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Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1998. APEC '98. Conference Proceedings 1998., Thirteenth Annual

Date 15-19 Feb. 1998

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  • APEC '98 Thirteenth Annual Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): i - xxix
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 0_6 - 0_8
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Multilevel converters for large electric drives

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 530 - 536 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (30)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)  

    Traditional two-level high-frequency pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters for motor drives have several problems associated with their high frequency switching which produces common-mode voltage and high voltage change (dV/dt) rates to the motor windings. Multilevel inverters solve these problems because their devices can switch at a much lower frequency. Two different multilevel topologies are identified for use as a power converter for electric drives: a cascade inverter with separate DC sources; and a back-to-back diode clamped converter. The cascade inverter is a natural fit for large automotive all-electric drives because of the high VA ratings possible and because it uses several levels of DC voltage sources which would be available from batteries or fuel cells. The back-to-back diode clamped converter is ideal where a source of AC voltage is available such as a hybrid electric vehicle. Simulation and experimental results show the superiority of these two power converters over PWM-based drives View full abstract»

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  • A soft commutated neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter: theory and experimentation

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 537 - 543 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    A soft commutation circuit aimed to substitute for the conventional snubber in a GTO NPC inverter is presented in this paper. The small rating lossless auxiliary branch creates soft switching conditions for the main devices without having to subject them to extra voltage/current spikes or any modulation constraints. Hence it allows for considerable extension of the power range and the frequency range of the main installation. Operation, analysis, and designing of the circuit as well as the experimental results from a prototype are detailed in the paper View full abstract»

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  • Single-stage converters for photovoltaic powered lighting systems with MPPT and charging features

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1149 - 1155 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (2)
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    This paper proposes single-stage power converters (SSCs) for application in photovoltaic powered lighting systems. The synchronous switch technique is employed to synthesize the SSCs which can fulfill maximum power point tracking, battery charging, discharging and lamp ballasting features. Several typical SSCs are discussed in the paper. One of the proposed SSCs, which is the integration of a buck-boost charger/discharger and a class-D series resonant parallel loaded inverter, is analyzed and designed. Both pulse-width modulation and variable-frequency controls are used to govern the system. The controller is implemented on a single-chip microprocessor. Simulated and experimental results of the proposed system for driving sixteen GE TBX 26 W fluorescent lamps are used to verify the theoretical prediction and feasibility. The proposed system has the merits of lower cost, more compact size and possibly achieving higher reliability over conventional systems View full abstract»

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  • Computers in the central office-a primer on powering equipment from -48 V

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 902 - 908 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The convergence of computing and telephony is blurring the distinction between the two worlds. It is not unusual to have computing and data networking equipment installed in telephone central offices. This means that computing equipment is being adapted to operate from the -48 VDC central office (CO) power rather than the AC mains. This paper is a primer that provides an overview of what is required to power equipment from central office power. It reviews the fundamentals of central office power and distribution, the requirements of the two major standards agencies, Bellcore and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), and some implementation issues when equipment must designed to operate from either central office or mains power View full abstract»

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  • Electronic ballast based on class E amplifier with a capacitive inverter and dimming for photovoltaic applications

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1156 - 1162 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
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    In this paper, the design and construction of an electronic ballast based on a class E amplifier with a capacitive impedance inverter and with dimming features is presented. The ballast is intended to supply instant-start fluorescent lamps from a DC 12 V source. The use of class E amplifiers in fluorescent lamps ballasts presents large advantages such as: high power density; simple structure (only one transistor); high efficiency; and optimum lamp driving. The class E amplifier uses a capacitive impedance inverter as the resonant tank and one diode in antiparallel with the switch; these elements allow the implementation of a dimming feature for the ballast. One of the main applications of this ballast is the supply of fluorescent lamps from solar cells. The design process has been simplified obtaining several characteristics and using mathematical programs. The designed electronic ballast drives a 21 W lamp and operates at a switching frequency of 400 kHz. Dimming is implemented using a SG3524 in a VCO fashion View full abstract»

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  • High voltage buck converter topology for common mode voltage reduction

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 940 - 943 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)  

    A new DC buck power converter topology to actively reduce common mode voltage applied to the load is presented in this paper. The supply is designed to interface universal input DC-DC power supplies to a rectified 480 VAC (700 VDC) bus. By minimizing the common mode voltage produced, the size and cost of the passive filter elements can be significantly reduced. In the topology presented, an additional switching device to cancel the common mode voltage augments the traditional buck converter. Canceling the common mode voltage reduces the EMI filter requirements. It is shown that the switching losses remain unchanged while the voltage rating of the switching devices can be reduced. By using de-rated devices, the cost of the converter is reduced View full abstract»

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  • A high speed pulser thyristor

