Record of Conference Papers. IEEE Industry Applications Society 44th Annual Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference

15-17 Sept. 1997

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  • Record of Conference Papers. IEEE Industry Applications Society 44th Annual Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference

    Publication Year: 1997
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (646 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Monitoring partial discharges on 4 kV motor windings

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):159 - 165
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (828 KB)

    Partial discharges are a symptom of most of the stator winding insulation deterioration mechanisms found in motors and generators rated 6 kV or more. Thus, partial discharge testing has been used for over 40 years as a means of determining the maintenance requirements of such high voltage stators. As the benefits of such testing have become more widely known, there has been an interest to apply pa... View full abstract»

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  • The selection of motors in hazardous atmospheres and hostile environments. A theoretical and practical guide

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):151 - 158
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1388 KB)

    This paper discusses the considerations for rotating equipment use in hazardous locations. Today's international projects frequently include a diversity of requirements, often placing local, international and American standards at odds, making the task of contractors, engineering companies and electrical and mechanical OEM's tedious and difficult. This can either increase the costs unnecessarily, ... View full abstract»

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  • Heat tracing performance and reliability, the rest of the story

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):101 - 108
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB)

    Considerable effort is often placed in the development of specifications for the proper type or types of heat tracing cable for a given application or project. In recent years, detailed requirements and information needs for heat tracing control systems have also been specified. Equally critical, as the heat tracing materials specification, is the proper design, installation, commissioning and mai... View full abstract»

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  • Mechanical design of induction motors applied on adjustable speed drives

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):139 - 149
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1416 KB)

    This paper provides an overview of key mechanical design aspects of induction motors applied to adjustable speed drives to their optimize performance and ensure the reliability of the system. Rotating assembly stresses, shaft resonances, bearing limitations and lubrications are discussed and related to practical limitations. An application example and failure analysis from a Chevron production fac... View full abstract»

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  • The use of surge protection devices in the petroleum/petrochemical industry

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):91 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB)

    Without clean power, petroleum and petrochemical equipment is subject to possible upset or catastrophic failure. To cost-effectively eliminate power disturbances due to lightning, fast ringing transients and electrical noise, the use of surge protection devices at building entrance feeders, key branch panels, critical loads and communication lines is recommended. Their use improves the operating r... View full abstract»

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  • The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard's impact on wire and cable

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):249 - 255
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)

    Recent changes in chemicals considered toxic by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and hazardous by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has required the cable industry to reevaluate the “Article” exclusion for wire and cable products under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (HCS). Many wire a... View full abstract»

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  • Cable or conduit-who uses it and why?

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):129 - 137
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB)

    This paper is a summary of results from a professional survey of people employed in the electrical industry. The purpose is to determine future trends in wiring methods, particularly the use of cabling versus conduit, with special attention to hazardous areas. Trade papers have done a credible and complete job in comparing the economic and technical advantages of installing one wiring system over ... View full abstract»

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  • Specifying rectifiers for electrochemical applications

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):199 - 205
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (668 KB)

    This paper details the information that a purchaser of an industrial rectifier needs to provide to a potential vendor. Each of the major components of a rectifier system (the power system, cooling system, converter and control) is described, along with the key parameters needed to specify each. The emphasis is on rectifiers for electrochemical applications, although most of the paper is relevant f... View full abstract»

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  • Field motor testing: procedures which limit amount of involved risk

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):79 - 90
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (916 KB)

    When a motor's reliability is uncertain, electrical and mechanical tests can be conducted to determine its state of heath. In the process of conducting some of these tests, it is possible to aggravate a problem, or even create a problem which did not exist before testing. By performing tests which vary in their level of severity from a low level, and incrementally increasing in severity, it is pos... View full abstract»

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  • Control modernization of SCR rectifiers with continuous device current monitoring

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):183 - 190
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1132 KB)

    This paper describes the application of modern microprocessor based control design to upgrade the control system and protection of a system of early SCR rectifiers. The paper discusses the problems of the existing system, and the benefits desired from the project, as well as the issues leading to the decision to proceed with the project. Design considerations are discussed along with the elements ... View full abstract»

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  • A flow chart methodology for performing low-voltage three-phase motor coordination studies

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):11 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (984 KB)

    A flow chart methodology is suggested for performing low-voltage overcurrent device coordination studies for new and existing three-phase motor installations. The flow chart provides references to codes and standards, highlights benchmarks for coordination, provides guides to device selection, and notes the overcurrent values of interest. The text elaborates on the use of the National Electrical C... View full abstract»

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  • Direct current field test for medium voltage cables: why can no one agree?

