficient schemes for data gathering is an important concern for lifetime enhancement of wireless sensor networks. Variation in the distances of nodes from the Base Station and differences in inter-nodal distances are primary factors causing unequal energy dissipation among the nodes. Thus energy difference between the various nodes increases with time resulting in degraded network performance. The LEACH and PEGASIS schemes which provided elegant solutions to the problem suffer basic drawbacks due to randomization of cluster heads and greedy chain formation respectively. In this paper, we propose an Optimized Lifetime Enhancement (OLE) Scheme which shows enhanced performance over these schemes. OLE increases the network performance by ensuring a sub-optimal energy dissipation of the individual nodes despite their random deployment. It employs modern heuristics like particle swarm optimization instead of the greedy algorithm as in PEGASIS to construct energy efficient routing paths. Extensive simulations validate the improved performance of OLE. View full abstract»

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  • QoS based event delivery for disaster monitoring applications

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (545 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) become more technically mature, we are observing more deployment that is widespread. Disaster Monitoring and Recovery is one area receiving recent attention in the field. Here, due to hostile terrains or dangerous settings, standard manual or wired detections are not feasible. In situ WSN have the potential to analyze conditions and make predictions regarding dangerous situations potentially saving lives. However, this situation brings many challenges for the WSN in terms of event detection and the subsequent relaying of that event notification to the devices/systems/people that require it. The latter is the focus of this paper. Given the general unreliability of WSNs, there is a demand for Quality of Service driven mechanisms that can ensure that event data is delivered reliably and timely as required by the application. To this end, we present a novel Priority-Based Random Re-routing protocol (PB-RRR). We evaluate our protocol using both an analytical model and a 34-node proof-of-concept sensor deployment. We introduce five QoS levels that progressively improve high priority message throughput from best-effort to reliable event message delivery. We evaluate how congestion, proportions of priority event nodes/messages, and decision threshold affects message delay for each QoS level. View full abstract»

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  • A novel architecture for intelligent and adaptive wireless sensor network based alarming system

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) play very important role in information and communication Technology (ICT) and have attracted a lot of attention lately. The importance of these networks are increasing exponentially due to its usage in monitoring wide variety of applications. In this paper, we propose a novel architecture for intelligent alarm generation in a wireless sensor zone. We developed a decision support system for continuous monitoring the logged data for quality assurance across the zone, to raise alerts in terms of mail or message or alarm following any violation in the safety norm in an intelligent and adaptive manner. We implemented the system, by creating a Wireless Sensor Network Zone using Crossbow Imote2 sensor nodes. The standard Zigbee 802.15.4 protocol is used for communication. Our prototype system generates alerts in terms of SMS to predefined and authenticated mobile number(s) following detection of alarm in terms of fire, light, object movement and pH, Temperature, Salinity, Dissolved Oxygen of drinking water. View full abstract»

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  • An energy efficient routing protocol using transmission range and direction for sensor networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (606 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sensors in sensor networks are operated by their embedded batteries and they can not work any more if the batteries run out. The data collected by sensors should be transferred to a sink node through the efficient routes. Many energy efficient routing algorithms were proposed. However, the previous algorithms consume more energy since they did not consider the transmission range and direction. In this paper we propose an algorithm TDRP(Transmission range and Direction Routing Protocol)that considers the transmission range and direction for the efficient data transmission. Since TDRP does not produce clusters or grids but four quadrants and send data to the nodes in one quadrant in the direction of the sink node, it has less network overhead. Furthermore since the proposed algorithm sends data to the smaller number of nodes compared to the previous algorithms, the energy efficiency is better than other algorithms in communication node fields that are located in packet transmit directions. View full abstract»

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  • Optimized Rumor routing algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (657 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless Sensor Network is data centric network that works on query reply mechanism with various types of quires. Rumor routing is on of the data centric routing algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks. Literature shows that Rumor routing algorithm is energy efficient than the Ant Colony Optimization, Gossip Routing, Deterministic Flooding and Directed Diffusion. Data centric WSN works has various types of quires that govern the traffic patters of WSN. In our work we have exploited this key feature of Data centric WSN for improving the energy efficiency of Rumor routing algorithm. Based on information requirement, we have classified quires in two parts, instantaneous queries and continuous queries. Using this query classification we have optimized the Rumor routing for different types of traffic patterns. Our simulation result shows significant reduction in energy consumption after applying our optimization over Rumor Routing algorithm which we called Optimized Rumor Routing. View full abstract»

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  • Multi hop multi anchor geometrical computation based localization algorithm for wireless sensor networks with limited communication

