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Technologies for Homeland Security, 2009. HST '09. IEEE Conference on

Date 11-12 May 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 106
  • Welcome message from the conference chair

    Page(s): i - ii
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  • Committee

    Page(s): iii
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  • Sponsors

    Page(s): iv
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): v - xv
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  • Author index

    Page(s): xvi - xxv
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  • [Copyright notice]

    Page(s): xxvi
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  • Design and analysis of high availability networks

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (586 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study provides an analysis of representative critical service networks based upon research of component failure data. We used IP-SURVIV, a Noblis survivability analysis tool, to assess the availability of three representative critical service networks as components were disabled. Our findings indicate that the generally accepted high availability network topology and routing strategies - dual-homing access nodes and providing a primary and a single alternate route between all backbone node pairs - may result in surprisingly low network availability. We present architecture guidelines which significantly improve network availability. In light of our findings, entities requiring robust, high availability network service should consider reassessing the availability of their networks and also consider implementing both a multi-carrier, 3- connected backbone and a second MPLS backup route to achieve high availability (i.e., ges 0.9999). View full abstract»

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  • Auditing cyber security configuration for control system applications

    Page(s): 7 - 13
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    Buried within critical infrastructure control system applications and the operating systems on which they run are hundreds of settings that affect security. It is often difficult for asset owners to identify and audit these settings on their control system servers and workstations. Bandolier, a Digital Bond research project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, addresses this problem. Digital Bond works with vendors and asset owners to identify the optimal security configuration for popular control system applications, and these settings are compiled into security audit files for use in vulnerability scanning tools. Over twenty application components from ten unique vendors are involved in the project. This paper examines the process of extracting security configuration data from the control system applications, describes the function of a security audit file, and demonstrates how asset owners and application vendors are using Bandolier to help secure critical infrastructure across various sectors. View full abstract»

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  • One size does not fit all: 10 years of applying context-aware security

    Page(s): 14 - 21
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    Defenders of today's critical cyber-infrastructure (e.g., the Internet) are equipped with a wide array of security techniques including network-based intrusion detection systems (IDS), host-based anti-virus systems (AV), and decoy or reconnaissance systems such as host-based honeypots or network-based telescopes. While effective at detecting and mitigating some of the threats posed to critical infrastructure, the ubiquitous nature of malicious activity (e.g., phishing, spam, DDoS) on the Internet indicates that the current deployments of these tools do not fully live up to their promise. Over the past 10 years our research group has investigated ways of detecting and stopping cyber-attacks by using the context available in the network, host, and the environment. In this paper, we explain what exactly we mean by context, why it is difficult to measure, and what one can do with context when it is available. We illustrate these points by examining several studies in which context was used to enable or enhance new security techniques. We conclude with some ideas about the future of context-aware security. View full abstract»

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  • Communication pattern anomaly detection in process control systems

    Page(s): 22 - 29
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    Digital control systems are increasingly being deployed in critical infrastructure such as electric power generation and distribution. To protect these process control systems, we present a learning-based approach for detecting anomalous network traffic patterns. These anomalous patterns may correspond to attack activities such as malware propagation or denial of service. Misuse detection, the mainstream intrusion detection approach used today, typically uses attack signatures to detect known, specific attacks, but may not be effective against new or variations of known attacks. Our approach, which does not rely on attack-specific knowledge, may provide a complementary detection capability for protecting digital control systems. View full abstract»

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  • Mobile system for fingerprinting and mapping of blood - Vessels across a finger

    Page(s): 30 - 34
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    We present the design of a novel, mobile, and contact-less, fingerprint line scanner and blood vessel mapper. This system provides a means for acquiring fingerprints with less than 1% distortion in extremely high resolutions, presenting an ideal technology for high-security and individual identification applications. We envision a difficult scenario where patrolling law-enforcement officers would use this miniature fingerprinting system. In this scenario, a police officer will stop a driver for a traffic violation and require the driver to put one (or a few) of his fingers on the testing equipment. The driver's fingerprint will be stored by the mobile system and instantly transferred through a wireless connection to a laptop located in the cruiser. Simultaneously, the laptop will wirelessly send the collected information to a data center. It is expected, that before the officer completes his written report he will receive on the laptop the information about the driver's criminal record (if any). The mobile fingerprinting system is compatible with AFIS and APIS system. The current study describes advantages of line scanning and challenges of the mobile, miniature design. View full abstract»