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 737 - 742 vol.2
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    A pulse power thyristor (PPT), has features optimized for pulse power applications: high di/dt, compact size and high current densities >104 A/cm2. These features are enabled by enhancing the turn-on mechanism through field aided drift and a very high level of gate-cathode interdigitation. The technology allows high blocking voltage >5 kV in small, low cost packages. The device described in this paper is optimized for turn-on and, as such, is labeled a pulse power closing switch thyristor (PPCST). The device structure is briefly discussed along with details of field aided drift as a critical dynamic mechanism. A trade-off for fast turn-on shows that the dynamic resistance and leakage currents are higher than typical thyristors. A major attribute of the device design is to self limit the anode di/dt without self-destruction or having the requirement for series inductors. A dynamic test circuit was developed with the potential of greater than 110 kA/μs. Test results show that the di/dt is limited by the PPCST and not inductance. The current rise from 10% to 90% occurs within 260 ns to a peak current of 4.85 kA to yield a di/dt of 14.9 kA/μs. The 10% to 70% rise yields better than 20 kA/μs. During rapid di/dt of anode current the gate-to-cathode voltage became excessive. There, also, was an indication of possible current flow out of the gate during the same interval. Thus, an ultra-fast constant-current gate drive circuit was developed. The drive delivered 0 to 30 A in <400 ns and maintained the 30 A during the entire turn on interval. The excessive voltage was due to 5 nH of internal package inductance View full abstract»

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  • An integrated controller module for distributed control of power electronics

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 874 - 880 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
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    This paper introduces the concept of a module controller. The module controller integrates the control unit, power supply, measurement unit and communications link into the IGBT module, or as a standard add-on module. The benefits of this is both financial, technical and include lower manufacturing and design cost, increased reliability and ease of maintenance of the system as a whole View full abstract»

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  • Quasi soft-switching partly decoupled three-phase PFC with approximate unity power factor

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 953 - 957 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
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    This paper proposed a decoupled PFC concept and a novel three-phase PFC circuit operated in quasi zero voltage switching mode. Its three phase voltages are decoupled partly in its power topology, therefore approximate unity power factor can be obtained with a simple control strategy. This converter has been verified by simulation results and successful application in a 5 kW switching mode power supply (SMPS). It is a good choice for a system with high power, high frequency, high reliability, low THD of the line current and high power factor. Finally, its design equations are derived from its further analysis View full abstract»

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  • An improved phase-shifted zero-voltage and zero-current switching PWM converter

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 811 - 815 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    An improved phase-shifted zero-voltage and zero-current switching PWM power converter (PS-ZVZCS-PWM converter) is proposed, which achieves zero-voltage-switching of the leading leg and zero-current-switching of the lagging leg. The saturable inductor and the anti-paralleled diodes of the lagging leg in the previous PS-ZVZCS-PWM power converter are removed and this avoids the corresponding drawbacks such as secondary duty loss and the loss of the saturable inductor. The operation of the new power converter is analyzed and simulation results are also presented View full abstract»

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  • Novel zero-voltage and zero-current-switching (ZVZCS) full bridge PWM converter using a simple auxiliary circuit

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 834 - 839 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (27)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB)  

    A novel zero voltage and zero current switching (ZVZCS) full bridge (FB) PWM power converter is presented to simplify the circuits of the previously presented ZVSCS power converters. A simple auxiliary circuit which consists of one small capacitor and two small diodes is added in the secondary to provide ZVZCS conditions to primary switches as well as to clamp secondary rectifier voltage. The additional clamp circuit for the secondary rectifier is not necessary. The auxiliary circuit includes neither lossy components nor additional active switches which makes the proposed power converter efficient and cost effective. The principle of operation, features and design considerations are illustrated and verified on a 2.5 kW, 100 kHz IGBT-based experimental circuit View full abstract»

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  • Effects of diode recovery characteristics on electromagnetic noise in PFCs

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 944 - 949 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    This paper presents a comparison of different diodes used in boost power factor correctors (PFC) from the point of view of electromagnetic compatibility. Diodes produced by various manufacturers, all with the same nominal recovery time, have been characterized and tested on a PFC circuit. Whereas the conducted emissions do not depend on the used diode, the radiated emissions are strongly influenced by the recovery behavior. In particular the snap factor is important for the noise level and the reverse capacitance determines the ringing frequency and hence the noise peak View full abstract»

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  • IGBT dynamics for short-circuit and clamped inductive switching

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 743 - 748 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    This paper reports and compares the internal dynamics of IGBT under short circuit and clamped inductive switching stress. The performance of IGBTs under short circuit and clamped inductive load conditions has been studied in detail with the aid of extensive measurements and numerical simulations. An advanced mixed device and circuit simulator is employed to study the internal dynamics of latch-up free punch-through IGBT. It is shown that thermally assisted avalanche breakdown of IGBT under the two stress conditions occurs due to localized high temperature generation in different regions of the device View full abstract»

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  • Component placement for improved EMI performance in power electronic circuits

