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Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference, 2009. BioCAS 2009. IEEE

Date 26-28 Nov. 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 81
  • Low power injection locked oscillators for MICS standard

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents two low power injection locked oscillators (ILOs): direct ILO and tail ILO, implemented in a standard 0.13-¿m CMOS process. Both ILOs are based on current-reuse differential LC voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) with different injection locations: direct injection for direct ILO and current source injection for tail ILO. The current-reuse topology enables lower power dissipation of both ILOs. It is about 1.2 mW (without output buffers) under supply voltage of 1.2-V. When the injected input signal power is 0 dBm, direct ILO and tail ILO feature a wide locking range of 320 MHz and 220 MHz, respectively. The locking range covers the Medical Implantable Communications Service (MICS) band (402 MHz-405 MHz). Each of the proposed ILOs can be used as the driver stage of power amplifier in transmitter systems conforming to the MICS standard. View full abstract»

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  • A low-noise integrated bioamplifier with active DC offset suppression

    Page(s): 5 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (846 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a novel low-power, low-noise amplifier for neural recording applications. The bioamplifier achieves the best power-size tradeoff compared to the previous design. By means of a new active feedback configuration, the DC offset is rejected without the large capacitors. An active differentiator with an amplifier in the feedback path places a high-pass cutting frequency in the transfer function. The midband gain consists of the passive components, and is insensitive to the mismatch of process. The bioamplifier has been implemented in the Chartered 0.35-¿m 2P4M CMOS process and occupies 0.022 mm2 of chip area. The current consumption of amplifier is 2 ¿A at ±1.5 V supply. The bioamplifier achieves a midband gain of 46 dB and a -3 dB bandwidth from 13 Hz to 8.9 kHz. The input-referred noise is 5.7 ¿Vrms corresponding to an NEF of 3.1. View full abstract»

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  • Design of current mode instrumentation amplifier for portable biosignal acquisition system

    Page(s): 9 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the design of current mode instrumentation amplifier (CMIA) for portable biosignal acquisition system. The CMIA topology is based on voltage mode operational amplifier (op amp) power supply current sensing technique. Op amp mismatch and precise current mirrors are two design challenges of this topology. A simulation analysis is conducted based on an implementation in a CMOS 0.35 ¿m technology. The CMIA consumes 20.22 ¿W under a 3 V DC power supply and has a continuous adjustable gain bandwidth product (GBW)-independent voltage gain via single resistor. The CMRR is higher than 120 dB up to 1 Hz and more than 80 dB up to 100 Hz. View full abstract»

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  • Automated tuning of analog neuromimetic integrated circuits

    Page(s): 13 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Neuromorphic engineering often faces the adjusting of the neuromimetic systems. Indeed, adjusting the parameters of integrated circuits and systems is a shared issue to address for the designers of tunable systems. This paper presents an original method to automatically tune reconfigurable neuromimetic analog integrated circuits according to biological relevance. This method is based on an evolutionary optimization technique, the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm that had never been used for biological neuron modeling. To illustrate the adjusting method, we show how to reproduce the behavior of two kinds of well-known neurons, inhibitory and excitatory, by an automated tuning of the parameters of neuromimetic circuits. The behavior of the hardware neurons is then compared to the model one. View full abstract»

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  • A microfabrication compatible approach to 3-dimensional patterning of bio-molecules at Bio-MEMS and biosensor surfaces

    Page(s): 17 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (853 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The present work describes a methodology for patterning biomolecules on silicon analytical devices, such as novel Bio-MEMS or conventional biosensors, that reconciles three-dimensional (3-D) biological functionalisation with standard resist lift-off techniques. Unlike classic sol-gel approaches in which the biomolecule of interest is introduced within the sol mixture, a two-stage scenario has been developed. It consists firstly of patterning micron scale polycondensate scaffold structures - using classic microfabrication tools - which are then loaded with native biomolecules via a second simple incubation step under biologically-friendly environmental conditions. The common compatibility issue between the biological and microfabrication worlds has been circumvented since native recognition biomolecules can be introduced into the host scaffolds downstream of all compatibility issues. The scaffolds can be generated on any silicon substrate via polycondensation of aminosilane - namely aminopropyltriethoxy silane (APTES) - under conditions that are fully compatible with resist mask lithography. The scaffold porosity and high primary amine content allow proteins and nucleic acid sequences to penetrate the polycondensate and to interact strongly, thus giving rise to micron/sub-micron 3-D structures exhibiting high biological activity. The integration of such a bio-patterning approach in the microfabrication process of analytical devices has been demonstrated via the successful biofunctionalisation with recognition antibodies and/or nucleic acid sequences of MEMS circular diaphragm resonator (CDR) sensor patterns. View full abstract»

