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Energy and Environment Technology, 2009. ICEET '09. International Conference on

Date 16-18 Oct. 2009

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  • [Front cover - Vol 3]

    Page(s): C1
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  • [Title Page i - Volume 3]

    Page(s): i
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  • [Title page iii - Volume 3]

    Page(s): iii
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  • [Copyright notice - Volume 3]

    Page(s): iv
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  • Table of contents - Volume 3

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  • Preface - Volume 3

    Page(s): xvi
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  • Organizing Committee - Volume 3

    Page(s): xvii - xviii
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  • list-reviewer

    Page(s): xix
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  • Adsorption of Nickel(II) with Composite Filter Material Made of Coal Fly Ash

    Page(s): 3 - 6
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    The regular methods for nickel removal such as activated carbon adsorption are always complicated in process and expensive in construction and maintenance. In this research coal fly ash, usually taken as industrial waste, was synthesized into particle filter material, and then the latter was used as absorbent for nickel removal from aqueous water. The physical and chemical properties of this material were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). Results indicated that this material had high porosity and large surface area. The main elements of this material were oxygen, silicon, carbon, aluminum, iron, calcium and magnesium. In the batch experiments for the application of this filter material in nickel removal, the effects of contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The batch experiments showed an equilibrium time of 90 min was required for effective adsorption of nickel. Removal ratio of nickel increased greatly at pH 5.5-6.5. More than 90% of nickel was removed with solution pH above 6.5. Adsorption rate constant (k) increased as temperature (T) rose. The equation describing the relation of k and T complied to Arrhenius equation, which indicated the adsorption of nickel on this filter material had some characteristics of chemical reaction. The adsorption isotherm of nickel accorded with Langmuir model. View full abstract»

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  • Air Pollution PM2.5 Data Analysis in Los Angeles Long Beach with Seasonal ARIMA Model

    Page(s): 7 - 10
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    An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) is one of the popular linear models in time series forecasting during the past three decades. Recently many environmental and socioeconomic time series data can be adequately modeled using the seasonal ARIMA model, also known as seasonal Box-Jenskins approach, and based on the fitted model. this paper presented a general expression of seasonal ARIMA models with periodicity and provide parameter estimation, diagnostic checking procedures to model, and predict PM2.5 data extracted from the California Air Resource Board using seasonal ARIMA models, we show experimental results with Los Angeles long beach PM 2.5 data sets indicate that the seasonal ARIMA model can be an effective way to forecast air pollution. View full abstract»

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  • Arbitrary-Order Spherical Harmonics Method for Radiative Heat Transfer in Semitransparent Medium

    Page(s): 11 - 14
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    A radiative transfer model for a linearly or nonlinearly anisotropic scattering medium is developed. An arbitrary-order spherical harmonics method (PN-approximation) was presented to decompose the radiative transfer equation into a set of coupled partial differential equations which solved by the tridiagonal matrix method. By using PN-approximation formulation, the greenhouse effect from carbon dioxide on atmosphere temperature profile was simulated. The results show that the spherical harmonics method is an effective method which has any desired high-order of accuracy. The increase of carbon dioxide concentration causes the enhancement of air temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Change Trend of Atmosphere Visibility from 1951 to 2006 in Guilin

    Page(s): 15 - 18
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    The paper uses cumulate percent method, ridit value method and ¿very good day¿ method, to analyzes data of atmosphere visibility in Guilin city from 1951 to 2006 year. The result shows that atmosphere visibility ascends in 1950s, reduces since 1960 year, and reduce speed is slower from 1981 to 2006 year than that from 1960 to 1979 year. The paper also concludes that as the observe criterion of atmosphere visibility is amended in 1980 year, the low value of atmosphere visibility and middle value of atmosphere visibility, do not change much spanning 1980 year, while the high value of atmosphere visibility changes much spanning 1980 year, so as ridit value and ¿very good day¿ which has obvious correlativeness with the high value of atmosphere. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of Bacterial and Fungal Aerosol in Gymnasia in China

    Page(s): 19 - 23
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    This study attempted to find the typical concentration levels of bacterial and fungal bioaerosol in gymnasia in China. The air samples were collected using the 6-stage Andersen impactor inside and outside of buildings. It was found that the total concentrations of outdoor airborne bacteria and fungi were 342 CFUm-3 and 287 CFUm-3, respectively. The typical levels of bacterial and fungal aerosol indoors were averaged to 901 and 586 CFUm-3 in spectating area, 476 and 245 CFUm-3 in game area, 674 and 402 CFUm-3 in locker room, and 263 and 231 CFUm-3 in office room. The dominant genera identified in gymnasia were Micrococcus spp, Staphylococcus spp, Bacillus spp, and Corynebacterium spp, which amounted to over 80% of the total indoor airborne bacteria. Most frequently occurred indoor fungi were Cladosporium spp, Penicillium spp, Aspergillus spp, and Alternaria spp, constituting over 95% of the total airborne fungi. Bacterial aerosols showed the highest collection rates at F-1 and F-2 stage in the spectating and game areas, F-1, F-2 and F-5 stage in locker rooms, and F-1, F-2, F-4 and F-5 stage in office rooms, while fungal aerosols showed the highest collection rates at F-3 stage in four locations. View full abstract»

