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Frequency Control Symposium, 1997., Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE International

Date 30-30 May 1997

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  • Proceedings of International Frequency Control Symposium

    Publication Year: 1997
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):1055 - 1058
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Optimum precise-clock prediction and its applications

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):412 - 417
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)

    We know that optimum precise-clock prediction is equivalent to optimum precise-clock noise prediction. So the optimum of a predicting algorithm depends on the noise model used. There are already several predicting algorithms in history, including polynomial predicting algorithm based on polynomial model, ARIMA predicting algorithm based on ARIMA model, Kalman predicting algorithm based on measurem... View full abstract»

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  • A microwave two-way time transfer experiment

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):408 - 411
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)

    To make comparisons of BSF time and UTC(TL) for time keeping have been continued in Taiwan for years. A microwave two-way time and frequency transfer experiment without using the spread spectrum technique performed between TL and BSF broadcast station is reported. The result showed the stability was less than 5 ns View full abstract»

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  • First year results of the international comparison of UTC (CENAM)

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):404 - 407
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB)

    The Centro Nacional de Metrologia (National Center of Metrology), CENAM, in Mexico, has been contributing to UTC since March 1996 with six HP5071A high performance frequency standards. The UTC(CENAM) (or UTC(CNM) as it is labeled in BIPM Circular T) is presently generated from a single HP5071A clock which is operated under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In this report we present r... View full abstract»

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  • An acoustic plate mode study of complementary and non-complementary antigen/antibody reactions

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):21 - 24
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)

    Acoustic plate mode sensors have been used to monitor immunochemical reactions as a function of antigen concentration. In the studies, antibodies were covalently linked to the gold-coated sensing surface via mercaptoethanol, aminosilane and glutaraldehyde. Two antigen/antibody model systems have been used which differ in their ability to mutually bind one another. For sensor operation at about 150... View full abstract»

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  • A study on estimation of frequency aging for rectangular AT-cut resonators

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):1042 - 1050
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)

    This paper suggests estimate method of frequency-aging characteristic for the purpose of improving stabilization of frequency-aging characteristic of crystal resonator. This is the method in which change of quantity is calculated using estimated formula for every factor of frequency change from data of frequency-aging characteristic and by analyzing the temperature dependence. As such, this method... View full abstract»

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  • 3:1 optical frequency division by difference-frequency mixing in periodically poled lithium niobate

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):259 - 262
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)

    We report on the demonstration of optical frequency division by 3 via two successive stages of difference frequency generation. Two input sources at 532 nm and 798 nm generated an output at 1596 nm and the mixing between the 798-nm input and the 1596-nm output generated a second 1596-nm output. Both difference frequency mixing stages were implemented in a single piece of quasi-phase matched period... View full abstract»

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  • Time synchronization using the Internet

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):395 - 403
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB)

    We will discuss a new algorithm for synchronizing the clocks of networked computers using messages transmitted over the network itself. The design is based on a statistical model of the clock and the network, and uses this model to define the parameters of a frequency-lock loop which is used to discipline the local oscillator. We have tested the design by synchronizing a standard workstation to a ... View full abstract»

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  • Comparison between BAW and SAW sensor principles

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):5 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1640 KB)

    A comparison between piezoelectrically excited Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) and Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) elements with respect to their primary sensitivity functions and principal capabilities for sensor applications is given. The importance of mode-purity for high dynamic range sensors is emphasized. Characteristic sensor examples are reviewed and the special demands on the electronics for BAW and... View full abstract»

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  • Light frequency shift in small optically pumped cesium beam frequency standards

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):228 - 233
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)

    The optically pumped Cs beam frequency standard (OPCBFS) has made great progress. Results comparable to and better than the data from the best conventional magnetic state selecting primary Cs beam frequency standard have been reported. However the light frequency shift (mainly the AC Stark shift) is a new factor affecting the frequency accuracy and frequency stability in an OPCBFS. This phenomenon... View full abstract»

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  • Gravimetric sensitivity of transverse waves trapped by metal gratings on thin quartz plates

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):207 - 212
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)

    It has been theoretically and experimentally demonstrated that Surface Transverse Wave (STW) resonators fabricated on thin quartz plates (AT and Z cuts) exhibit attractive properties with respect to classical shear plate mode wave delay lines. Many modes can be generated and trapped using thin metal strip gratings deposited on top side of the plate. Insertion losses lower than -10 dB and and facto... View full abstract»

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  • Drive level dependence of the resonant frequency in BAW quartz resonators and its modeling

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):687 - 695
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)

    The influence of the excitation current on the resonant frequency and its mathematical description introduces a nonlinear impedance characteristic of the piezoelectric resonator. This influence was modeled by the nonlinear electrical equivalent circuit, in which the equivalent series resistance and equivalent motional capacitance are taken to be functions of the amplitude of the excitation current... View full abstract»

