Proceedings 38th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science

20-22 Oct. 1997

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  • Proceedings 38th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science

    Publication Year: 1997
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):605 - 606
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Constant depth circuits and the Lutz hypothesis

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):595 - 604
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (976 KB)

    Resource-bounded measure theory is a study of complexity classes via an adaptation of the probabilistic method. The central hypothesis in this theory is the assertion that NP does not have measure zero in Exponential Time. This is a quantitative strengthening of NP≠P. We show that the analog in P of this hypothesis fails dramatically. In fact, we show that NTIME[n1/11] has measure ze... View full abstract»

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  • Does parallel repetition lower the error in computationally sound protocols?

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):374 - 383
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (980 KB)

    Whether or not parallel repetition lowers the error has been a fundamental question in the theory of protocols, with applications in many different areas. It is well known that parallel repetition reduces the error at an exponential rate in interactive proofs and Arthur-Merlin games. It seems to have been taken for granted that the same is true in arguments, or other proofs where the soundness onl... View full abstract»

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  • Optimal suffix tree construction with large alphabets

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):137 - 143
    Cited by:  Papers (66)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (528 KB)

    The suffix tree of a string is the fundamental data structure of combinatorial pattern matching. Weiner (1973), who introduced the data structure, gave an O(n)-time algorithm for building the suffix tree of an n-character string drawn from a constant size alphabet. In the comparison model, there is a trivial Ω(n log n)-time lower bound based on sorting, and Weiner's algorithm matches this bo... View full abstract»

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  • Tight bounds for depth-two superconcentrators

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):585 - 594
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)

    We show that the minimum size of a depth-two N-superconcentrator is Θ(Nlog2N/loglogN). Before this work, optimal bounds were known for all depths except two. For the upper bound, we build superconcentrators by putting together a small number of disperser graphs; these disperser graphs are obtained using a probabilistic argument. We present two different methods for showing lower b... View full abstract»

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  • Path coupling: A technique for proving rapid mixing in Markov chains

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):223 - 231
    Cited by:  Papers (49)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)

    The main technique used in algorithm design for approximating heart of the method is the study of the convergence (mixing) rates of particular Markov chains of interest. In this paper we illustrate a new approach to the coupling technique, which we call path coupling, for bounding mixing rates. Previous applications of coupling have required detailed insights into the combinatorics of the problem ... View full abstract»

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  • Beyond the flow decomposition barrier

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):2 - 11
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (832 KB)

    We introduce a new approach to the maximum flow problem. This approach is based on assigning arc lengths based on the residual flow value and the residual are capacities. Our approach leads to an O(min(n 2/3, m1/2)m log(n2/m) log U) time bound for a network with n vertices, m arcs, and integral arc capacities in the range [1,…,U]. This is a fundamental impro... View full abstract»

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  • Replication is not needed: single database, computationally-private information retrieval

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):364 - 373
    Cited by:  Papers (134)  |  Patents (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (780 KB)

    We establish the following, quite unexpected, result: replication of data for the computational private information retrieval problem is not necessary. More specifically, based on the quadratic residuosity assumption, we present a single database, computationally private information retrieval scheme with O(nε) communication complexity for any ε>0 View full abstract»

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  • New directions in cryptography: twenty some years later (or cryptograpy and complexity theory: a match made in heaven)

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):314 - 324
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (836 KB)

    Diffie and Hellman (1976) published their fundamental paper on new directions in cryptography, in which they announced that “we stand on the brink of a revolution in cryptography”. Twenty some years later, we survey some of the progress made in cryptography during this time. We especially focus on the successful interplay between complexity theory and cryptography, witnessed perhaps mo... View full abstract»

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  • Reliable cellular automata with self-organization

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):90 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (920 KB)

    In a noisy cellular automaton, even if it is infinite, it is non-trivial to keep a bit of information for more than a constant number of steps. A clever solution in 2 dimensions has been applied to a simple 3-dimensional fault-tolerant cellular automaton. This technique did not solve the following problems: remembering a bit of information in 1 dimension; computing in dimensions lower than 3, or w... View full abstract»

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  • Weak random sources, hitting sets, and BPP simulations

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):264 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)

    We show how to simulate any BPP algorithm in polynomial time using a weak random source of min-entropy rγ for any γ>0. This follows from a more general result about sampling with weak random sources. Our result matches an information-theoretic lower bound and solves a question that has been open for some years. The previous best results were a polynomial time simulation o... View full abstract»

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  • Deterministic superimposed coding with applications to pattern matching

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):127 - 136
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (724 KB)

    A superimposed code is a set of binary vectors having the property that no vector is contained in a boolean sum (i.e. bitwise OR) of a small number of others. Such codes are used in information retrieval for constructing so-called signature files; they also have applications in other areas. In this paper we introduce a new notion of data-dependent superimposed codes and give a deterministic algori... View full abstract»

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  • The minimization problem for Boolean formulas

