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Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1996. Bridging Disciplines for Biomedicine. Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Conference of the IEEE

Date Oct. 31 1996-Nov. 3 1996

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  • 18th Annual Intel national Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society [front matter]

    Page(s): i - T
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Intracardiac electrical field plethysmography-FEM model study

    Page(s): 1961 - 1962 vol.5
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    This paper presents preliminary results obtained from a mathematical model of intracardiac electric field plethysmography. This method is based on measurement of the electrical field inside the heart with excitation applied laterally to both sides of the thorax. Two models have been examined. The first one was the spherical shell embedded in conductive medium. The second one has been constructed using the finite element method. It is shown that for both models the electrical field inside the modelled ventricle are uniform. This feature makes the method insensitive to catheter localisation. View full abstract»

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  • Author index

    Page(s): 2316 - 2340
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • User training-the neglected factor in clinical engineering

    Page(s): 1967 - 1968 vol.5
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    User training is one of the most neglected aspects of clinical engineering. The initial results of a survey currently underway in hospitals in the United Kingdom, shows that clinical engineering departments spend 0.6% of their time either preparing for or providing training. At the same time they report that 23% of the reported failures of critical care equipment are due to user error. In this paper it is advocated that it is a mistake to ignore user training. Although investing in a formal training programme can be initially time consuming, with few short term results, in the long term it will have economic as well as safety benefits that will far outweigh the initial investment View full abstract»

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  • Multi-microelectrode devices for intrafascicular use in peripheral nerve

    Page(s): 2136 - 2138 vol.5
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    This minisymposium paper gives an overview of experimental, modeling, design and microfabrication steps which lead towards the University of Twente three-dimensional 128-fold silicon microelectrode device. The device is meant for implantation in peripheral nerve for neuromuscular control purposes and is estimated to be able to selectively control 10-20 motor fibres. Also, the potentialities of an alternative LIGA microfabrication technology are considered. A brief comparison is made with the two-dimensional sieve and flexible foil types of neuro electronic interfaces, under development elsewhere. Microfabrication technologies appear to be an important tool, but evidence is accumulating that for selective neuroelectronic interfacing the micro devices are not yet small/selective enough. More precision and selectivity is needed to contact individual axons intimately and selectively. Therefore, new lines of research develop towards in-vitro-neuron-cultured MEPs (Multi Electrode Plates) to be implanted in neural tissue View full abstract»

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  • Non-linearity of the skin's AC impedance

    Page(s): 1945 - 1946 vol.5
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    The nonlinearity of the skin's AC impedance is a complex and fascinating problem. A custom-built, multichannel, in vivo impedance monitoring system was used to study and compare the skin's nonlinear behaviour under differing current amplitude conditions. Due to the complexity of the problem, care must be taken when planning such experiments. It was found that the source of the observed nonlinearity is the skin's parallel resistance. This resistance is nonlinear, even at low current densities of the order of 2 μA/cm2 View full abstract»

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  • A decision support system for the location of hospital facilities: a prototype

    Page(s): 1971 - 1972 vol.5
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    A prototype of a Decision Support System (DSS) to the location of hospital facilities, which uses a bicriteria model is presented. This DSS is being developed for a Windows platform using Visual Basic and having an open architecture View full abstract»

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  • Biomedical application of high-resolution infrared and parallel processing technologies

    Page(s): 2085 - 2086 vol.5
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    The Armament Directorate is developing a high-resolution infrared focal plane array and massively parallel image processor for smart weapons technology. This paper addresses the emergent applicability of these technologies to biomedical digital imagery in general. The authors specifically address this infrared data acquisition and processing combination for its potential application in the areas of intervention surgery, pathology, thermography, and anesthesiology. Researchers in major university medical centers and several national laboratories are experimenting with diagnostic methods involving digital infrared systems. In many cases, these advanced methods are computationally intensive. Without the aid of advanced, real-time, computing technology such methods are not suitable for real-time operative procedures. A hardware and software combination capable of evaluating all of these promising methodologies is needed View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of trabecular bone texture on radiographs

