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INFOCOM '98. Seventeenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings. IEEE

Date March 29 1998-April 2 1998

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  • IEEE INFOCOM '98 The Conference on Computer Communications [front matter]

    Page(s): i - xxviii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Page(s): 0_6 - 0_8
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • SAVE: an algorithm for smoothed adaptive video over explicit rate networks

    Page(s): 1093 - 1102 vol.3
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    Supporting compressed video efficiently on networks is a challenge because of its burstiness. Although a large number of applications using compressed video are rate adaptive, it is also important to preserve quality as much as possible. We propose a smoothing and rate adaptation algorithm, called SAVE, that the compressed video source uses in conjunction with explicit rate based control in the network. SAVE smoothes the demand from the source to the network, thus helping achieve good multiplexing gains. SAVE maintains the quality of the video and ensures that the delay at the source buffer does not exceed a bound. We examine the effectiveness of SAVE across 28 different traces (entertainment and teleconferencing videos) using different compression algorithms View full abstract»

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  • Long-tailed loss rates in a single server queue

    Page(s): 1462 - 1469 vol.3
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    In this paper we have considered several queueing systems with finite buffers and long-tailed arrivals. For these queueing systems we have derived explicit asymptotic formulas for approximating loss rates. The accuracy of the suggested approximate formulas is demonstrated on various numerical and simulation experiments. Overall, we expect that these approximate expressions, both for reasons of their explicit nature and accuracy, will be useful tools in designing modern communication networks that will be able to efficiently carry non-traditional long-tailed (“bursty”) traffic View full abstract»

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  • A source model for VBR video traffic based on M/G/∞ input processes

    Page(s): 1441 - 1448 vol.3
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    Statistical evidence suggests that the autocorrelation function of a compressed-video sequence is better captured by ρ(k)=e-β√(k) than by ρ(k)==e-β log k (long-range dependence) or ρ(k)=e -βk. A video model with such a correlation structure is introduced based on the so-called M/G/∞ input processes. Though not Markovian, the model exhibits short-range dependence. Using the queueing performance under “real” video traffic as a reference, we study via simulations the queueing performance under two video models: the M/G/∞ model and the fractional ARIMA (F-ARIMA) model (which exhibits LRD). Our results indicate that the M/G/∞ model is much more accurate in predicting the actual queueing performance than the F-ARIMA model. Furthermore, only 𝒪(n) computations are required to generate an M/G/∞ trace of length n, compared to 𝒪(n2) for a F-ARIMA trace View full abstract»

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  • A stochastic approximation approach for max-min fair adaptive rate control of ABR sessions with MCRs

    Page(s): 1358 - 1365 vol.3
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    The available bit rate (ABR) sessions in an ATM network share the bandwidth left over after guaranteeing service to constant bit rate (CBR) and variable bit rate (VBR) traffic. Hence the bandwidth available to ABR sessions is randomly varying. This bandwidth must be shared by the sessions in a max-min fair fashion. Our point of departure in this paper is to formulate the problem of determining the max-min fair session rates as the problem of finding the root of a certain nonlinear vector equation; the same formulation also arises with our notion of max-min fairness with positive minimum cell rates (MCRs). This formulation allows us to use a stochastic approximation algorithm for online distributed computation of the max-min fair rates. We use the well known ordinary differential equation technique to prove convergence of the algorithm in the synchronous update case. We provide simulation results using the NIST simulator to show that the algorithm is able to track the max-min fair rates for slowly varying random available link bandwidths View full abstract»

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  • Optimal bandwidth/delay tradeoff for feasible-region-based scalable multimedia scheduling

    Page(s): 1131 - 1138 vol.3
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    The feasible-region is a simple and optimal framework for scheduling the transmission of data with deadlines. We establish the fundamental relationship between the bandwidth requirement and the initial delay in feasible-region-based transmission scheduling. The relationship represents the optimal bandwidth/delay tradeoff. In the process, we identify the essential bandwidth, the exact bandwidth lower bound regardless of the initial delay. Efficient algorithms are given to calculate the essential bandwidth as well as the optimal bandwidth/delay tradeoff. The results extend the previous results on feasible-region-based scheduling, most of which were derived in the context of video traffic smoothing. When applied to the problem of scheduling scalable multimedia, we show that the feasible-region framework enables the integrated scheduling of presentation and transmission and is a new and promising approach of dealing with scalable multimedia. We establish the presentation feasibility condition and present some initial results on scheduling spatial scalability View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of priority and scheduling schemes for an IEEE 802.14 MAC protocol loaded by real traffic

