By Topic

Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2009. SMC 2009. IEEE International Conference on

Date 11-14 Oct. 2009

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 900
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (54 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Title page]

    Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (24 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Copyright notice]

    Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (35 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): I - LXXXVIII
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (261 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A haptic teleoperation study using wave variables and scaling matrices

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (211 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A haptics investigation is conducted when human subjects have to deal with a bilateral teleoperation system with two levels of time delay (400 and 1,000 ms) and four types of scaling matrices that provide a passivity form of stabilization. The wave variable method was implemented to produce a controllable human-machine response. What is of interest is the resulting performance that occurs from such systems which remain passive but impacts the overall human tracking performance that can be achieved. The question addressed is how these imposed stability restrictions (via architecture constraints) may degrade human tracking performance? View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Omnidirectional robotic telepresence through augmented virtuality for increased situation awareness in hazardous environments

    Page(s): 6 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (471 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel low-cost robotic telepresence approach to situation awareness, initially aimed for hazardous environments. The robot supports omnidirectional movement, wide field of vision, haptic feedback and binaural sound. It is controlled through an augmented virtuality environment with an intuitive position displacement scheme that supports physical mobility. The operator thereby can conduct work away from danger whilst retaining situation awareness of the real environment. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Compensating device inertia for 6-DOF haptic rendering

    Page(s): 12 - 17
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (247 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the importance of the user's primary holding pivot point on the end effector of a haptic interface is discussed. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that this holding pivot point is critical for the correct perception of the haptic properties assigned to the virtual objects. We also study the physical inertia effects of the end effector on the non-uniform stiffness perception of simulated virtual objects. To the best of our knowledge, no such combined consideration of holding pivot point and device structure related inertia has so far been made for works in 6-DOF haptic rendering. We have instrumented the end effector of a haptic interface with a membrane potentiometer to measure the user's primary holding pivot point in real-time. Accordingly, a preliminary adaptive feedback method is developed to render the appropriate forces/torques to compensate for the effects of the end effector's inertia on the haptic stiffness perception. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Algorithm optimizations for low-complexity eye tracking

    Page(s): 18 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (183 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates techniques for reducing computational complexity of tracking eyes of computer user. By empirical evaluation of a number of techniques we define a technology capable of monitoring eyes of computer user in real time with high accuracy and very low computational overhead. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fuzzy virtual impedance controller in human-vehicle interaction

    Page(s): 23 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (186 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the previous studies mechanical impedance has become well implement in the field of human-machine interaction. However, in human-vehicle interaction there is a variant environment when driving a vehicle, thus apart from interacting with human, impedance controller is needed to adapt to the variant environment. But for mechanical impedance as being a second order mass-viscosity-stiffness model with fixed parameters, it is difficult to adapt to variational constraints. In this paper, a fuzzy virtual impedance of vehicle is studied. Fuzzy virtual impedance is based on fuzzy instruction that is a fuzzy set of control instruction candidates with reasoning of Takagi-Sugeno(T-S) fuzzy model. The achieved impedance characteristics depend on the rules of T-S fuzzy model. A human-vehicle interaction experiment was preformed to demonstrate the practical application of the proposed impedance and verify the adaptability to variational constraints. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Navigation in eight cardinal directions with pseudo-attraction force for the visually impaired

    Page(s): 27 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1367 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have proposed a haptic direction indicator that will help visually impaired pedestrians to travel a path and avoid hazards areas intuitively and safely by means of force-based navigation. The haptic direction indicator uses the pseudo-attraction force technique, which generates a pulling or pushing force in portable or mobile devices by exploiting the nonlinear relationship between perceived acceleration and physical acceleration. We have investigated the angular resolution of the pseudo-attraction force for the visually impaired in a static posture to design a practical haptic direction indicator. This paper describes a prototype of a crosshair haptic direction indicator based on our previous findings. An experiment was performed to clarify the perceptual characteristics when a visually impaired pedestrian is navigated by perceiving force sensation. The results show that most of the visually impaired participants could walk in a predetermined cardinal direction with the haptic direction indicator. Finally, we discuss the drawbacks of our system and design improvements. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Target acquisition by a hands-free wireless tilt mouse

