Proceedings of Power and Energy Systems in Converging Markets

23-23 Oct. 1997

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  • Proceedings of Power and Energy Systems in Converging Markets

    Publication Year: 1997
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Alphabetical Author Index

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):0_20 - 0_24
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Satellite solar energy systems

    Publication Year: 1997
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (78 KB)

    Summary form only given. The first space solar array was carried aloft on Vanguard I on March 17, 1958. The array on Vanguard I consisted of six photovoltaic panels mounted on the outer surface of the satellite and produced one watt of power for over six years. Space solar arrays and power systems have grown in size and complexity since 1958, and telecommunications satellites with power systems ex... View full abstract»

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  • Reduced conduction loss zero voltage transition power factor correction converter with low cost

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):512 - 516
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)

    A new low conduction loss, low cost zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) power factor correction converter (PFC) is presented. The conventional PFC which consists of a bridge diode rectifier and a boost converter (one active switch) always has three semiconductor conduction drops. The two switch type PFC which was presented reduces conduction loss by reducing one conduction drop but the cost is increased... View full abstract»

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  • From the past to the future, with a challenge [telecom power supplies]

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):165 - 168
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)

    Telecommunications power requirements are changing. These changes are having significant impact on large full services telcos which must balance the needs of new telecommunications platforms with those of a diverse range of existing platforms and power systems. This paper examines these issues from the perspective of one such telco, Telstra (Australia). It proceeds to highlight the challenges that... View full abstract»

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  • The characterization of nickel-cadmium batteries for telecommunications applications. 2

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):98 - 104
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB)

    In this paper the work relating to a number of different nickel-cadmium structures is described. These are the sintered positive, plastic bonded negative high performance plate stack, the double plate sintered positive/plastic bonded negative medium performance plate stack and the pocket plate stack. The technologies of the different structures are briefly described. In Part 1, results were presen... View full abstract»

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  • Influence of temperature and charging voltage on the endurance of VRLA-batteries

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):25 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB)

    To optimize the endurance of VRLA-batteries under float charge the charging voltage is a very important parameter. The charging voltage at different temperatures must be fixed to the value at which the following conditions are fulfilled: a high state of charge of battery electrodes, even at the end of design life; low gassing rate and waterless; high recombination rate without thermal-run-away; sm... View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring the state of health of VRLA batteries through ohmic measurements

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):675 - 680
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (428 KB)

    This paper is based on a joint study conducted by Lucent Technologies and Sprint Florida on monitoring the state of health of valve-regulated Pb-acid (VRLA) batteries. The purpose of the study was to see whether ohmic techniques (impedance, resistance and conductance) can accurately predict the state of charge and state of health of the batteries. This study consisted of field testing as well as a... View full abstract»

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  • Powering the last mile: an alternative to powering FITL

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):536 - 543
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)

    Many telephone Local Exchange Carries (LECs) and cable Multiple System Operators (MSOs) have experimented or deployed Fiber Distribution cable. Whether placing an Optical Network Unit (ONU) within 3000 feet of each subscriber or on the side of the house, these LECs and MSOs are demanding the most economical deployment architecture to serve their subscriber base with the greatest bandwidth possible... View full abstract»

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  • The successful use of VRLA batteries in solar telecommunications applications

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):325 - 330
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)

    This paper reports on the results to date of a birth-to-death trial of selected VRLA batteries operating in 12 V solar powered telecommunications systems in the harsh environment of outback Central Australia. The VRLA batteries in the trial have exhibited performance beyond expectation and appear to exceed the benchmark performance of the vented lead-acid battery traditionally used in this applica... View full abstract»

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  • Passive thermal management of outdoor enclosures using PCM and enhanced natural convection

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):504 - 511
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)

    In many telecommunications applications, switching/signal processing equipment is continuously increasing in capabilities, and more importantly, heat dissipation. The problem starts at the board/subcomponent level and grows to the system level. The equipment often must be housed in enclosures that more often than not will be placed outdoors. The housed equipment generates heat that must dissipated... View full abstract»

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  • The evolution of power management in Telkom SA

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):159 - 163
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB)

    This paper describes the evolution of power management systems in the telecommunication network operated by Telkom SA (South Africa) from a basic alarmed system to a full monitoring and control system. Several different options were considered in the process and the final decision taken allows a gradual transition, using existing network monitoring systems, through an intermediate phase to a fully... View full abstract»

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  • Quality management system for telecommunications power and air-conditioning system

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):297 - 302
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)

    We have a Quality Assurance Center (QAC) in the head office, in order to improve maintenance activities and for the improvement of reliability in telecommunications power and air-conditioning facilities, effective maintenance activity, and rapid customer service in case of unit failure or disaster. Further, QAC has been directly supporting all maintenance centers nationwide to implement their faci... View full abstract»

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  • Development of long-life trickle-charged Ni/Cd cells and cell life evaluation

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):92 - 97
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB)