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):275 - 279
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB)

    Industry standards for shielded medium voltage power cables, 5 through 46 kV, have recently been revised, changing the direct current test voltages for field tests and test durations, and limiting tests to newly installed cables. The following industry groups' specifications and standards provide different guidelines for DC field tests for cross-linked polyethylene and ethylene propylene rubber in... View full abstract»

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  • Dust explosions in process plants

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):239 - 247
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (548 KB)

    Dust safety in chemical plants has received little attention in technical papers, yet dusts have a similar potential for fire and explosion as flammable vapors or gases. This paper discusses dust safety and provides guidelines for classifying dust locations and applying the National Electrical Code (NEC) to dusts areas. It does not cover ignition of dusts by static electricity or lightning View full abstract»

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  • A tool for reliability and safety: predict and prevent equipment failures with thermography

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):59 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1032 KB)

    Infrared thermography can help to proactively identify equipment failures before they can occur. If equipment is allowed to operate until failure, there may be significant damage, increased personnel risk exposure and/or lost production. Thermography is a rapidly evolving technology both in capability and in industry acceptance as a tool for preventing electrical failures. It can also be misused o... View full abstract»

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  • Pipelines, programmable logic controllers, and safety

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):167 - 174
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB)

    Most new pipeline facilities are being designed using programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for control systems and many existing facilities are being retrofitted with PLCs. However, many engineers are reluctant to depart from the old methods of designing safety and regulatory systems. This results from either a lack of confidence in the PLC based system or a misunderstanding of the regulations co... View full abstract»

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  • Process safety management and the electrical function

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):109 - 119
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (960 KB)

    OSHA regulations mandating process safety can have a significant impact on the full life cycle of an electrical system. Implementation of process safety management (PSM) is intended to prevent catastrophic accidents. It includes powerful managing system elements that can be applied to improve electrical safety and help meet other business objectives. This paper introduces the subject and discusses... View full abstract»

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  • Starting high inertia loads [induction motors]

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):257 - 265
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB)

    Common methods used to start AC induction motors driving high inertia loads include across-the-line starting and reduced voltage starting by auto-transformer, wye-delta or resistor/reactor. Application of these methods is generally well documented and understood. However, with the increased use of electronic soft starters and variable frequency drives, applications can be markedly different. This ... View full abstract»

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  • Low-voltage motor starting on limited capacity electrical systems

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):207 - 213
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB)

    Technology has changed dramatically with reduced voltage electrical motor starters on electrical power systems with low energy supplies. This paper explores the requirements for when reduced voltage starters are required, information required for determining the type of equipment to be used, types of equipment available and their applications and limitations. Process impacts and actual installatio... View full abstract»

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  • The process of conducting and communicating forensic analysis of electrical failures

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):191 - 198
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)

    The “caused by” condition for any electrical fault can be determined by a thorough and carefully executed analysis. As soon as new equipment is installed, a process of normal deterioration begins. Electrical equipment failure, not attributed to misapplication, transient overvoltage or heavily loaded joints and connections usually involves deterioration of enclosure and degradation of i... View full abstract»

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  • NEMA design E motors and controls-what's it all about?

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):25 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (956 KB)

    Quite a bit of confusion exists in industry on the new NEMA design “E” motors and the associated equipment used to control them. While considerable information has been published on the motors themselves, articles typically do not cover both the motor and related control aspects. This paper first discusses the motor design background and related issues and then moves to the effects on ... View full abstract»

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  • Application of an electronic starter for a delayed coke process water jet cutting pump

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):281 - 285
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB)

    An electronically controlled SCR-based, medium voltage starter was used to limit the starting current and ramp up to speed a 2250 hp, 4160 V induction motor used to cut coke in a delayed coker unit. The electronic starter application is outlined from the standpoint of selection, installation, operation and analysis of economic and reliability benefits. A description of this application and the his... View full abstract»

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  • Electric re-regulation and effects on industrial customers

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):69 - 78
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (892 KB)

    The US electric utility industry has been under intense state and federal regulation since the mid 1930s. Many of the acts which created the authority for government regulation, both on the state and federal level, are being reexamined. It is imperative that new legislation be crafted to appropriately deal with the different needs of both customers and suppliers in different regions of the country... View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating medium voltage cable splices and terminations

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):121 - 127
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)

    Though the electrical manufacturing industry has taken advantage of advances in material and manufacturing technology to provide cables and cable accessory (splicing and terminating) systems to provide medium voltage power cable systems that are more economical and reliable to install and operate. However, the industry has left the choice of both cables and accessory systems up to relatively untra... View full abstract»

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  • Fast tracking a 30.6 MW supersynchronous LCI compressor drive on a large gas transmission pipeline

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):175 - 181
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)

    This paper describes the processes used in justifying, purchasing, installing and starting up a large line-commutated invertor (LCI)-fed supersynchronous drive on a pipeline application, with a total time from conception to start up of less than 18 months View full abstract»

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