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents analysis of a geometrical computation based localization mechanism for wireless sensor networks. Authors analyze its accuracy for parameters like number of reference nodes, number of communications and different power level. Multiple anchors are used to analyze the performance of algorithm in terms of mean square error (m.s.e) of localization and no. of communications required. An unknown node determines its feasibility region of location from all communicable anchors with the help of available inaccurate distance and angle measurements. The advertisement of feasibility region of this node helps other nodes to further reduce their own feasibility region. The overall effect is reduction in the mean square error of localization. The number of iteration to achieve acceptable level of precision and accuracy is also taken into consideration. The results indicate that an increase in no of anchors or transmission range has a limited effect on localization error. View full abstract»

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  • Energy efficient location service based on kth Order independent set

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Location service stores and maintains geographical locations of all the nodes in a network, which is used by location based routing protocols. It consists of location servers which stores location information of some or all nodes in the network. Two basic operations, carried on location servers, are update and query. In update operation, nodes update their location information stored in their location servers. In query, any node wish to communicate with a node in the network queries for the location of destination node. There is a tradeoff between robustness of the location service and its energy efficiency. For increasing the robustness of the system, there should be more nodes serving as location server, but it causes network congestion because of increase in number of control packets and decrease in network lifetime because of power consumption. On the other hand to increase lifetime of the network and to decrease number of control packets, there should be less number of nodes acting as location server, but it leads to decrease in robustness of the location service. Moreover, the set of location servers should spread all over the network to increase the scalability. In this paper, we propose a method to select evenly distributed location servers dynamically based on kth Order independent set. The number of servers increases as the value of k decreases. View full abstract»

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  • Distance measurement and error estimation scheme for RSSI based localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (721 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the advent of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN's) covering a whole gamut of applications which is getting broader by the day and it is indeed necessary to study the nuances in WSN out of which aforementioned is one. WSN's consists of large number of deployed sensor nodes and a base node for aggregating data from deployed sensor nodes. Wireless Sensor Network's (WSN) are attribute based and they are not concerned about the location of deployed sensor node from which the base node is receiving the data. In certain specific applications like health monitoring systems, tracking systems and dynamic networks, the location of transmitting node is essential. Location of the deployed sensor nodes can be found either by TOA, TDOA or Received Signal Strength (RSS) measurements. In this paper we tried to estimate the approximated distances of deployed sensor nodes using RSS measurements. The estimated distances can be further used for locating the position of deployed sensor nodes. The working model has been realised in TinyOs and RSS measurements are made using Telosb nodes. View full abstract»

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  • Improved cluster head election protocol (ICHEP) for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (477 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The lifetime of a wireless sensor network is constrained by the limited energy and processing capabilities of its nodes. The network lifetime can be maximized when the energy of different nodes of the network depletes uniformly during the sensing, processing and forwarding the data to the sink. Since, the energy required per bit for communication is around two orders of magnitude higher than computation, hence the task of sending the sensed data to the sink requires proper designation of nodes for this energy intensive task. In this paper we have considered the heterogeneity of the sensor network in terms of the initial energy of the sensor nodes. We assume that some of the nodes are having more energy than the normal nodes. Due to the heterogeneity present in the network, it is not possible to use the same protocol which is used for the homogeneous network. In this paper, the proposed cluster head selection technique uses the additional energy of the sensor node to increase the life time of the sensor network. The technique is a modification of LEACH (Low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy) protocol which is hierarchically clustered protocol. Our protocol also removes the instability caused with the death of first node. View full abstract»

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  • Real time acquisition of vehicle diagnostic data using wireless sensor network

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (435 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Every manufacturer wants to produce quality products for that they required to implement some analytical procedure on the products, Live Data brings the real facts for the manufacturer to optimize the product performance in real time. By getting live data manufacturer decreases the risk and improve the quality of the products. Launching of new models is the result of past products, feedback through on and off line market survey. The launch of new product undergo through simulation. If simulation works properly then company launches a model based on the simulation. These models are tested against different parameter on different conditions. On these bases modification are done accordingly. The New approaches are to get real feedback or real/live data of the vehicle from wireless sensor network. These live data can be collected by embedding the different microprocessors which communicate with each other and also with the outside world. The system consists of a large number of sensors communicating through a wireless network, thus it is capable of tolerating multiple sensor failures, provides good coverage and high accuracy. The OSGi gateway will work as middleware. Wireless sensor network that is intended to operate as a sensing and monitoring system. The detected events are collected and transmitted to an external monitoring entity by a PDA inside the monitored model. PDA will use mobile service provider's GPRS gateway for out side communication. View full abstract»