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  • Perimeter security at San Francisco International Airport: Leveraging independent, existing systems to form an integrated solution

    Page(s): 35 - 42
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    Perimeter security is a priority issue being addressed worldwide by aviation, marine port, military, and government agencies to counter threats of terrorism. These agencies are pursuing initiatives to find the appropriate combination of techniques that will yield productive and cost-effective solutions. At this conference last year, we presented a solution called SPAN: the Secure Perimeter Awareness Network. This year, we will detail the SPAN solution at San Francisco International Airport. In particular, this paper describes the installation, integration, and testing of multiple systems-where each system has unique capabilities-into a single perimeter security solution. Then, we detail how testing of these systems was accomplished in order to derive benefits from each so that the entire system works cooperatively and effectively. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating drinking water early warning systems

    Page(s): 43 - 50
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    In recent years a wide variety of early warning systems for the continuous on-line detection of events relating to water security and quality have become available. Numerous methodologies and criteria have been suggested to determine the efficacy of these methods in real world scenarios. The following criteria along with a new method for determining receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC Curves) are suggested as a good way to compare various technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Demonstration of swarming control of unmanned ground and air systems in surveillance and infrastructure protection

    Page(s): 51 - 58
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    The emergence of new risks to homeland security requires a greater reliance on innovative remote sensing and monitoring systems deployed on Unmanned Vehicles (UxVs) for protecting borders and critical infrastructure. Robust autonomous control technologies that can reliably coordinate these sensors and platforms are needed. We describe a class of algorithms based on digital pheromones that enables robust, complex, intelligent behavior. These algorithms have been implemented on a variety of UxVs and sensor platforms and demonstrated in surveillance and infrastructure protection applications. The algorithms autonomously adapt to a rapidly changing environment as well as failures or changes in the composition of the sensor assets. They can support mixed manned and unmanned teaming environments. An Operator System Interface (OSI) enables a single operator to monitor and manage the system. We describe the results from various tests and the challenges faced in implementing these algorithms on actual hardware. View full abstract»

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  • Secure sensor networks for public safety command and control system

    Page(s): 59 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1174 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless Sensor Networks raise the interest of different business domains, including public security. The ability of WSNs to monitor and control physical environments such as football stadiums makes them very attractive. The integration of WSNs into Command and Control (C2) systems aims at avoiding catastrophes such as the Heysel Stadium disaster. In this paper, the architecture and implementation of a prototype for stadium surveillance is presented. We demonstrate the notification of alerts processed on sensor nodes and routed toward a C2 system. The prototype aims at increasing situational awareness of decision makers and at providing real time information related to the occurrences of incidents within the stadium. Decision makers can react accordingly by assigning available first responders to the incidents. Such integration comes along with security requirements; the use of encryption-based access control and trustworthiness evaluation for the generated alerts to ensure their confidentiality and reliability is proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Application of adaptive wireless sensor organizations to secure spatial domains

    Page(s): 67 - 72
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    The requirement for rapid deployment of resources is becoming ever more present in the current international state. The ability to move encampments, facilities and command post infrastructure requires a supporting set of technologies which allow quick movement. In an abstract sense, the command post becomes an emergent structure, capable of quick adaptation and reorganization over a very short time frame. One module of the command post may change independently and the remainder will not be affected by the change, it will simply adapt. This paper describes the integration of several technologies, such as reconfigurable broadband and adaptable sensor organizations, which allow the rapid deployment and movement of facilities to secure spatial domains. View full abstract»

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  • PARSEC, an application of probabilistic case based reasoning to maritime surveillance