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  • CO2 Emission Reduction Efforts Made by China's Electricity Sector and the International Comparison

    Page(s): 24 - 27
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    Starting from the misunderstanding that China is doing little in controlling her greenhouse gas emissions along with the rapid economic growth, this paper tried to break this myth by looking into China's electricity sector. It is found out that from 2000 to 2007, this sector was having great improvements in energy efficiency improvements, in demand side management and in reducing transmission losses and electricity consumed by power plants, ranked by their contributions to the overall sectoral emission reductions. The cumulative emission reductions from 2000 to 2007 amounted to 553 million tons, which means the unilateral emission reduction actions from China's electricity sector alone helped the world exempt from a one-year national emission from a country as economically-powerful as United Kingdom. Other comparisons in generating efficiency side have been made between China and US. One suggestion for future work has been given at the end of the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Computer Simulation Study of the Adsorption/Separation Process of CO2/CH4 Mixture on Natural Zeolites

    Page(s): 28 - 31
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    Adsorption and separation of the binary mixture of CO2 and CH4 in erionite, mordenite and clinoptilolite are studied through a computer simulation technology-molecular simulation, and the simulation results showed a good agreement with the experimental data. The mechanism for the process was discussed and some conclusions for the process design were made. View full abstract»

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  • Control of CO2 Emissions of China under Kyoto Protocol

    Page(s): 32 - 35
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    The paper explores the major factors that affect CO2 emissions by the analysis for time-series of China since Chinese innovation and opening. The analysis concludes that there is no inverse-U curve between economic development and CO2 emissions. The increase of GDP per capita and population is the main sources for carbon emission increase, and the decrease of energy intensity of unit GDP and ratio of coal to total primary energy consumption is the important approach to reduce CO2 emissions. That the Kyoto Protocol takes effect will provide more international cooperation chances for China. View full abstract»

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  • District Air Environment Evaluation by CFD Simulation

    Page(s): 36 - 39
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    The application of CFD is more and more extensive in the research field of urban science. The way of intuitional expression is also tend to more and more recognized by citizens and city decision makers. CFD simulation and its superiority for urban planning and design, its application for district air environmental evaluation and improvement in urban planning and design is introduced and discussed in this paper. A practical example of CFD simulation and evaluation for urban planning and design is also presented. The significance and prospect of CFD simulation and evaluation for urban planning and design is also demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Exergy Analysis of Exhaust-Gas of Burning Liquefied-Gas in a Chinese Kitchen

    Page(s): 40 - 43
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    The research analyzes distribution laws of exhaust-gas of burning liquefied-gas in closed kitchen without any kitchen hood or fan with the exergy indicator; and compares the distribution results from the exergy analysis with those from the concentration analysis. The methods are: establish the math models of exhaust-gas exergy and concentration distributions in some boundary conditions; use discrete math, digital analysis method, and PISO information regulation ways; based on a VC++ platform, use CFD-fluent software and the Tecplot Fitting software attain some distribution laws. Presents the visual exergy and concentration figures; graphs of the exhaust-gas distribution laws in the kitchen, introduces real time dynamic changes of the exhaust-gas distribution, and the flow trend of the exhaust-gas in closed kitchen without fan and the highest polluted area in the kitchen and the harm extent to the people in it. And attains the conclusions: (1) most results from exergy analysis are similar to those from the concentration; (2) exergy indicator combined the total effect factors (or potential capability to do work) together within the exhausted-gas system, to predict the pollution level in any place is more accurate; (3) most exhaust-gases are centralized at the wall that is opposite to the place where the cookware set. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Investigation on Flue Gas Desulfurization by Electrostatic Spray

    Page(s): 44 - 47
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    The enhancement of SO2 absorption efficiencies in a wet flue gas desulfuriztion system are investigated and analyzed by adopting electrostatic spray. The SO2 absorption efficiencies with different liquid to gas ratios, Ca/S ratios and electrostatic voltages, are compared. The experiment data indicate an increment of 5-10% in SO2 removal efficiency could be obtained; the efficiency increases with the liquid to gas ratio, Ca/S ratio and electrostatic voltages adding, and the trend of increasing gradually becomes slow and stop. The theoretical analyses on WFGD by charged spray are carried out based on the electrostatic spray, double film, and reaction face theory. The analysis show that the charging droplets could advance the surface absorption characteristics, add the Ca2+ concentration on the droplets surface, minishing of droplets surface tension could reduce the mass transfer resistance between the droplets and flue gas. At the same time, droplets electrification and non-excess charge polarization enhance the mass transfer impulse force of droplets absorption SO2. Moreover, the charging droplets producing the second atomization could minish the droplets diameter and add the reacting surface, the droplets could distribute uniformity in the tower for the droplets provided with the same polarity charge. The SO2 absorption efficiency increasing is the complicated course under the above important factors. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Research on the Formaldehyde Diffusion Performance in an Air-Conditioning Office