    Page(s): 33 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Today the effective use of computers (e.g. those with Internet browsers and graphical interfaces) involves the use of some sort of cursor control like what a mouse provides. However, a standard mouse is not always the best option for all users. There are currently many devices available to provide computer access to persons who do not have use of their arms or legs. There is no single solution as each device and application has to be tailored to each user's unique preferences and abilities. To provide a better option for users with spinal cord injuries or severe disabilities an inexpensive wireless head tilt mouse using an accelerometer has been designed and built and its targeting performance compared to traditional mouse devices to show feasibility. The head tilt mouse uses Bluetooth to communicate with the host computer. Software running on the host translates accelerometer readings into cursor movements and, currently, button presses into mouse clicks. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Predictive validity of wheelchair driving behavior for fine motor abilities: Definition of input variables for an adaptive wheelchair system

    Page(s): 39 - 44
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (159 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces an approach for dynamically adapting the level of automation of a wheelchair system on the basis of the current level of the user's motor abilities. For this purpose, a study is described, during which participants drove through a course consisting of 14 sub-sections. The predictive validity of the participants' wheelchair driving behavior on their precision, tremor, wrist-finger velocity, arm-hand velocity and aiming capability was analyzed. The results demonstrate impressively (1) that some course sections can better be used in order to derive variables allowing a reasoning on the users' motor ability level than other sections and (2) that especially the precision ability can be predicted e.g. on the basis of the distances driven in the forward mode. Implications on how an adaptive assistance system for powered wheelchair could be implemented are discussed as is the impact of such a system on the wheelchair market. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Towards a 2D tactile vocabulary for navigation of blind and visually impaired

    Page(s): 45 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (621 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we present research work towards a 2D tactile vocabulary for training visually impaired for their independent mobility. The vocabulary is associated to a 2D tactile array (vibration array), which is a part of a wearable navigation prototype (Electronic Travel Aid) called Tyflos. The vibration array is currently consisting of 16 vibrating elements arranged in a 4×4 manner. Each motor can be independently driven with square pulses of varying frequencies. The vibration array can represent dynamically the 3D space of the user's field of view: the 2D arrangement represent the x-y coordinates while the frequencies represent the z coordinate (which is the distance of an obstacle from the user). Different navigation and human factor criteria have been used to create the 2D tactile vocabulary. Finally, using the continuous feedback from the users, the goal is to balance between a minimal vocabulary for easy learning and a rich vocabulary that will still be able to represent efficiently the 3D navigation space. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • New computer protocol with subsensory stimulation and visual/auditory biofeedback for balance assessment in amputees

    Page(s): 52 - 59
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (673 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, we hypothesized that the static standing weight bearing steadiness and dynamic walking weight shifting stability could be improved by providing neuromuscular facilitation using subsensory stimulation and visual-auditory biofeedback in amputee respectively. To test this hypothesis, a computer protocol with sensory feedback neuromuscular facilitation system was developed and used for clinical assessment. Seven unilateral transtibial amputees who consecutively worn prosthetics over two years were recruited. Experimental results show a reduction in all of the postural sway related indices and increase in single-leg holding time index during static quiet standing by applying subsensory stimulation. With visual-auditory biofeedback for providing clue for heel contact and toe push-off condition during dynamic ambulation, an improvement in all four dynamic walking weight shifting stability indices in amputees was verified. This study provided evidence that sensory feedback neuromuscular stimulation may put amputees at better balance capability. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Network intrusion detection using fuzzy class association rule mining based on genetic network programming

    Page(s): 60 - 67
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (285 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Computer systems are exposed to an increasing number and type of security threats due to the expanding of Internet in recent years. How to detect network intrusions effectively becomes an important techniques. This paper presents a novel fuzzy class association rule mining method based on Genetic Network Programming (GNP) for detecting network intrusions. GNP is an evolutionary optimization techniques, which uses directed graph structures as genes instead of strings (Genetic Algorithm) or trees (Genetic Programming), leading to creating compact programs and implicitly memorizing past action sequences. By combining fuzzy set theory with GNP, the proposed method can deal with the mixed database which contains both discrete and continuous attributes. And it can be flexibly applied to both misuse and anomaly detection in Network Intrusion Detection Problem. Experimental results with KDD99Cup and DAPRA98 databases from MIT Lincoln Laboratory show that the proposed method provides a competitively high detection rate compared with other machine learning techniques. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design of a lattice-based access control scheme