    Page(s): 2119 - 2121 vol.5
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    A very high standardization of realization and acquisition of images is compulsory. The authors are currently developing studies in wide populations, preliminary results show an increase in fractal dimension with age and menopause. The characterization of the polar diagram shape can, provide an anisotropy indicator; comparison of calcaneus and radius images has shown the potential interest of such an anisotropy study View full abstract»

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  • Technique to investigate ipsilateral functional activation in motor task

    Page(s): 2246 - 2247 vol.5
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    This paper describes a technique to investigate in hemiplegic subjects the effect of cerebral lesions on motor learning with the unimpaired arm. Robot-aided functional imaging experiments suggest that the ipsilateral hemisphere plays a role during learning of a motor task involving the ipsilateral arm. Hemiplegic subjects thus provide an opportunity to test: (a) the effect of cerebral lesions during motor learning, and (b) whether the measured significant changes in neural activity during imaging experiments are not artifacts. The authors' results demonstrate the role of selected ipsilateral brain structures during motor learning. For example, ipsilateral right temporal lesions affect motor performance and learning. Lesions in the motor strip area do not adversely affect motor learning with the unimpaired arm. These results have implications for general rehabilitation strategies that presently do not recognize this deficit View full abstract»

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  • Differences in smooth pursuit parameters evaluated in adults and children

    Page(s): 1788 - 1789 vol.5
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    The ocular smooth pursuit system (SPS) was widely investigated in adults, in newborns and in infants during the first months of life, while very few data are available in children. A series of parameters characterizing the SPS can help one to analyse the possible differences present among the various age groups, thus allowing the study of the system maturation. Here, the authors examine the differences in the parameters evaluated on the smooth pursuit response elicited, both in children 6-12 years old and in adults, by step-ramp stimulations. A slight gain difference, with lower values in children, was found at all the stimulation velocities; the smooth pursuit start and end latencies were always higher in children. These results show the possibility to quantify, by means of few parameters, some smooth pursuit differences between adults and children that can at least partly justify an incomplete maturation of the SPS in children View full abstract»

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  • Digital demodulator procedure for impedance mammography

    Page(s): 1942 - 1944 vol.5
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    This paper presents a method of digital demodulation applied to the 64-electrodes impedance mammograph constructed at the Technical University of Gdansk. The method, based on nonuniform sampling and Fourier analysis, provides fast demodulation with high precision. Using a low cost 12 b analog-to-digital converter the method allows the authors to obtain a 16 b accuracy of measurement. The influence of noise and low frequency modulation of the measured signal on the SNR of the voltmeter is also presented View full abstract»

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  • Plane wave speed in discrete excitable media with recovery

    Page(s): 1923 - 1924 vol.5
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    The authors study the effect of the usual recovery process in an excitable medium on the plane wave propagation speed in a discrete model of the medium. The effects of recovery are simulated by decreasing the element's sourcing strength (its ability to excite neighboring elements) with increasing recovery time. The authors derived the dependence of the plane wave speed on the excitation threshold and recovery time constant and found that this relation was remarkably similar to the analogous dependence calculated for typical reaction-diffusion models of continuous media View full abstract»

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  • 3D visualization of brain electrical activity

    Page(s): 2273 - 2274 vol.5
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    Topographic mapping is increasingly popular method of representing brain electrical activity. We present a visualization method taking advantage of animated 3D topographic maps of brain electrical activity. Maps are projected onto real 3D model of human head and controlled with standard multimedia controls. Benefits of this approach are improved man-machine interface, enhanced readability, and possibility to trace hidden patterns of spatio-temporal brain activity View full abstract»

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  • A decision trees application: dimensional reduction of the Touwen's neurological protocol