    Page(s): 1384 - 1391 vol.3
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    We study a new scheme for provision of priorities within the framework of a MAC protocol which is a potential candidate of the (as yet unpublished) IEEE 802.14 standard. A comprehensive simulation study, based on real traffic traces, shows that this new method provides better protection for the high priority traffic than an earlier proposed scheme. Except for physical and MAC layer overheads, the scheme exhibits comparable behaviour to that of an ideal multiplexer, for traces with very diverse correlation structures. The significance of using realistic (correlated) traffic streams for modelling purposes is demonstrated and discussed View full abstract»

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  • Impact analysis of packet-level scheduling on an ATM shared-memory switch

    Page(s): 947 - 954 vol.3
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    This paper evaluates the additional buffer requirements of an ATM shared-memory switch using packet-level (store-and-forward) rather than cell-level (cut-through) service scheduling. Packet-level scheduling is important to tag and IP switching for multipoint-to-one services; it allows different connections to be merged into a single virtual connection to reduce routing complexity. Cisco Systems will incorporate packet-level scheduling in their LightStream 1010 ATM switch using a feature upgrade card possessing per flow queueing; we thus specifically consider the LightStream 1010 architecture in our analysis View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of server-based and receiver-based local recovery approaches for scalable reliable multicast

    Page(s): 988 - 995 vol.3
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    Local recovery approaches for reliable multicast have the potential to provide significant performance gains in terms of reduced bandwidth and delay, and higher system throughput. In this paper we examine two local recovery approaches-one server-based, and the other receiver-based, and compare their performance. The server-based approach makes use of specially designated hosts, called repair servers, co-located with routers inside the network. In the receiver-based approach, only the end hosts (sender and receivers) are involved in error recovery. Using analytical models, we first show that the two local recovery approaches yield significantly higher protocol throughput and lower bandwidth usage than an approach that does not use local recovery. Next, we demonstrate that server-based local recovery yields higher protocol throughput and lower bandwidth usage than receiver-based local recovery when the repair servers have processing power slightly higher than that of a receiver and several hundred kilobytes of buffer per multicast session View full abstract»

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  • Multi-service connection admission control using modular neural networks

    Page(s): 1022 - 1029 vol.3
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    Although neural networks have been applied for traffic and congestion control in ATM networks, most implementations use multi-layer perceptron (MLP) networks which are known to converge slowly. In this paper, we present a connection admission control (CAC) scheme which uses a modular neural network with fast learning ability to predict the cell loss ratio (CLR) at each switch in the network. A special type of OAM cell travels from the source node to the destination node and back in order to gather information at each switch. This information is used at the source to make CAC decisions such that quality of service (QoS) commitments are not violated. Experimental results which compare the performance of the proposed method with other CAC methods which use the peak cell rate (PCR), average cell rate (ACR) and equivalent bandwidth are presented View full abstract»

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  • Per-stream jitter analysis in CBR ATM multiplexors

    Page(s): 1325 - 1332 vol.3
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    Constant bit rate (CBR) traffic is expected to be a major source of traffic in high-speed networks. Such sources may have stringent delay and loss requirements and in many cases, they should be delivered exactly as they were generated. A simple delay priority scheme will bound the cell delay and jitter for CBR streams, so that in the network switches, CBR traffic will only compete with other CBR traffic in the networks. We consider a multiplexor in such an environment. We provide an exact analysis of the jitter process in the homogeneous case. In this case, we obtain the complete characterization of the jitter process showing the inaccuracies of the existing results. Our results indicate that the jitter variance is bounded and never exceeds the constant 2/3 slot. It is also shown that the per-stream successive cell inter-departures times are negatively correlated with the lag 1 correlation of -½. Higher order correlation coefficients are shown to be zero. Simple asymptotic results on per-stream behavior are also provided when the number of CBR streams is considered large. In the heterogeneous case, we bound the jitter distribution and moments. Simple results are provided for the computation of the bound on the jitter variance for any mix of CBR streams in this case. It is shown that streams with a low rate (large period) do experience little jitter variance. However, the jitter variance for the high-rate streams could be quite substantial View full abstract»

