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Proceedings of the IEE - Part B: Radio and Electronic Engineering

Issue 3  Part S • Date April 1956

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • The present state of development and future prospects of transistors

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 357 - 360
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  • Introduction to Session on the Transistor as a Computing Element¿I

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 361 - 363
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A transistor digital computer

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 364 - 370
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    The paper describes a small digital computer which has a magnetic-drum store and uses some 330 transistors as the only active circuit elements. The logical design is unusual, involving the interleaving of the digits of numbers stored on the drum; this permits 3-address operation, all three addresses being on the drum, and calls for relatively little storage capacity external to the drum. Although the time taken to perform individual operations is rather long, this is compensated by the fact that the design readily permits a close approach to an optimum programme. View full abstract»

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  • Transistor arithmetic circuits for an interleaved-digit computer

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 371 - 381
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    Earlier papers have described transistor circuits for use as computer elements. This paper describes the development of these, and various gating circuits, as the standard elements from which a digital computer has been constructed. The application of the standard circuits to the arithmetic unit of the computer is illustrated by two examples: an adder of unusual logical design to suit the interleaved-word storage system, and a multiplier system which forms the signed product of two 31-digit binary words in six word-times. A general description of the computer, and details of the magnetic-drum store, are given in accompanying papers. View full abstract»

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  • An interleaved-digit magnetic-drum store for a transistor digital computer

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 382 - 389
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    The magnetic-drum store for a small transistor digital computer operating at 58kc/s is described. The logical design of the computer requires the interleaving of the digits of the words¿an arrangement which makes many words on the drum available concurrently and therefore permits economical 3-address operation. The working store has a capacity of 426 words, including a regenerative loop which is necessary for temporary storage, since not all the words are available concurrently. The proposed main store, which will be relay selected, has a capacity of 16384 words. Circuits are described for writing and reading the interleaved words on to and from the drum and for producing the timing pulses for the whole computer. View full abstract»

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  • A transistor digital computer with a magnetic-drum store

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 390 - 406
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The paper describes the design of a transistor digital computer, the full-scale machine and its prototype. The general arrangement of the two machines is similar, and both employ a magnetic drum for the main and auxiliary stores. The latter are provided by regenerative tracks or revolvers which have reading and writing heads spaced by a distance equivalent to one, two or eight word periods. The output of the reading amplifier is connected via a gate to the writing amplifier, and the track operates as a delay-line type of store. Point-contact transistors are used principally as pulse amplifiers, staticizors and for waveform generation. In the pulse amplifier the transistor operates as a 2-state circuit¿it is turned on by a digit pulse and reset at the end of each digit period by a regular clock waveform with a pulse repetition frequency of 125 kc/s. Point-contact diodes are used to perform the logical operations and for gating. Two-state circuits employing single transistors are also used for the staticizors and for the waveform generation units. A pseudo 2-address code is used in both machines; both the address operand and the address of the next instruction are specified in each instruction, to permit reduction in the access time by optimum coding. The full-scale machine has an 8-word B-register which may also be used as a rapid-access number store and an automatic multiplier. View full abstract»

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  • Discussion on 'The transistor as a computing element - I'

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 407 - 409
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  • The authors' replies to the discussion on ¿The transistor as a computing element¿I¿

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 409 - 411
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  • A new and simple type of digital circuit technique using junction transistors and magnetic cores

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 412 - 417
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A combination of magnetic core as a memory and a transistor as a gate is used to form a simple circuit element with which it is possible to construct economical circuits of wide application in digital techniques. Two examples of these¿a pulse separator and a binary counter¿which have been used with advantage in a data transmission system, are described in detail. View full abstract»

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  • Quiescent core-transistor counters

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 418 - 421
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (495 KB)  

    The paper describes a number of binary counting circuits having junction transistors and square-hysteresis-loop magnetic cores as the basic circuit elements. The cores have two well-defined remanent magnetic states which provide the necessary information storage when the circuit is quiescent, and the transistors are used as pulse-shaping amplifiers which provide output signals and `switch¿ the cores from one remanent state to the other. Cores of ferrite material made for matrix storage systems are used; they have a change-over time of less than a microsecond and, in conjunction with junction transistors at present available, limit the highest counting rate to 2 × 105 pulses/sec. In the circuits described, the emitter and base contacts of the transistor are connected across a winding on the core. The emitter is earthed, and the collector, via the load, is connected to a source of negative voltage. Other windings are available on the core, and flux change in a specified direction causes the transistor to be turned on. When the flux change is complete, the collector current ceases after a short delay. The pulse duration may be controlled by a bias voltage applied between the emitter and the base. Most of the counting circuits include a regenerative loop back to the core in series with the collector load. Core-transistor circuits consume little mean power and this, coupled with compactness, simplicity and reliability, seems to make the combination very suitable for digital-computer applications. View full abstract»

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  • Discussion on 'The transistor as a computing element - II'