    Page(s): 73 - 79
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    This paper describes the theoretical basis and practical implementation of PARSEC, a knowledge-based system that uses probabilistic case based reasoning. PARSEC is a major component in the PANDA surveillance system, developed under DARPA leadership to support maritime situation awareness monitoring on a global scale. PANDA detects unusual vessel motions (deviations) based on learned normalcy models and then flags those particular deviations that an analyst is likely to describe as remarkable or suspicious, given the available context for the deviation. The context data include information on weather and sea-state, notices to mariners, piracy events, vessel ownership changes, commodity prices, and other information. Performance evaluation results with real data confirm that PARSEC greatly reduces the probability of false alarm while maintaining a high probability of detecting those deviations that require an analyst's attention. View full abstract»

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  • CoyoteUGS™ sensor system - A mutable persistent surveillance system for diverse and adapting border threats

    Page(s): 80 - 86
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (23208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Challenges posed to border monitoring are diverse and dynamic. They cover widely varying environments and mutate as the adversaries adapt to improved monitoring and response tactics. The capability to counter the threats is in the intelligence agents possess via human intellect and the tools provided to the agents to bolster their knowledge and response plan. In this paper we present the CoyoteUGStrade system architecture for flexible deployment, open communications, and data management and analysis. Armed with this mutable and persistent surveillance framework, our aim is to enable agents with the power of the data they have at their disposal to efficiently respond to ever changing threats. View full abstract»

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  • Surveillance of the 200 nautical mile EEZ using HFSWR in association with a spaced-based AIS interceptor

    Page(s): 87 - 92
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    To protect maritime sovereignty, security forces require real-time information concerning the location, identification and activity of ships operating within their 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Today, monitoring of surface activity within the EEZ is limited and largely dependent on co-operative vessels voluntarily communicating their intentions to local shore-side authorities as well as on those vessel sightings reported by patrollers. Recent advances in technology provide maritime nations with options to provide more systematic surveillance of both cooperative and noncooperative targets. This paper presents a network-centric approach to maintaining a dynamic picture of surface activity within the EEZ. The system is characterised by the use of land-based high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) to provide persistent surveillance of all ocean-going vessels. However, translating this track information into actionable data requires that as many of the tracks as possible are tagged with their corresponding vessel identification. In this paper we introduce space-based interception of a vessel's automated identification systems (AIS) broadcast to provide the identification and location of appropriately equipped vessels. In such a system those radar tracks not associated with an appropriate AIS (or, for that matter, AIS tracks where there is no supporting sensor data), can be highlighted for priority attention. View full abstract»

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  • Ground moving personnel indication and tracking from airborne platforms

    Page(s): 93 - 100
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    Radar is valued for its ability to surveil large areas, day and night, in all weather conditions, with high revisit in order to provide detection and tracking of individuals and groups. Such radars operate either stand-alone or while networked and may generate cues for EO/IR sensors for identification and classification. In the security applications domain radar basing or siting has been predominately, if not exclusively, from fixed, ground-based positions (this includes mobile systems that must be stationary when employed). Airborne radar systems employing phased array antennas and advanced adaptive processing are investigated for their ability to detect and track individuals, in a security application, when integrated with small and medium unmanned air vehicles. Airborne surveillance radar overcomes many of the visibility issues of ground-based systems by operating at steeper grazing angles. We evaluate performance for two operating altitudes and in a variety of surface wind conditions, demonstrating high probability of detection against walking human targets. These results suggest the viability of UAV-based airborne radar as candidates for future surveillance architectures. View full abstract»

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  • Acoustic detection of low flying aircraft

    Page(s): 101 - 106
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    A passive acoustic system, consisting of a set of acoustic nodes and a central processing node, is a good candidate for the covert detection of low flying aircraft as they cross our nation's borders. Small arrays of microphones have been used to estimate aircraft speed, heading, frequency spectrum and altitude at the closest point of approach. We extend this work by considering maneuvering aircraft and by testing a narrowband algorithm that gives angle estimates sooner, and over a longer period of time, than the broadband version. A new narrowband algorithm is provided for estimating position versus time as the aircraft flies through a grid of widely spaced omni-directional microphones (separated by several miles). We classify aircraft as helicopter, piston engine aircraft (specifically, numbers of propeller blades and cylinders), turboprop aircraft or jet aircraft. Our approach has been validated via testing at various airports against ground truth data. View full abstract»