    We have developed long-life trickle-charged nickel-cadmium (Ni/Cd) cells to use as a backup power supply for optical network units when the commercial power supply fails. The cells were estimated to survive for 10 years or longer at 30°C and operate in a temperature range of -20°C to +60°C. We also found an effective method for evaluating cell life. In the test where the cells were cha... View full abstract»

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  • NiCd batteries for data collection and communication in an outdoor application

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):18 - 24
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB)

    The Dutch Motorway Traffic Management System (MTMS) installed to ease congestion on the Netherlands' 2600 km motorway network, has been continuously expanded and upgraded, and traffic on the motorway network now relies on the system to smooth the flow and reduce the number of accidents. There are now 2100 systems that accurately monitor the traffic flow and `convert' that data into speed restricti... View full abstract»

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  • VRLA battery float, boost and recharge control using the battery string module (BSM)

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):667 - 670
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)

    The VMS (valve regulated lead acid battery management system) is a total VRLA battery management system and consists of 4 major components: Battery String Module (BSM); Test Discharge Module (TDM); VMS Controller; and Portable Interface Module (PIM). Although the first three of the four modules are needed for a complete VMS system, each battery string in a DC power plant's source of emergency rese... View full abstract»

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  • Optimised genset and AC reticulation configuration for AC and DC no-break systems

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):751 - 755
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)

    As a result of increasingly converging technologies in the telecommunication market the equipment used becomes a mixture of DC and AC powered critical elements. Consequently, the reliability and integrity of the network have to be observed for the both DC and AC no-break systems together. Existing DC no-break systems do not need redundant genset configurations to achieve high reliability. In contr... View full abstract»

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  • VRLA battery failure mechanism in field applications

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):529 - 535
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)

    Valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries have been deployed widely as backup energy reserve for telecommunication applications, particularly in outdoor installations. Two issues have been raised for the VRLA batteries in these uncontrolled environments, namely, thermal runaway and excessive hydrogen gassing. In this work, a battery aging process is proposed to show that a large number of shorted... View full abstract»

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  • Long lifetime large-sized VRLA batteries for telecommunications

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):319 - 324
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (540 KB)

    This paper describes large-capacity, long-life valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries which were introduced in March 1997. NTT has mainly installed these VRLA batteries as back-up energy sources in telecommunications systems in central office buildings. The nominal voltage these VRLA batteries is 2 V, and the 10-hour discharge rate capacity ranges from 200 Ah to 3000 Ah. Their lifetime is more... View full abstract»

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  • Non-standard control of single-phase line-current shapers

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):497 - 503
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)

    This paper proposes a design strategy taking advantage of the fact that the existing standard IEC 1000-3-2, its proposed amendment introducing the Class E, and the draft of the standard IEC 1000-3-4 allow a substantial harmonics contents of the line-current spectrum. An implementation using only general purpose components is presented. The goal is obtaining the lowest possible cost. Experimental r... View full abstract»

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  • Multiplex remote information equipment [power system monitoring]

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):154 - 158
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)

    The Advanced Power Plant Integrated Maintenance Control System (ALICE) has been developed and deployed to perform remote monitoring and control of power equipment and air-conditioning equipment installed in NTT's telecom buildings. At present, there is a need to expand the area that can be supervised by one such system and to improve system reliability and functionality to achieve more efficient o... View full abstract»

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  • Non-compressor-based cooling systems for medium-size and large telecom exchanges

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):290 - 296
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB)

    The noncompressor-based cooling system for medium-size telecom exchanges is an environmentally acceptable cooling system offering low energy consumption and low total cost. Telia began measuring energy flow in a small number of exchanges in 1990. The study attributed a large percentage of the total energy consumption to auxiliary equipment. Steps were therefore taken to modify existing sites and t... View full abstract»

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  • Novel boost converter for small power rectifiers

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):132 - 139
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)

    In power conversion equipment, size reduction is mainly achieved with higher frequencies, thermal management and good packaging. It is desirable to raise the switching frequency to reduce the physical size and weight of magnetics and capacitors involved with the topology. But it is also a design challenge to operate at a high switching frequency without performance degradation especially without e... View full abstract»

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  • Interface specifications for protection and grounding in wireless base stations

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):359 - 367
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB)

    In recent years, the deployment of distributed communication systems, particularly wireless base stations, has increased. These systems are typically installed in self-contained metallic enclosures in a great variety of different setups, configurations and sizes, wherever real estate can be found or installation is permitted. Base transceiver stations (BTSs), as they are often called, are equipped... View full abstract»

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  • Lithium polymer batteries-the next generation power source

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):87 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)

    This paper is the first of a series describing the development of a new battery technology designed for use as a reserve power source in telecommunications applications. The new battery is comprised of a lithium anode, a solid polymeric film electrolyte and a metallic oxide cathode and is referred to as a lithium polymer battery (LPB) View full abstract»

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