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  • LBAA: Level based address auto-configuration for ad hoc networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (747 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are infrastructure-less, multi-hop wireless networks. Nodes in the MANET have to be configured with unique addresses for unicast communications. As the nodes are mobile, the centralized administration does not suit for auto-configuration. So, we need a distributed address auto-configuration scheme for MANETs. Most of the existing schemes use DAD to ensure uniqueness, which consumes a lot of bandwidth which, in turn, causes energy wastage. In this paper, we propose the LBAA scheme which uses a large pool of unique addresses at each node with negligible space complexity. This scheme can be extended to large-scale MANETs with 100% uniqueness in address allocation. DAD is not needed for our scheme as each node maintains a dis-joint set of addresses. In the simulation results, we show that LBAA performs best in guaranteeing uniqueness and performs quite well in energy efficiency, allocation latency and nodes configured ratio. View full abstract»

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  • Study of BitTorrent for file sharing in ad hoc networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (626 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A mobile ad-hoc network(MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without any fixed infrastructure. The topology of MANETs changes dynamically causing frequent node failures and network partitions. Sharing of information in such networks is a challenging task. MANETs and peer-to-peer networks share several common characteristics such as self-configuration, decentralized architecture and dynamic topology. These similarities are appealing for implementing peer-to-peer systems in MANETs. The peer-to-peer protocols proposed for the Internet are not directly applicable for mobile ad-hoc networks due to the dynamic characteristics of MANETs. This paper implements BitTorrent for MANETs(BTM) which uses random piece download to clients. We have also implemented other download mechanisms - rarest piece and random first piece with rarest piece and strict priority. We compare the performance of these three versions in terms of average goodput, average energy consumption, control overhead and average latency. Our performance study shows that the last performs better than pure rarest piece and is much better than random download. We also compared the performance of File Transfer Protocol(FTP) with the three versions of BTM. The results indicate that FTP is better than the three versions of BTM for small file sizes, in terms of latency of download whereas in all other parameters, BTM performs better. As the file size increases, BTM shows better performance than FTP even for latency. View full abstract»

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  • IMAODV: A reliable and multicast AODV protocol for MANET

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (478 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) can allow mobile nodes to setup a temporary network for instant communication without any fixed infrastructure. Mobile nodes dynamically exchange data/ information among themselves without any fixed base station. Many networking applications such as video conferencing, video-on-demand services, and distributed database replications require multicast communications. Providing reliable multicast is one of the basic requirements to develop better routing protocols which is used for disaster management, emergency relief, mobile conferencing among many other applications. As mobile host changes its access point over a time interval, multicast routes have to be updated frequently. This poses several challenges to provide an efficient multicast routing. In this paper, we propose an Improved Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (IMAODV) protocol based on Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Multicast AODV (MAODV) protocol to support reliability and multicasting for on-line routing of delivery-guaranteed multicasts. Exhaustive simulation experiments reveal that, proposed IMAODV performs better in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), average End-to-End delay and Network Routing Load (NRL) compared to both AODV and MAODV for high mobility rate and large network grid size. View full abstract»

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  • Cross layer AODV with Position based forwarding routing for mobile adhoc network

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobile adhoc network(MANET) is a ¿on the fly¿ network of mobile nodes. Packets are routed through mobile nodes instead of any fixed base station. (AODV) is most adopted routing protocol in MANET where a path is established when a node wants to communicate with another node. The period over which the communication proceeds through this path is known as a Session. When the mobility in the network is high, and the topology changes frequently the route maintenance overhead in AODV increases. The established routes are to be changes with new routes as the nodes moves away. It results in low performance as many packets are dropped when some active router node of a path moves away significantly. It also results in control overhead of route discovery that take place frequently. We improve the performance of the AODV by adopting a cross layer approach and Position based forwarding technique. In Position based forwarding, every node will maintain a set of neighbors nearest to the position of the destination. At the time of route establishment only these nodes will be selected. Hence the route lifetime improves. By a cross layer approach we design a MAC layer based approach to calculate the received power of the packets from other nodes. If the power of the packets is not sufficient (We determine a threshold value for received power based on observation) then MAC layer informs the network layer which interns removes those nodes from the routing table. Experiments are performed in OMNET++. View full abstract»

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  • MOADRP: Mobile Ad-hoc Network Routing Protocol

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (409 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) have gained a lot of importance in the recent years due to their flexible ways of operation, where mobile nodes form the network to communicate with each other, without the aid of any fixed infrastructure. Routing in MANETs is a challenging task mostly for its rapidly changing topology. Several routing protocols have already been proposed and implemented for ad-hoc networks. This paper proposes a new approach to evolve a suitable algorithm named Mobile Ad-hoc Network Routing Protocol (MOADRP). This algorithm is used to find routes for message transmission between mobile nodes in MANETs. The main objective of this newly implemented routing protocol is to reduce the overhead of maintaining a large routing table and also reduce the time delay for finding the route. View full abstract»

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