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  • Stability of a type-II hybrid ARQ protocol for DS-SSMA packet radio systems

    Page(s): 1301 - 1308 vol.3
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    The stability of a slotted direct-sequence spread-spectrum multiple-access (DS-SSMA) packet radio network employing a type-II hybrid automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) protocol is considered. The equilibrium point analysis (EPA) technique is employed to approximately compute the system throughput and delay, and to analyze the system stability. It is found that the system exhibits bistable behavior in some situations. With this information, a desirable region of operation for the DS-SSMA network employing the type-II hybrid ARQ protocol is obtained View full abstract»

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  • Optimal multicast feedback

    Page(s): 964 - 971 vol.3
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    We investigate the scalability of feedback in multicast communication and propose a new method of probabilistic feedback based on exponentially distributed timers. By analysis and simulation for up to 106 receivers we show that feedback implosion is avoided while feedback latency is low. The mechanism is robust against the loss of feedback messages and robust against homogeneous and heterogeneous delays. We apply the feedback mechanism to reliable multicasting and compare it to existing timer-based feedback schemes. Our mechanism achieves lower NAK (loss signaling) latency for the same performance in terms of NAK suppression. It is scalable, the amount of state at every group member is independent of the number of receivers. No topological information of the network is used and data delivery is the only support required from the network. It adapts to the number of receivers and leads therefore to a constant performance for implosion avoidance and feedback latency View full abstract»

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  • MSOCKS: an architecture for transport layer mobility

    Page(s): 1037 - 1045 vol.3
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    Mobile nodes of the future will be equiped with multiple network interfaces to take advantage of overlay networks, yet no current mobility systems provide full support for the simultaneous use of multiple interfaces. The need for such support arises when multiple connectivity options are available with different cost, coverage, latency and bandwidth characteristics, and applications want their data to flow over the interface that best matches the characteristics of the data. We present an architecture called transport layer mobility that allows mobile nodes to not only change their point of attachment to the Internet, but also to control which network interfaces are used for the different kinds of data leaving from and arriving at the mobile node. We implement our transport layer mobility scheme using a split connection proxy architecture and a new technique called TCP splice that gives split connection proxy systems the same end to-end semantics as normal TCP connections View full abstract»

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  • Feedback consolidation algorithms for ABR point-to-multipoint connections in ATM networks

    Page(s): 1004 - 1013 vol.3
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    ABR traffic management for point-to-multipoint connections controls the source rate to be the minimum rate supported by all the branches of the multicast tree. A number of algorithms have been developed for extending ABR congestion avoidance algorithms to perform feedback consolidation at the branch points. This paper discusses various design options and implementation alternatives for the consolidation algorithms, and proposes a number of new algorithms. The performance of the proposed algorithms and the previous algorithms is compared under a variety of conditions. Results indicate that the algorithms we propose eliminate the consolidation noise (caused if the feedback is returned before all branches respond), while exhibiting a fast transient response View full abstract»

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  • A scalable control topology for multicast communications

    Page(s): 1197 - 1204 vol.3
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    Large-scale multicast applications for the Internet require the availability of multicast protocols that enhance the basic connectionless IP multicast service. A critical requirement of such protocols in their ability to support a large group of simultaneous users. In this paper, we present a new approach for distributing control information within a multicast group. The goal of our approach is to scale to very large group sizes (in excess of 100,000 users). Multicast group members are organized as a logical n-dimensional hypercube, and all control information is transmitted along the edges of the hypercube. We analyze the scalability of the hypercube control topology and show that the hypercube balances the load per member for processing control information better than existing topologies View full abstract»

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  • A delay and loss versatile scheduling discipline in ATM switches