    Page(s): 2016 - 2017 vol.5
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    Minimal brain dysfunction is considered one of the possible causes of learning problems in childhood. It can be identified only by the use of complex clinical tests, such as Touwen's (1970) neurological protocol. In this work the authors used classification trees to analyze Touwen's protocol, in order to obtain a clinical procedure simple enough to be performed during the daily routine. 415 children underwent the protocol when they were 5 years old; they were then checked at the age of 7 to evaluate their learning levels. Collected data were analyzed using a variant of the ID3 algorithm. The best identified decision tree correctly classified 95% of total population using only 40 different items out of all the 316 items of the Touwen's protocol. This result could allow one to define a sort of “typical” subject profile differentiating between normal and pathological subjects View full abstract»

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  • International standardisation in medical thermography-draft proposals

    Page(s): 2089 - 2090 vol.5
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    Within the world-wide community of medical thermographers there is general agreement that standardisation in a number of aspects of thermography is both desirable and necessary if meaningful comparison of results between centres is to be achieved. This paper outlines the proposals for a draft Standard for medical thermography that will cover aspects of thermographic terminology, technique and application/interpretation of thermal images View full abstract»

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  • New trends in medical devices-consequences for the curriculum at Stavanger College

    Page(s): 2001 - 2002 vol.5
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    The development of new medical devices has many impacts on a clinical engineering department. The need for advanced repair decreases due to more sophisticated devices with self-diagnostic capabilities, while the demand for instruction, guidance and application support increases. Knowledge about quality assurance, organisation, equipment management, education and instruction is therefore strengthened in the curriculum to the Bachelor of Science degree at Stavanger College. Development of medical simulating tools constitutes an important part of R&D involving the students View full abstract»

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  • Human factors engineering and ageing

    Page(s): 2146 - 2147 vol.5
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    For Human Factors Engineering to be successful in the field of aging it must find ways to cope with heterogeneity in older populations and the environments that they inhabit, broaden its methodology, and carefully consider cost-benefit issues. The author argues that interactions between age and task condition are the touchstones for deriving a unique human factors of aging. Partitioning older adults into those in the workforce, the newly retired, and the frail very old adult can help minimize heterogeneity. National surveys and field studies are underutilized techniques for gathering data about older users. The author reviews some of the age trends that affect performance within such age bands, overview methodologies for gathering data, and present examples from his lab concerning age by condition interactions in print legibility and human-computer interaction View full abstract»

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  • Longitudinal studies to search for predictors of patient outcome

    Page(s): 2142 - 2143 vol.5
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    To ensure quality and cost-effectiveness of innovations in health care, a thorough evaluation of care protocols and investments is necessary. In this paper it is pointed out that such an evaluation should not only include the short-term assessment of patient outcome, but also has to comprise longer term effects. This creates the need for longitudinal studies during which the patient is followed during the entire or at least a significant part of the care process. Such an approach brings about several methodological, scientific and technological implications that are common to all longitudinal studies. By presenting the experiences with a large European multi-center study, the paper discusses a number of relevant issues related to the management of time, costs and quality in longitudinal studies that aim at assessment of long-term patient outcome View full abstract»

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  • Non-invasive imaging in the investigation of deep vein thrombosis in pregnancy

    Page(s): 2095 - 2096 vol.5
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    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a serious condition which can be complicated by the development of pulmonary embolism, which has a high mortality and morbidity. There is an increased incidence of deep vein thrombosis in pregnant patients. Effective treatment of DVT by anticoagulation dramatically decreases the risk of pulmonary embolism, but poses risks of its own, particularly in pregnancy, and should not be undertaken without a confirmed diagnosis. Thermal imaging is quick, simple, non-invasive, risk-free, cost-effective and highly sensitive in the initial investigation of suspected DVT; a negative thermogram excludes DVT and avoids the necessity for further investigation. Thermal imaging is, however, non-specific; a positive thermogram has a number of possible causes and is an indication for further assessment by venography or Doppler ultrasound to confirm or exclude DVT. Thermography should be considered the initial investigation of choice in clinically suspected DVT in pregnancy, proceeding to venography or Doppler ultrasound only when thermography is positive View full abstract»