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 422 - 424
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  • The authors' reply to the discussion on ¿The transistor as a computing element¿II¿

    Publication Year: 1956
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  • Introduction to Session on Computer Input and Output, Including Analogue/Digital Conversion

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 425 - 426
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A rapid digital-to-analogue convertor for numbers having eleven binary digits

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 427 - 431
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    The apparatus accepts pulse signals representing 11-digit binary numbers and from these generates voltages proportional to the magnitudes of the numbers. The output voltage is available for display for at least 400 microsec within 700 microsec of the number being fed in. Resetting occupies a further 300microsec, and the apparatus works continuously on a 1.4 millisec cycle. The conversion takes place in two stages. In the first stage a time analogue of the number is generated by a crystal-controlled binary counter, and in the second stage a linear time-base produces a voltage proportional to this time interval. The adjustment of the apparatus is reasonably simple, and experience indicates that a weekly check is sufficient to maintain 11-digit accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • The use of cyclic permuted codes in relay counting circuits

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 432 - 436
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    Relay counting circuits to meet conventional requirements are considered. If only one relay is allowed to move at the start and at the finish of each input pulse, it is shown that the minimum total number of relays is required. The sequence of states of the circuit can thus be characterized by a cyclic permuted code, this term being used in a more general sense than is customary. Circuits using the reflected binary cyclic permuted code are given, and means of adapting them so that the number of states in the counting cycle is not restricted to be a power of two. These have the disadvantage (shared by most relay counters) of different relays wearing at different rates. Basically different cyclic permuted codes are given, for the particular cases of four digits and five digits, resulting in more even wear. No code with this property has been found, however, which applies to any number of digits. View full abstract»

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  • Remote position control and indication by digital means

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 437 - 446
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In some applications, e.g. on an accurate radar equipment, it is desirable to convert the angular setting of a shaft to digital form with high accuracy. A master binary disc is made photographically on a dividing engine. A photographic copy of the disc is coupled directly to the shaft whose setting is to be measured and is scanned to produce a digital signal representing the shaft angle or a function thereof. A number of convertors were made with scales subdivided to give an accuracy of the order of 1¿ of arc. They were used under conditions of severe vibration and exposure, and amply demonstrated the principle of the high-accuracy binary disc. A follow-up servo mechanism was made and demonstrated, in which one shaft followed another by a digital link, to an accuracy of 1¿ of arc. The limitation of accuracy is in the production of the binary discs. The master pattern can be subdivided and the photographic emulsion has ample resolution, but further work has to be done on the avoidance of small blemishes in the photographic processes. View full abstract»

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  • Discussion on ¿Computer input and output, including analogue-digital conversion¿

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 447 - 449
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  • The author's reply to the discussion on ¿Computer input and output, including analogue-digital conversion¿

    Publication Year: 1956
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  • Introduction to Session on the Computer in a Non-Arithmetic Role

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 450 - 451
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Making a computer play draughts

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 452 - 453
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  • Computer operations required for mechanical translation

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 453 - 455
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The design of a logic for the recognition of printed characters by simulation

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 456 - 462
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    A logic for the recognition of printed characters employing a proportional-parts method has been tested extensively by simulation; the method relates the identity of a character to the relative size and position of character elements detected by optical scanning along closely spaced vertical lines, the video information from each scan being coded to designate the number, size and position of inked areas detected by the scanner. The time sequence or order of occurrence of this coded information is tested by logical circuits against prescribed sequences for character recognition. A set of coding definitions, a prescribed sequence for the recognition of a given character, and the methods of simulative testing of the recognition logic on a magnetic-drum data-processing machine are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • An experiment on the machine translation of languages carried out on the BESM

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 463 - 472
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    The idea of machine translation of languages was recently given realization in the U.S.S.R., and a detailed description is given of the lines on which the experiment has been carried out. A combination of a special-type dictionary and a revised grammar was used to furnish the translation of scientific texts. The dictionary compiled for the purpose differs from the usual type in that it does not limit the meanings of the words to the so-called `dictionary meanings¿, but reflects the life and language connections of the words more precisely. English words with multiple meaning form a special section of the dictionary. Grammar information of a word is obtained partly from the dictionary, but final conclusions are not made until a series of `grammar programmes¿, independent of the dictionary, have determined the grammatical form of the word by analysing its morphology and place in the sentence. When both meaning and grammar information of every word in the English sentence is obtained, the English-analysis part of the programme is replaced by the Russian-synthesis programme, which is working independently, and thus can be used in machine translation from any languages. English words and their Russian equivalents are stored in a coded form. The Baudot code is used to replace words by numbers, which then undergo ordinary calculating-machine operations according to the instructions fixed in a series of programmes devised for the purpose. The results of the calculations are decoded and printed in Russian script by a teletyper. View full abstract»

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  • Discussion on ¿The computer in a non-arithmetic role¿

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 473 - 475
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  • The author's reply to the discussion on "The computer in a non-arithmetic role"

    Publication Year: 1956
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