    Page(s): 939 - 946 vol.3
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    We propose a versatile scheduling discipline, called precedence with partial push-out (PPP), in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switches supporting two delay and two loss priorities. By employing a threshold L, PPP provides delay guarantee by allowing a newly-arriving high-delay-priority cell to precede a maximum of L low-delay-priority cells. Through the use of another threshold R, the discipline offers loss guarantee by permitting a newly-arriving high-loss-priority cell to push out the last low-loss-priority cell located beyond the Rth location in a full queue. By setting L and R properly, PPP versatilely performs as any one of the four widely-accepted disciplines, namely the FCFS, head-of-line, push-out, or head-of-line with push-out disciplines. To determine L and R retaining demanded quality of services (QoSs), we provide an in-depth queueing analysis for the cell delay (CD) and cell loss ratio (CLR) of high-delay-priority low-loss-priority cells. We further propose a simple, algebra-based analysis for the CD and CLR for low-delay-priority, high-loss-priority cells. On the basis of these analyses, L and R can be dynamically and effectively adjusted to provide adequate delay and loss guarantees for high-priority cells while incurring only minimal performance degradation for other classes of cells. Finally, the paper presents simulation results confirming the accuracy of the analyses View full abstract»

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  • End-to-end delay of videoconferencing over packet switched networks

    Page(s): 1084 - 1092 vol.3
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    Videoconferencing is an important global application -it enables people around the globe to interact when they are far from one another. In order for the participants in a video-conference call to interact naturally, the end-to-end delay should be below human perception-about 100 ms. Since the global propagation delay can be about 100 ms, the actual end-to-end delay budget available to the system designer (excluding propagation delay) can be no more than 10 ms. We identify the components of the end-to-end delay in various configurations with the objective of understanding how it can be kept below the desired 10 ms bound. We analyze these components going step-by-step through six system configurations obtained by combining three generic network architectures with two video encoding schemes. We study the transmission of raw video and variable bit rate (VBR) MPEG video encoding over (i) circuit switching, (ii) synchronous packet switching, and (iii) asynchronous packet switching. In addition, we show that constant bit rate (CBR) MPEG encoding delivers unacceptable delay, which is on the order of the group of pictures (GOP) time interval. This study shows that having a global common time reference, together with time-driven priority (TDP) and VBR MPEG video encoding, provides adequate end-to-end delay, which is (i) below 10 ms, (ii) independent of the network instant load, and (iii) independent of the connection rate. The resulting end-to-end delay (excluding propagation delay) can be smaller than the video frame period, which is better than what can be obtained with circuit switching View full abstract»

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  • Performance and fluid simulations of a novel shared buffer management system

    Page(s): 1449 - 1461 vol.3
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    We consider a switching system which has multiple ports that share a common buffer, in which there is a FIFO logical queue for each port. Each port may support a large number of flows or connections, which are approximately homogeneous in their statistical characteristics, with common QoS requirements in cell loss and maximum delay. Heterogeneity may exist across ports. Our first contribution is a buffer management scheme based on buffer admission control, which is integrated with connection admission control at the switch, and is at the same time fair, efficient and robust in sharing the buffer resources across ports. Our scheme is based on the resource-sharing technique of virtual partitioning. Our second major contribution is to advance the practice of discrete-event fluid simulations. Such simulations are approximations to cell-level simulations and offer orders of magnitude speed-up. A third contribution of the paper is the formulation and solution of a problem of optimal allocation of bandwidth and buffers to each port having specific delay bounds, in a lossless multiplexing framework. Finally, we report on extensive simulation results. The scheme is found to be effective, efficient and robust View full abstract»

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  • An end-to-end reliable multicast protocol using polling for scaleability

    Page(s): 1180 - 1187 vol.3
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    Reliable sender-based one-to-many protocols do not scale well due mainly to implosion caused by the excessive rate of feedback packets arriving from receivers. We show that this problem can be circumvented by making the sender poll the receivers at carefully planned timing instants, so that the arrival rate of feedback packets is not large enough to cause implosion. We describe a generic end-to-end protocol which incorporates this polling scheme together with error and flow control mechanisms. We analyse the behaviour of our protocol using simulations which indicate that our scheme can be effective in minimising losses due to implosion, achieving high throughput with low network cost View full abstract»

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  • Packet fair queueing algorithms for wireless networks with location-dependent errors