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):575 - 584
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)

    We investigate the computational complexity of the minimization problem for Boolean formulas. Depending on the definition, these problems are trivially in Σ2P or II2 P, and these are the best upper bounds known. The only previously known lower bounds are also trivial, and are coNP lower bounds at best, thus leaving quite a large gap between the upp... View full abstract»

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  • Contention resolution with guaranteed constant expected delay

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):213 - 222
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (880 KB)

    We study contention resolution in multiple-access channels such as the Ethernet. Under a stochastic model of continuous packet generation from a set of n processors, we construct a protocol which guarantees constant expected delay for generation rates up to a fixed constant λ0<1. Previous protocols which are stable for constant arrival rates do not guarantee constant expected ... View full abstract»

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  • The competitive analysis of risk taking with applications to online trading

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):336 - 344
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)

    Competitive analysis is concerned with minimizing a relative measure of performance. When applied to financial trading strategies, competitive analysis leads to the development of strategies with minimum relative performance risk. This approach is too inflexible. Many investors are interested in managing their risk: they may be willing to increase their risk for some form of reward. They may also ... View full abstract»

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  • Exploiting locality for data management in systems of limited bandwidth

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):284 - 293
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1120 KB)

    This paper deals with data management in computer systems in which the computing nodes are connected by a relatively sparse network. We consider the problem of placing and accessing a set of shared objects that are read and written from the nodes in the network. These objects are, e.g., global variables in a parallel program, pages or cache lines in a virtual shared memory system, shared files in ... View full abstract»

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  • Storage management for evolving databases

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):353 - 362
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (864 KB)

    The problem of maintaining data that arrives continuously over time is increasingly prevalent in databases and digital libraries. Building on a model for sliding window indices developed by N. Shivakumar and H. Garcia-Molina (1997), we devise efficient algorithms for some of the central problems that arise. We also show connections between the problems in this model and some fundamental problems i... View full abstract»

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  • Global optimization using local information with applications to flow control

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):303 - 312
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)

    Flow control in high speed networks requires distributed routers to make fast decisions based only on local information in allocating bandwidth to connections. While most previous work on this problem focuses on achieving local objective functions, in many cases it may be necessary to achieve global objectives such as maximizing the total flow. This problem illustrates one of the basic aspects of ... View full abstract»

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  • Computable obstructions to wait-free computability

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):80 - 89
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (932 KB)

    Effectively computable obstructions are associated to a distributed decision task (ℐ,𝒪,Δ) in the asynchronous, wait-free, read-write shared-memory model. The key new ingredient of this work is the association of a simplicial complex 𝒯, the task complex, to the input-output relation d. The task determines a simplicial map α from 𝒯 to the input complex ℐ. The exi... View full abstract»

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  • A 7/8-approximation algorithm for MAX 3SAT?

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):406 - 415
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (884 KB)

    We describe a randomized approximation algorithm which takes an instance of MAX 3SAT as input. If the instance-a collection of clauses each of length at most three-is satisfiable, then the expected weight of the assignment found is at least 7/8 of optimal. We provide strong evidence (but not a proof) that the algorithm performs equally well on arbitrary MAX 3SAT instances. Our algorithm uses semid... View full abstract»

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  • Computing integral points in convex semi-algebraic sets

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):162 - 171
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (704 KB)

    Let Y be a convex set in Rk defined by polynomial inequalities and equations of degree at most d⩾2 with integer coefficients of binary length l. We show that if Y∩Zk≠θ, then Y contains an integral point of binary length ldO((k4)). For fixed k, our bound implies a polynomial-time algorithm for computing an integral point y∈Y. In part... View full abstract»

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  • No feasible interpolation for TC0-Frege proofs

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):254 - 263
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (752 KB)

    The interpolation method has been one of the main tools for proving lower bounds for propositional proof systems. Loosely speaking, if one can prove that a particular proof system has the feasible interpolation property, then a generic reduction can (usually) be applied to prove lower bounds for the proof system, sometimes assuming a (usually modest) complexity-theoretic assumption. In this paper,... View full abstract»

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  • Succinct representation of balanced parentheses, static trees and planar graphs

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):118 - 126
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (868 KB)

    We consider the implementation of abstract data types for the static objects: binary tree, rooted ordered tree and balanced parenthesis expression. Our representations use an amount of space within a lower order term of the information theoretic minimum and support, in constant time, a richer set of navigational operations than has previously been considered in similar work. In the case of binary ... View full abstract»

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  • Satisfiability Coding Lemma

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):566 - 574
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (708 KB)

    We present and analyze two simple algorithms for finding satisfying assignments of κ-CNFs (Boolean formulae in conjunctive normal form with at most κ literals per clause). The first is a randomized algorithm which, with probability approaching 1, finds a satisfying assignment of a satisfiable κ-CNF formula F in time O(n 2|F|2n-nκ/). The second algorith... View full abstract»

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