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  • A textile integrated long-term ECG monitor with capacitively coupled electrodes

    Page(s): 21 - 24
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (541 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Capacitive EGC sensors are a promising approach for future ECG measurement systems as they do not rely on a moist and direct skin contact. This is especially desirable for long-term monitoring, because capacitively coupled electrodes (CCE) do not cause skin irritations to the patient. In this paper, we present a textile integrated CCE-based ECG monitoring system for long-term application. The system comprises of a convenient garment, active capacitive electrodes as well as a pluggable low-power acquisition unit with Bluetooth telemetry. For this system special electrodes have been developed whose capacitive areas exhibit textile properties. They are completely integrated into the garment and equipped with a textile layer that transports humidity away from the wearer. Additionally, a large breathable reference electrode is used. In the first setup it acts as a conductive grounding when the garment is worn on the skin, and in the second setting it is capacitively coupled, when wearing a shirt beneath. ECG measurements were taken in both settings and qualitative results with the subjects sitting and walking are presented. Particularly, it is pointed out that textile-integrated CCEs in conjunction with a conductive reference electrode is a feasible solution for long-term ECG monitoring in terms of both signal quality and ergonomics. View full abstract»

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  • Resonance-based wireless power delivery for implantable devices

    Page(s): 25 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (414 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to the limited life time of batteries, biomedical implants typically use inductive coupling to transfer power to the implantable device. Inductive coupling of source and load coils suffers from low efficiency due to the low coupling between the coils. The low coupling limits the maximum transferable power and operating range of the system. Using a resonance-based coupling technique, the adverse effect of low coupling between source and load coils is in part compensated by the high quality factor of the coils. Unlike its two-coil counterpart, in the presented four-coil energy transfer system the efficiency profile of the power transfer is not a monotonically decreasing function of the distance between the coils and can be optimized to provide a maxima at a relatively large operating distance. Furthermore, as compared to conventional systems, resonance-based system show more than 2× efficiency improvement over an increased operating range. View full abstract»

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  • A redox-enzyme-based electrochemical biosensor with a CMOS integrated bipotentiostat

    Page(s): 29 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (461 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an electrochemical biosensor featuring redox enzymes and a supporting CMOS bipotentiostat. The bipotentiostat architecture supports redox recycling through a common potential control unit and two readout channels where excitation signals can be inserted. The readout channel was characterized to have a dynamic range from 1 nA to 10 ¿A. A fructose sensor was created on a microfabricated interdigitated electrode array as an example redox-enzyme-based biosensor. Cyclic voltammogram measurements show a 27% increase in electrochemically magnified current due to redox recycling while measuring 200 mM fructose. Chronoamperometry experiments using the CMOS bipotentiostat agree well with a commercial bipotentiostat for fructose concentration from 50 mM to 400 mM. View full abstract»

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  • Design optimization for an 8-bit microcontroller in wireless biomédical sensors

    Page(s): 33 - 36
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (961 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on the design of an ultra low power 8-bit microcontroller for wireless biomedical sensors using advanced low power techniques such as Operand Isolation, Clock-Gating, Multi-Threshold Voltage and Power Gating. In addition, we have conducted a study based on the area, timing performances and power consumptions by benchmarking different low power design techniques. These statistical data allow us to have a thorough understanding of the various low power techniques. Finally, the fully implemented low power design shows that a total core power reduction of about 67.43% was achieved with a small area overhead of 0.3% compared to the original design while maintaining an operating clock frequency of 100 MHz at 900 mV supply voltage These designs are implemented using Chartered Advantage High Speed 65 nm Generic Multi-threshold Technology Libraries. View full abstract»