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 911 - 917 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Casual placement of components in power electronic circuits can lead to unpredictable EMI problems in the hardware which are hard to troubleshoot. At certain power levels and operating frequencies, various segments of a circuit might act as antennas radiating noise. The design engineer ends up inserting shields in the circuit to somehow make the circuit work. Precautions at the time of initial circuit layout can save time and efforts. Extensive computer simulation and experimentation have been carried out to highlight some of these issues with an aim of providing appropriate guidelines, which, if observed, can minimize EMI problems View full abstract»

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  • Loss-less and cost-effective cable terminator topologies with no voltage overshoot

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1030 - 1034 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    This paper proposes a series of cable terminator topologies to totally eliminate the voltage overshoot across the load of a power electronics system with fast switching edges and long cables. Potentially without power loss, the proposed terminators improve the system efficiency and with significantly reduced package size. Also, diagnostic capability can be built-in with little additional cost to remotely monitor the operation of the terminator. Detailed analysis and test results are included in the paper View full abstract»

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  • An improved self-resonant PWM forward converter

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 620 - 625 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
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    This paper presents a forward converter with a nondissipative cell which provides a soft switching converter operation. This approach is based on the principle of the self-resonance, that is: an auxiliary voltage source feeds the resonant circuit, charging a capacitor which provides the condition for the turn on and turn off zero voltage switching (ZVS) of the switches. The complete operating principle, relevant equations, simulation and experimental results are presented View full abstract»

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  • An improved full-bridge zero-voltage-transition PWM DC/DC converter with zero-voltage/zero-current switching of the auxiliary switches

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 816 - 822 vol.2
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    In this paper, an improved full-bridge (FB) zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) PWM DC/DC power converter topology is proposed. The proposed FB-ZVT PWM DC/DC power converter has the advantage of achieving zero voltage and zero current switching of the auxiliary switches using an auxiliary network. The auxiliary network is simply composed of a saturable inductor, auxiliary capacitors and auxiliary diodes. With the help of the proposed auxiliary network, the improved FB-ZVT PWM DC/DC power converter has much improved characteristics with respect to the overall system efficiency. The operation principles are explained in detail and several interesting simulation and experimental results verify the validity of the proposed circuit from a 83 kHz, 1 kW prototype power converter using IGBTs View full abstract»

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  • A DC-AC converter using a voltage equational type switched-capacitor transformer

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 603 - 606 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    A new type DC-AC converter using a voltage equational type switched capacitor transformer is presented. A test circuit which converts DC voltage (160 V) to an AC voltage (100 V/60 Hz) was built. The experimental results of the prototype DC-AC converter show that the efficiency is very high (98%) and its output power is large (300 W) View full abstract»

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  • Position control of ultrasonic motors using sliding mode control with multiple control inputs

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 597 - 602 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    This paper presents a new position control scheme for ultrasonic motors using sliding mode control with multiple control inputs. In order to achieve quick and precise position control, both drive frequency and phase difference of applied voltages are controlled based on sliding mode control View full abstract»

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  • Practical considerations in the design of lithium-ion battery protection systems

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 700 - 707 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)  

    This paper presents the practical issues encountered in designing a lithium-ion battery protection circuit, including the effects of system loads and parasitic elements. It also discusses the characteristics of lithium-ion batteries and the need for such protection circuits. A fully integrated solution, using a new single cell protector IC is described View full abstract»

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  • High frequency and precision 3-phase sine/PWM controller with near-zero frequency of MPU intervention

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 796 - 801 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)  

    Conventional PWM fully depends on microprocessors for extensive online computation, intervention and house-keeping. At a 20 kHz switching frequency, a modern CPU's overhead increases up to 90%. Conventional methods also have a poor cycle-to-cycle accuracy of ±5-10 μsec and a limited frequency range. A novel self-managed high frequency PWM controller is developed to meet these increasing demands. The architecture permits a near-zero interfacing rate with the MPU whilst being capable of both asynchronous and synchronous PWM over a range of 0-1000 Hz, expandable to several kHz. A cycle-to-cycle accuracy of 50 nsec is achievable. Experimental results verify this new approach View full abstract»

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  • A novel secondary clamping circuit topology for soft switching full-bridge PWM DC/DC converter

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 840 - 845 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    This paper proposes a novel secondary clamping circuit for soft switching FB (full-Bridge) PWM DC/DC power converter. The proposed circuit eliminates the reflected output current which is reflected from the secondary side to the primary side so that it reduces the needless conduction losses of the primary side during the current circulating mode. Also, it ensures the zero-voltage/zero-current switching of the leading/lagging leg switches. The characteristics of the proposed clamping circuit are investigated and the validity is verified by the simulation and experimental results View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of noise source impedance of off-line converters

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 918 - 923 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    An insertion loss method is proposed to measure the noise source impedance of offline power supplies. The information obtained enables one to predict EMI filter performance and design a suitable filter for power supply applications View full abstract»

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