    Page(s): 68 - 73
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We survey the literature for access control schemes in a user hierarchy. Some schemes have already been shown to be insecure or incorrect. Many schemes assume very restrictive subordinating relationships existing in a hierarchy where users are grouped into partially ordered relationships without taking resources into consideration. We believe that a practical access control scheme should support access control in a lattice where users and resources are both together grouped into partially ordered relationships. In this paper, we present a scheme to achieve this goal. We also study existing schemes for their efficiency and performance. Based on the results of the study, we design an efficient scheme to support dynamic key management. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Sh@re: Negotiated audit in social networks

    Page(s): 74 - 79
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (126 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the growth in the popularity of social networking sites like Facebook and MySpace, there is an increasing concern about privacy of content posted by users. Many users enter personal details about themselves but have poor understanding of theats such as identity theft and stalking. There is a need to educate and assist users in understanding how their personal data is exposed to other users. In this paper, we introduce the concept of negotiated audit which gives users of social networks valuable feedback about how their data is being used. Our design has three levels of auditing for both sharing and browsing data: no audit, complete audit and anonymous audit. Users can classify their data as requiring some level of auditing and can also set their browsing preference to one of the auditing levels. Users can only see some data if their browsing preference is compatible with the data's audit level thus giving rise to negotiation of how much users are willing to reveal about their activities and how much data they will be able to access. We provide a mathematical model and describe a simple social networking prototype called Sh@re that implements negotiated audit. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Keystroke-based authentication by key press intervals as a complementary behavioral biometric

    Page(s): 80 - 85
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (174 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Analysis of keystroke dynamics can be useful in protecting personal data because an individual is authenticated not only by password, but also by that individual's keystroke patterns. In this way, intrusion becomes more difficult because the username/password pair, as well as the typing speed and correct keystroke pattern must both be duplicated. The purpose of this paper is to present a keystroke analysis tool that can be incorporated into distributed systems and web-based services. This study also assesses the potential of keystroke analysis as a complementary authentication mechanism. Eleven individuals entered a password into specially developed keystroke analysis software twenty times over a course of four sessions. The data were statistically analyzed to determine keystroke patterns. Tests were performed to verify whether the users could be properly authenticated. Results show that authentication with mean key press timings resulted in very good false acceptance rates, while allowing access to appropriate users. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Adapting to the data explosion: Ensuring justice for all

    Page(s): 86 - 90
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (114 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The age of electronic information will continue to engender a technological evolution to which the efforts of human beings will have to adjust. In the legal realm in the United States, the time and costs associated with meeting a party's obligations to search and turn over relevant electronic data for litigation threatens to drive litigants out of the courts. There is now judicial recognition that technological tools, especially for automated search, will have to play a role in case discovery, which used to be handled by humans alone. Improved understanding of human-machine interplay is of growing importance to provide effective, and cost effective, information retrieval in this litigation context. Pairing technology and human expertise in a sophisticated way can provide benefits not possible when either is used on its own. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The centrality of user modeling to high recall with high precision search

    Page(s): 91 - 96
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The objective of search is to find documents relevant to a particular user's notion of relevance. However, relevance is often a moving target: imperfectly defined and subject to change as more documents are seen. In this paper, we report on systematic user modeling (UM) and the use of a system-internal agent (proxy) to produce a hybrid human-computer system that achieves extraordinarily high performance on mediated search tasks. We present details of our UM-approach and its four main components: (i) use case (ii) scope (iii) nuance and (iv) linguistic variability. We illustrate how these components provide a framework with which a user and a proxy co-construct a shared representation of information needs and mutual knowledge. This representation serves as the common ground through which external knowledge is shared, mediated, negotiated, synthesized and made accessible to the system. We evaluated the performance of our system on the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, a corpus of advertising, manufacturing, marketing, sales and scientific research activities of major US tobacco companies. Independently adjudicated results from NIST's 2008 TREC legal track demonstrate that our approach to UM yields high performance on search tasks. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Impedance matching of humans ⇔ machines in high-Q information retrieval systems