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  • A low-frequency low-noise transceiver for human body channel communication

    Page(s): 37 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (586 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a low power, highly integrated wireless transceiver ASIC designated for peer-to-peer wearable and portable data communication apparatus. The transceiver utilized a novel implementation of energy-efficient wideband impulse communication that uses the human body as the transmission medium, provides high communication data rate, low power consumption, high reception sensitivity and wide operation frequencies. The transceiver frequency was measured to be in the range of 0.3-15 MHz. The data rate was approximately 5 Mbps at a total power consumption of 5 mW. The ASIC was fabricated with a standard 0.18-¿m CMOS process. View full abstract»

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  • Two-dimensional label-free acetylcholine image sensor based on enzyme-immobilized polyion complex membrane

    Page(s): 41 - 43
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (791 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    32 × 32 acetylcholine (ACh) image sensors using enzyme-immobilized polyion complex membrane were successfully required real time imaging of ACh distribution with better stability and improve responsibility. Nowadays, acetylcholine imaging technology has a lot of potential for human activity analysis and localization of disease. The proposed Charge-Transfer Technique ACh Image Sensor (CTTAIS) is a very unique device due to not only determine quantity but also acquire real time imaging of behavior of biological matter without label. View full abstract»

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  • A CMOS sensor for in-vivo fluorescence and electrical imaging in a mouse brain

    Page(s): 45 - 48
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (567 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report a complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor for in-vivo imaging. The sensor is implemented on a flexible substrate with LEDs as excitation light sources. The images are successfully obtained in a mouse brain. We demonstrate a image contrast improvement method on the basis of image processing and multiple readout in order to overcome non uniform illumination of the excitation light. View full abstract»

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  • A high-resolution micro-circular-polarization-analyzer array for real-time active circular polarization imaging

    Page(s): 49 - 52
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (583 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a high-resolution micro-circular-polarization-analyzer (MCPA) array is presented and characterized. MCPAs for extracting right-handed and left-handed circularly polarized components of incident light are implemented by fabricating polymerizable-liquid-crystal (PLC) micro-retarders with perpendicular fast axes on top of a 45° laminated linear polarizing film. With sulfonic-dye-1 (SD1) as the PLC photoalignment material, an MCPA feature size as small as 5/Ltm is achieved. In addition, the concept of real-time active circular polarization image sensing and processing with targets illuminated by collimated circularly polarized light is enabled by the MCPA array's on-chip integration with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors. View full abstract»

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  • Light-controlled retinal stimulator for subretinal implantation

    Page(s): 53 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (809 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a retinal stimulator embedded a light-controlled function for subretinal implantation. The stimulator is based on a multiple-microchip architecture which we have been developed to realize over 1000 stimulus electrodes. Each microchip is controlled retinal stimulation by the intensity of light. The fabricated stimulator is evaluated by implanting a rabbit eye and stimulating retinal cells. The EEP signals were successfully obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Design of low noise transimpedance amplifier for Intravascular Ultrasound

    Page(s): 57 - 60
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (613 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we study transimpedance amplifiers for capacitive sensing applications with a focus on intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). We employ RF noise cancellation technique on capacitive feedback based transimpedance amplifiers. This technique eliminates the input-referred noise of TIAs completely and enhances the dynamic range of front-end electronics. Simulation results verify the proposed technique used in two different TIA topologies employing shunt-shunt feedback. View full abstract»

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  • Biphasic-current-pulse self-calibration techniques for monopolar current stimulation

    Page(s): 61 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (625 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Monopolar biphasic current stimulation is widely used for neural prosthetic devices. The major design challenge is to ensure charge-balanced stimulation. This paper describes a compact negative-feedback self-calibration scheme to minimize the current amplitude mismatch between the anodic and the cathodic pulses for achieving the charge balance without using any large-value blocking capacitors and long duration of interpulse shorting. Dummy transmission gate technique is also adopted in the calibration circuit to minimize the charge injection error. With a 0.35-¿m high-voltage CMOS process, the maximum amplitude mismatch between two current pulses in the stimulator is < 0.3 ¿A (0.03%) after calibration with a full-scale stimulation current of 1 mA. It corresponds to < 7.5 nA residual DC current error for supporting 10-¿s pulse and high stimulation rate of 2500 pulses per second (pps). View full abstract»