    Page(s): 1103 - 1111 vol.3
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    While packet fair queueing (PFQ) algorithms provide both bounded delay and fairness in wired networks, they cannot be applied directly to wireless networks. The key difficulty is that in wireless networks sessions can experience location-dependent channel errors. This may lead to situations in which a session receives significantly less service than it is supposed to, while another receives more. This results in large discrepancies between the sessions' virtual times, making it difficult to provide both delay-guarantees and fairness simultaneously. Our contribution is twofold. First, we identify a set of properties, called channel-condition independent fair (CIF), that a packet fair queueing algorithm should have in a wireless environment: (1) delay and throughput guarantees for error-free sessions, (2) long term fairness for error sessions, (3) short term fairness for error-free sessions, and (4) graceful degradation for sessions that have received excess service. Second, we present a methodology for adapting PFQ algorithms for wireless networks and we apply this methodology to derive a novel algorithm based on start-time fair queueing, called channel-condition independent packet fair queueing (CIF-Q), that achieves all the above properties. To evaluate the algorithm we provide both theoretical analysis and simulation results View full abstract»

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  • Efficient rate-controlled bulk data transfer using multiple multicast groups

    Page(s): 1172 - 1179 vol.3
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    Controlling the rate of bulk data multicast to a large number of receivers is difficult due to the heterogeneity among the end-systems' capabilities and their available network bandwidth. If the data transfer rate is too high, some receivers will lose data, and retransmissions will be required. If the data transfer rate is too low, an inordinate amount of time will be required to transfer the data. In this paper, we examine an approach towards rate-controlled multicast of bulk data in which the sender uses multiple multicast groups to transmit data at different rates to different sub-groups of receivers. We present simple algorithms for determining the transmission rate associated with each multicast channel, based on static resource constraints, e.g., network bandwidth bottlenecks. Transmission rates are chosen so as to minimize the average time needed to transfer data to all receivers. Analysis and simulation are used to show that our policies for rate selection perform well for large and diverse receiver groups and make efficient use of network bandwidth. Moreover, we find that only a small number of multicast groups are needed to reap most of the possible performance benefits View full abstract»

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  • Upper and lower bounds of a class of channel assignment problems in cellular networks

    Page(s): 1284 - 1291 vol.3
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    A cellular network is often modelled as a graph and the channel assignment problem is formulated as a coloring problem of the graph. We introduce the notion of cellular graphs that models the hexagonal cell structures of a cellular network. Exploiting the regular structure of the cellular graphs we compute the upper and the lower bounds for a class of channel assignment problems. Assuming a k-band buffering system where the interference does not extend beyond k cells away from the call originating cell, we provide two different formulations of the channel assignment problem-distance-k chromatic number problem and k-band chromatic bandwidth problem. We give one algorithm for the first problem and two for the second, with all three algorithms assigning channels to the cells. The complexity of the algorithm for the first problem is O(p), where p is the number of cells. For the second problem, the complexity of the first algorithm is O(p) and the complexity of the second algorithm is O(k5log k). All the algorithms are asymptotically optimal, in the sense that the order of the upper bound of the number of channels required is the same as the order of the lower bound View full abstract»

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  • On the capabilities of on-off models to capture arbitrary ATM sources

    Page(s): 1333 - 1340 vol.3
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    B-ISDN is conceived to support all types of existing and new emerging applications. In the context of B-ISDN and the new age of information, the user terminal will generate data, voice, video and, in general, multimedia traffic. ATM is the selected mechanism for the efficient transfer of these information across the future worldwide network. The proper design of this network requires cost-effective solutions that may satisfy the quality of service constraints of all the connections. To achieve this goal, an accurate characterization of the traffic generated by the sources is needed. This characterization should capture the statistical properties of the ATM traffic that are relevant to network performance. A review of literature shows that, from a general point of view, this objective has been reached, but with two drawbacks: traffic models are application dependant and, moreover, for some applications, traffic models are not analytically tractable. The final objective of this paper is to construct a general analytical B-ISDN model. Particularly, the paper focuses on the on-off models with general distributions, for which a complete exact statistical characterization at cell level was already obtained in a previous paper. On the basis of this characterization, an algorithm devoted to capture the statistical behaviour of any source is formulated and developed. Particularly, the algorithm captures the average rate and burstiness of any source in an exact way, and the autocorrelation function in an optimal way. Finally, numerical results for different types of video sources are provided View full abstract»

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