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  • A new method for the assessment of baroreceptor function during sleep

    Page(s): 1798 - 1799 vol.5
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    Arterial blood pressure regulation is controlled by nerval, hormonal and myogene processes. Short term blood pressure regulation is dominated by nerval regulations, mainly circulatory reflexes. The carotid sinus reflex can be experimentally influenced by the application of neck pressure or suction. Thereby it is possible to investigate baroreceptor function with nonpharmacological interventions. The authors designed a computer controlled system which allows a heart beat triggered application of positive and negative neck cuff pressures for the investigation of blood pressure control during sleep. The new system was optimized to apply multiple user defined steps of external pressure. The system was used with young healthy students to show whether it was possible to determine baroreceptor function during sleep without causing sleep fragmentation and proved to be successful View full abstract»

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  • A stepwise regression approach applied to evaluation of nonlinear patterns in breathing mechanics

    Page(s): 2314 - 2315 vol.5
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    A multiple linear stepwise regression approach was applied to respiratory data from intensive care patients. The influence of different nonlinear viscoelastic properties on the prediction of pressure at the airway opening taken as dependent variable was studied by entering and removing potential predictive variables. These variables were derived from measured ventilatory flow data so as to quantitatively describe elastic and resistive nonlinearities attributed to typical pathophysiological mechanisms. It was found that for a better characterization of breathing mechanics, volume-dependent lung elastance must be introduced and that turbulence effects can sometimes arise. The resulting regression model still corresponds to the classical one-compartment model of breathing mechanics, but two parameters are: airflow-dependent resistance and lung volume-dependent elastance View full abstract»

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  • Parametric analysis of saccadic eye movement depending on vigilance states

    Page(s): 1782 - 1783 vol.5
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between characteristic of saccadic eye movement and vigilance state. The authors surveyed this by comparing the waveform parameter of saccadic velocity to EEG parameter obtained from spectral power of α and β wave band or to subjective vigilance states and sleepness. The authors' result showed that the shapes of saccadic velocity became blunt according to a decline in the vigilance state and also to a increase in sleepiness. This indicated the possibility for estimation of vigilance states by using characteristics of saccadic eye movement View full abstract»

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  • Use of single-source multi-channel EBI system for rheopneumographic measurements

    Page(s): 1949 - 1950 vol.5
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    The electrical impedance rheopneumography (EIR) is a technique for observing the rhythmic changes of the pulmonary circulation and as such application potential for monitoring and diagnosing cardiopulmonary diseases. It is gaining popularity in China due to its non-invasive nature and low cost. However, interference from the heart, systemic circulation, respiration and the current sources is always a problem. Earlier effort had quite successfully suppressed the respiration artefact and the interference due to the heart and major systemic vessels. Here, the authors present a single-source multi-channel impedance measurement system for real-time observing the rhythmic change of the pulmonary circulation from the right/left lung, the heart, and abdomen View full abstract»

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  • Uncooled infrared sensor with digital focal plane array for medical applications

    Page(s): 2081 - 2082 vol.5
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    Lockheed Martin IR Imaging Systems is developing low cost, high performance, uncooled infrared imaging products for both military and commercial applications. These products are based on the microbolometer technology, a silicon micromachined sensor which combines the wafer level silicon processing with a device structure capable of yielding excellent infrared imaging performance. Here, the authors report on the development of an uncooled sensor, the LTC5OO, which incorporates an all digital focal plane array and has a measured NETD of less than 70 mK. The focal plane array and the electronics within the LTC500 have been designed as an integrated unit to meet a broad range of end user applications by providing features such as nonuniformity correction, autogain and level, NTSC and PAL video, and digital outputs. The 327×245 element focal plane array has a 46.25 μm pixel pitch and an on focal plane array 14 bit to analog to digital converter (ADC). These features will make possible economical digital IR imagery for quantitative as well as qualitative medical applications View full abstract»

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