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  • The internal fluid mechanics of explosive trace detectors using computational fluid dynamics

    Page(s): 107 - 113
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    Efforts are underway in the Surface and Microanalysis Science Division at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to study the vapor transport mechanisms inside explosive trace detection instruments (ETD's) and produce standard test materials to verify their performance. In most swipe-based ETD's, a woven cloth is swiped across a surface to collect micrometer-sized particles from explosive contamination. The swipe is then introduced into a thermal desorption unit where it is rapidly heated to produce an explosive aerosol or vapor. This vapor is transported to a chemical detector, typically an ion mobility spectrometer, for analysis. Understanding the underlying physics of the flow fields within these instruments allows researchers to design better test materials for calibration and verification. In this work, several ETD thermal desorption units are modeled using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). With CFD, the governing equations of fluid motion are solved numerically for a given model geometry and boundary conditions. CFD allows one to visualize and animate flow patterns, streamlines, and recirculation zones, and reveals how vapor is transported from the surface of a swipe to the chemical analyzer. The flow-fields inside these complex geometries would otherwise be difficult, if not impossible, to observe with traditional experimental flow visualization techniques. The thermal desorption units presented here have geometries representative of what is used in ETD's today. Results suggest that the transport efficiency of desorbed explosives can be optimized if appropriate screening procedures are followed. Issues such as velocity magnitude, pressure differential, transient effects, and buoyancy effects will be discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Portable vapor generator for the calibration and test of explosive detectors

    Page(s): 114 - 120
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    The explosive vapor trace detectors deployed in the field require frequent verification and calibration to guarantee their accurate operation. In this paper we describe the latest advancements in the use of precision micro-dispensing technology for explosive vapor generation. The portable explosive vapor generator uses digitally controlled ink-jet dispensing to precisely eject minute amounts of dilute explosive solutions and convert them into vapor by placing them on a heater. The amount of explosive delivered to the detectors can be controlled by the number of drops (dose mode-specified number of drops is generated) and the frequency of the droplet generation continuous mode-droplets are generated continuously at fixed frequency. The control for the heater temperature allows setting specific temperatures, but also permits specification of temperature profiles. By using a small thermal capacitance heater it is possible to achieve very sharp temperature increases. The ability to precisely control the heater temperature over a wide range permits the generation of vapors for all common explosives. View full abstract»

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  • A stand-off imager for the location and identification of nuclear threat materials

    Page(s): 129 - 134
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    This paper describes the results of a feasibility study into a spectroscopic-imaging system having a ~60deg field of view, with the capability to locate and identify a 1 mCi source of Cs137 at a range of 100 m. At this range, the location accuracy will be ~1 m. Small and light enough for mounting on a variety of vehicles. The compact, stand-off imaging system is based on the use of a standard gamma-camera coupled to a coded-aperture mask. The predicted performance of this system will be presented when used to locate and identify radiological sources in both the marine and terrestrial environments. The paper will demonstrate the particular advantages that the use of Symetrica's proprietary spectrum-processing software offers to improve both the detection efficiency and the isotope identification capability at energies beyond the normal range of such a clinical camera. View full abstract»

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  • An assessment of the video analytics technology gap for transportation facilities

    Page(s): 135 - 142
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    We conduct an assessment of existing video analytic technology as applied to critical infrastructure protection, particularly in the transportation sector. Based on discussions with security personnel at multiple facilities, we assemble a list of desired video analytics functionality, which we group into five categories: low-level activity detection, high-level behavior detection, discrimination, tracking, and content retrieval. We then evaluate the capabilities and deficiencies of current technology to meet these needs, in part by applying representative video analytic tools to a testbed of video data from multiple sources. As part of the evaluation, we examine performance across pixel resolution of degrees of scene clutter. Finally, we identify directions for promising technology development in order to address critical gaps. View full abstract»

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