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  • Wide dynamic range front-end amplifier for cell recording with microelectrode arrays

    Page(s): 65 - 68
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (557 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a cell recording system, characteristics of the cell and microelectrode array (MEA) interface impose challenging requirements on the design of front-end amplifier with regard to input-referred noise, linearity, dynamic range (DR), input impedance, pitch size and differential electrode offset (DEO) cancellation. Previous front-end amplifier designs for cell recording demonstrated 2~7 ¿Vrms input referred noise and about 1% total harmonic distortion (THD) for dozens of mVpp input signal, which corresponds to about 60 dB DR. However, front-end with wider DR is needed for many new cellular applications. This paper reports the design of a new wide DR front-end amplifier which uses chopping to suppress the noise, and a new current feedback scheme to improve the linearity. The new design is implemented in a 0.35 ¿m CMOS process. SPICE simulation shows that the new amplifier achieves THD lower than -70 dB with 20 mVpp input signal and 0.75 ¿Vrms input-referred noise. For local field potentials (<200 Hz), the DR extends to 80 dB. The new amplifier has more than 0.62G ¿ input impedance at 20 kHz and consumes 20 ¿W power. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive asynchronous analog to digital conversion for compressed biomedical sensing

    Page(s): 69 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Compressed sensing enables direct analog to digital information conversion of signals at rates much lower than the Nyquist rate. This eliminates the need for computationally intensive, high speed data acquisition and digital signal processing for compression. We illustrate the use of an asynchronous analog to digital converter (ADC) as a low power, low complexity compressed sensing digitizer of biomedical signals at source. A variable input-slope dependent adaptive technique is proposed for increased compression, reduced slope overload distortion error for fast moving signals, and reduced power consumption. ECG signal compression in a simulated environment, shows large compression for a given mean squared error compared to synchronous Nyquist rate A/D converters and a regular asynchronous A/D converter. View full abstract»

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  • A 1.5V 7.5uW programmable gain amplifier for multiple biomedical signal acquisition

    Page(s): 73 - 76
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (665 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a programmable analog front-end IC for multiple biomedical signal acquisition. By chopper-stabilized technique with an AC feedback circuit, the proposed circuit rejects differential electrode offset, common-mode disturbance and solves the problem of flicker noise. In TSMC 0.18 ¿m CMOS process, the proposed circuit occupies an active area of 0.38 mm2. With digital controls, the voltage gain, low-pass and high-pass cutoff frequency could be adjusted in the range of 52 db-88 db, 0.5 Hz-10 Hz and 100 Hz-400 Hz, respectively. With a supply voltage of 1.5 V, the proposed circuit achieves an input-referred noise of 90 nV*Hz ¿-0.5, a noise-efficient factor of 6.1 while consuming a total current of 5 ¿A. View full abstract»

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  • A chopper stabilized front-end for neural recording applications with DC-drift suppressed amplifier

    Page(s): 77 - 80
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (868 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A chopper stabilized front-end with an active dc-suppressed topology used to record extracellular neural action potentials and local field potentials is presented in this paper. An active dc-suppressed topology, such as a bandpass filter, containing an amplifier with an integrator on the feedback path, suppresses baseline drift and assures weak inversion operations of input stages of the proposed bandpass filter. Floating tunable resistors are also employed to produce large resistance, providing large time constant to reduce low frequency noise. The proposed front-end circuitry needs no external capacitors and resistors and adjusts highpass cutoff frequency arbitrarily by altering control voltage of floating tunable resistors. The work in this paper, designed in a 0.18-¿m CMOS process, provides sufficiently high linearity at least 10-bit SNDR, a midband gain of 63 dB, and signal bandwidth of approximately 13 kHz. Supplied at 1.8 V, the proposed front-end consumes around 231 ¿W. With the proposed chopping technique, a total of 7.05-¿Vrms input-referred noise can be achieved at the signal bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • A new architecture for multi-channel neural recording microsystems based on delta-sigma modulation