    Page(s): 97 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Treating the information retrieval (IR) task as one of classification has been shown to be the most effective way to achieve high performance. In real-world Systems, a human is the ultimate determinant of relevance and must be integrated symbiotically into the control structures. We report on a hybrid, Human-Assisted Computer Classification system that opportunistically pairs processes of Active Learning and User Modeling to produce a high-Q computational engine. Top-down human goals are impedance-matched with bottom-up corpus analysis utilizing critical control loops. The System contributions of humans and machines as 'Proxy,' 'Assessor,' and 'Classifier' elements are blended through inter-related 'Model,' 'Match,' and 'Measure' processes (M3) to achieve consistently high precision IR with high recall. We report results for over a dozen topics, with confirmation of internal measures from topic 103 of the 2008 TREC legal track's interactive task. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Replication and automation of expert judgments: Information engineering in legal e-discovery

    Page(s): 102 - 107
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (119 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The retrieval of digital evidence responsive to discovery requests in civil litigation, known in the United States as ¿e-discovery,¿ presents several important and understudied conditions and challenges. Among the most important of these are (i) that the definition of responsiveness that governs the search effort can be learned and made explicit through effective interaction with the responding party, (ii) that the governing definition of responsiveness is generally complex, deriving both from considerations of subject-matter relevance and from considerations of litigation strategy, and (iii) that the result of the search effort is a set (rather than a ranked list) of documents, and sometimes a quite large set, that is turned over to the requesting party and that the responding party certifies to be an accurate and complete response to the request. This paper describes the design of an ¿interactive task¿ for the text retrieval conference's legal track that had the evaluation of the effectiveness of e-discovery applications at the ¿responsive review¿ task as its goal. Notable features of the 2008 interactive task were high-fidelity human-system task modeling, authority control for the definition of ¿responsiveness,¿ and relatively deep sampling for estimation of type 1 and type 2 errors (expressed as ¿precision¿ and ¿recall¿). The paper presents a critical assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the evaluation design from the perspectives of reliability, reusability, and cost-benefit tradeoffs. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Human aided computer assessment for exhaustive search

    Page(s): 108 - 112
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (122 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Human-computer interaction has been proposed as a means for more effectively dealing with the challenges posed by information retrieval. However, within the hierarchy of information needs, certain kinds of needs are only poorly handled by existing techniques. Information needs requiring thoroughness (exhaustive research, information discovery) are not well served by existing models of human-computer information retrieval (HCIR). Information needs such as these are commonplace in legal, patent, medical and intelligence searches. In such applications, high recall with high precision is the primary consideration, and the standard model, which treats human interaction as a kind of post-processing filter, does not yield a system with desired characteristics. In this paper, we propose an alternative model of HCIR which yields systems whose properties are more closely aligned with the needs of the exhaustive research task, and describe an implementation of such a system, demonstrating its effectiveness over the standard model in a task that models real-world conditions. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Self-supervised learning by information enhancement: Target-generating and spontaneous learning for competitive learning

    Page(s): 113 - 119
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (230 KB)  

    In this paper, we propose a new self-supervised learning method for competitive learning as well as self-organizing maps. In this model, a network enhances its state by itself, and this enhanced state is to be imitated by another state of the network. We set up an enhanced and a relaxed state, and the relaxed state tries to imitate the enhanced state as much as possible by minimizing the free energy. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, we apply information enhancement learning to the SOM. For this purpose, we introduce collective-ness, in which all neurons collectively respond to input patterns, into an enhanced state. Then, this enhanced and collective state should be imitated by the other non-enhanced and relaxed state. We applied the method to an artificial data and three data from the well-known machine learning database. Experimental results showed that the U-matrices obtained were significantly similar to those produced by the conventional SOM. However, better performance could be obtained in terms of quantitative and topological errors. The experimental results suggest the possibility for self-supervised learning to be applied to many different neural network models. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An interactive evolutionary approach for content based image retrieval

    Page(s): 120 - 125
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Content based image retrieval (CBIR) systems aim to provide a means to find pictures in large repositories without using any other information except its contents usually as low-level descriptors. Since these descriptors do not exactly match the high level semantics of the image, assessing perceptual similarity between two pictures using only their feature vectors is not a trivial task. In fact, the ability of a system to induce high level semantic concepts from the feature vector of an image is one of the aspects which most influences its performance. This paper describes a CBIR algorithm which combines relevance feedback, evolutionary computation concepts and ad-hoc strategies in an attempt to fill the existing gap between the high level semantic content of the images and the information provided by the low level descriptors. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.