    Page(s): 48 - 51
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    In most of public buildings, IAQ decreases objectively with lots of decorating materials' applications. Especially in many office buildings with air-conditioning equipments, the harm caused by indoor contaminants is ignored in contrast to emphasizing energy efficiency. In the chosen typical office of a high commercial building, formaldehyde concentration's variety in the whole office and the part region of strong formaldehyde emitting source is measured with time changing in different enactment conditions. It emphasizes the importance of effective ventilation and provides the reference for studying how to apply reasonable air distribution so that the high contaminants' concentration in part region of strong contaminant emitting source is decreased in an air-conditioning office. By measuring the formaldehyde concentration's variety along vertical direction in the place of occupant's chair, air distribution's influence on contaminant concentration along vertical direction in personal area is also illuminated. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Studies on CO2 Capture in a Spray Scrubber Using NaOH Solution

    Page(s): 52 - 55
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    Experimental studies on carbon dioxide capture in a spray scrubber are carried out. Fine spray of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution is used as CO2 absorbent. Effects of different operating and design parameters, including concentration of NaOH solution, liquid flow rate, total gas flow rate, initial temperature and concentration of carbon dioxide on CO2 removal efficiency are investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Study of Nanometer TiO2 Photocatalysis Material in Air Purification

    Page(s): 56 - 59
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    With the enhancement of environmental awareness, controlling oil mist in machinery processing workshop has become more and more important. Nanometer titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis material can treat with manifold pollutants, which is widely applied with its merits of decomposing products sufficiently and no secondary pollution. The nanometer TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by using the sol-gel method on the optimum formulation that showed a higher activity. Then TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by dip-coating technique using the non-woven fabric adhered on it with straight as composite support. The efficiency of suppression of oil mist was in comparison with ordinary materials. The purification of the nanometer TiO2 photocatalysis sieve against oil mist of non-woven fabric was investigated in different time in solar radiation at room temperature. It oxidizes pollutants of oil mist to CO2 and H2O. It is known that the photodegradation effect is good and the reaction is fast. It also showed the nanometer TiO2 photocatalysis material is ideal material for suppressing oil mist in the air. At last, the application data of this technology in the air purification as well as its problems and trends were presented. The prospect of application was previewed. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Study on Median Temperature Sulfur Fixation Characteristics and Mechanism in Flue Gas of Alkaliferous Industry Waste

    Page(s): 60 - 64
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    The median temperature sulfur fixation characteristics in flue gas of experimental wastes were studied by tube furnace, the phase composition and mineral content of sulfur fixation product were analyzed by XRD and thermal gravimetric, median-temperature sulfur fixation mechanism of alkali industrial waste were discussed, which provide theoretical basis for preparation of waste type median-temperature sulfur fixation agents. It can be found that some experiments alkali industrial waste such as: alkali slag, red mud and salt slurry have better sulfur fixation characteristics because of rich in Al2O3, Fe2O3 and SiO2, and so on, On the one hand, Al2O3, SiO2 and Fe2O3 make initial grain size of carbonate crystallization small and dispersion high, which can increase surface area of sulfur fixation reaction, thin product thickness, reduce diffusion resistance of product layer and raise the proportion of carbonate forming sulfate, on the other hand, Al2O3, SiO2 and Fe2O3 play the role of transferring oxygen during the formation process of CaSO4, which result in CaSO3 is easily oxidized and form sulfate calcium. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Study on the Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas Using Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactors with Aqueous Solution of Potassium Glycinate

    Page(s): 65 - 69
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    Experimental study on CO2 removal from flue gas using polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactors were conducted. Aqueous solutions of potassium glycinate were used as absorption solution to absorb CO2 in the experiments. Under moderate operating conditions, effects of the absorption solution flow rate, concentration of potassium glycinate, and absorption solution capacity on the mass transfer rate of CO2 and absorption solution CO2 loading were studied on a pilot-scale test facility. The results showed that the mass transfer rate of aqueous potassium glycinate decreased gradually in experiments while the absorption solution CO2 loading increased. The mass transfer rate and absorption solution CO2 loading of aqueous potassium glycinate with higher concentration was higher than that of aqueous potassium glycinate with lower concentration. The aqueous potassium glycinate with longer regeneration time was better in continuous running. The performance of CO2 absorption using potassium glycinate is superior to monoethanolamine and methyldiethanolamine under the same operating conditions. View full abstract»

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  • FDS Research on Smoke Control in the Stair Enclosure of a High-Rise Building Fire Event

    Page(s): 70 - 73
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    The paper briefly reviewed the methods of smoke control in a high-rise building fire accident and the research status of this topic. It shows that the stair enclosure, which is almost the only path for the building occupants to safely egress the building during a fire event in a high-rise building, plays a very important role in the performance based design of a high-rise building. Four fire scenarios of a stair enclosure, namely no measure, natural ventilation, pressurization and dilution, are simulated by FDS. The simulation results are compared and analysis to obtain the optimal solution. The further studies also pressurizatioaddress. View full abstract»

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