    Page(s): 81 - 84
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (665 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new multi-channel neural recording architecture is proposed. In this architecture, preconditioned neural signals are digitized based on delta-sigma (¿¿) analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion technique. A/D conversion in the proposed approach is divided into two steps. In the first step, all the channels are converted into serial bit streams using per-channel ¿¿-modulators. All the neural bit streams are then packaged and sent to an external setup, where the second step of ¿¿-A/D conversion, i.e. decimation filtering, is performed. Moving the decimation filters to the external side will significantly save power and silicon area for the implantable device, both of which are of crucial importance in implantable microsystem design. The system presented in this paper, is an 8-channel neural recording system, designed using first-order ¿¿-Modulators in a 0.5-¿m 2P3M n-well CMOS process. The system, with 8 bits of resolution for quantization, demonstrates Signal-to-Noise and Distortion Ratio (SNDR) of 49 dB, and dissipates as low as 16.5 ¿W power per channel at 3 V. View full abstract»

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  • A vertically integrated CMOS micro-system for time-resolved fluorescence analysis

    Page(s): 85 - 88
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1370 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a two-chip micro-scale time-resolved fluorescence analyzer integrating excitation, detection and filtering. A new 8 × 8 array of drivers integrated in standard low-voltage 0.35 ¿m CMOS is bump-bonded to AlInGaN blue micro-pixellated light-emitting diodes (micro-LED). The array is capable of producing sample excitation pulses with a width of 777 ps (FWHM) enabling short lifetime fluorophores to be excited. The fluorescence emission is detected by a second, vertically-opposed 16 × 4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in 0.35 ¿m high-voltage CMOS technology with in-pixel time-gated photon counting circuitry. This constitutes the smallest reported solid-state micro-system for fluorescence decay analysis, replacing lasers, photomultiplier tubes, bulk optics and discrete electronics. The system is demonstrated with measurements of fluorescent colloidal quantum dot and Rhodamine samples. View full abstract»

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  • An electric field array microsystem for Lab-on-chip and biomedical analysis

    Page(s): 89 - 92
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1428 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new electric field array microsystem. The microsystem is fully automated, and it can be used in biomedical applications. The microsystem contains two main parts which are: 1) A CMOS integrated circuit (IC) which is based on 0.18 ¿m technology and includes the sensing and actuation parts, 2) a control circuit board which contains the amplification and conditioning parts. The microsystem is tested in biomedical environment and the experimental results show that the automated microsystem is a suitable candidate for biomedical applications such as: noninvasive biological cell detection, cancer detection and antibody selection. View full abstract»

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  • A 1.8-V 770-nW biopotential acquistion system for portable applications

    Page(s): 93 - 96
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an ultra-low power biopotential acquisition system is presented. The proposed system contains a tunable band-pass amplifier, a VGA with strong capacitive driving capability and a successive approximation ADC. To make the gain and bandwidth programmable, a T-switch with huge cut-off resistor is utilized to eliminate the effect of low frequency doublets. An improved low kick-back noise low offset latch brings a significant power reduction to the SAR ADC. The design was implemented in 0.18 ¿ m CMOS process and consumes 770 nW from a 1.8-V single supply. The analog front-end achieves a 193 Hz to 407 Hz programmable bandwidth, 41.5 dB to 62 dB tunable gain, 3.7 ¿ Vrms (0.025 Hz~200 Hz) input referred noise, noise efficiency figure (NEF) of 3.1. The SAR ADC achieves 11.7-bit ENOB. View full abstract»

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  • A compact, nano-power CMOS action potential detector

    Page(s): 97 - 100
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Real time action potential (AP) detection is an important requirement for development of fully implantable neuroprosthetic devices. We present an ultra low-power CMOS analog circuit for detection of APs embedded in a noisy signal. The proposed strategy isolates APs by detecting subsequently a positive and a negative spike of each AP. An AP is detected only if the positive spike is detected within a short period of time after the negative spike was detected. The proposed circuit has been designed to be implemented in AMIS 0.35 ¿m technology (I3T80) and has been verified in Cadence using RF spectre. The final circuit operates from a 1-V supply and consumes only 1.5 nA. The detector is verified by means of simulations with synthetic neural waveforms and is able to successfully detect APs in noisy signals. View full abstract»

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