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  • A dual mode oscillator based on narrow-band crystal oscillators with resonator filters

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):932 - 937
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)

    A dual mode crystal oscillator using two narrow-band transistor Colpitts circuits has been developed. This oscillator excites arbitrary two-modes in a common resonator even if the modes are close to each other. The practical circuit structure and analysis of the proposed oscillator, and the experimental results are described View full abstract»

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  • Plastic encapsulated integrated circuits application issues for severe environments

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):1035 - 1041
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (540 KB)

    The appropriateness of plastic encapsulated microcircuits (PEMs) in systems operating in severely stressed environments must be addressed on an application specific basis. A PEM cannot be arbitrarily substituted for a mil-spec hermetic microcircuit. Factors such as the detailed system requirements, the characteristics of the particular component, and the component's total quality management (TQM) ... View full abstract»

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  • Laser PM to AM conversion in atomic vapors and short term clock stability

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):253 - 258
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)

    The optically thick vapors employed in gas-cell atomic clocks provide for very efficient conversion of laser phase noise (PM) to amplitude noise (AM). Here, we discuss the role of PM to AM conversion in determining gas-cell clock performance. First, a brief overview of the PM to AM conversion process will be given, highlighting the fact that laser phase noise creates fluctuations in the atom's opt... View full abstract»

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  • An acoustic automotive engine oil quality sensor

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):72 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)

    A prototype model of an Acoustic Engine Oil Quality (AEOQ) sensor is presented. The AEOQ sensor utilizes changes in oil viscosity as an indicator of the oil quality. The viscosity is measured using a shear mode piezoelectric sensing probe. The supporting electronic circuitry employs a novel Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO) based set-up which allows for remote excitation of the piezoelectric sensin... View full abstract»

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  • Low PM noise regenerative dividers

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):478 - 484
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (452 KB)

    This paper describes the various contributions to the PM noise added oscillating regenerative divide-by-two (halver). Two circuits are investigated: a 100 MHz to 50 MHz divider and a 18.4 GHz to 9.2 GHz divider. Several configurations of the 100 MHz to 50 MHz divider were studied. It was found that the broadband noise floor is determined by the thermal noise of the amplifier. We found that the the... View full abstract»

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  • An analysis of contoured quartz resonators with beveled cylindrical edges using the correct variation of thickness

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):668 - 676
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)

    All previous works on transversely varying thickness modes in contoured quartz resonators employ an expansion in the variable thickness squared in which terms only of lowest order in the radial position squared are retained. In this work that expansion is not made and the radial position operator that occurs naturally in the equation is retained. Calculations are performed for the fundamental and ... View full abstract»

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  • On uncertainty of the interpolating time interval meters

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):388 - 394
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)

    A time interval meter (TIM) itself is perhaps the only measuring instrument in time and frequency metrology. It measures in a direct way the duration of time interval between two instants and expresses the measured value in adopted time units. In many applications especially in those which use continuously operating measuring systems with stable signals-it means signals with stable amplitude and f... View full abstract»

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  • Spontaneous synchronization in nature

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):2 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    Mutual synchronization of oscillators is ubiquitous in biology. The author reviews two examples in some detail. Everyone has heard of the phenomenon of synchronized menstrual cycles among women friends or roommates (Anonymous 1977). The first scientific study of menstrual synchrony was carried out by Martha McClintock (1971) while she was an undergraduate psychology major at Radcliffe in the late ... View full abstract»

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  • An analysis of frequency temperature characteristics vs. film thickness of electrodes for AT-cut resonators

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):588 - 595
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)

    This paper describes both theoretical analysis and experimental results regarding frequency temperature-electrode film thickness characteristics for AT-cut resonators. The experiments were conducted by the oscillating method over a wide temperature range from -50 to 100°C. The quadric formula between the turn-over temperature and the electrode film thickness was proposed theoretically and the ... View full abstract»

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  • A digitally temperature compensated compact PLL module

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):969 - 974
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB)

    This paper describes our new compact Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) module with high free-running frequency accuracy over a wide temperature range. In order to improve the temperature characteristics of the conventional PLL circuit, a digital temperature compensation circuit has been newly added to it. In addition, this compensation circuit has been installed in our new custom PLL-LSI, as contributes to ... View full abstract»

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  • Radio frequency measurements of cloud size in a linear ion trap

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):225 - 227
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)

    In this paper we describe a method for measuring the size of an ion cloud inside a linear ion trap. At ~10-12 the 2nd order Doppler shift for trapped mercury ion frequency standards is one of the largest frequency offsets in these lamp based systems. Its measurement to the 1% level would represent an advance in insuring the very long term stability of these standards to the 10... View full abstract»

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  • A new time-domain model of precise-clock noise

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):496 - 501
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)

    According to the power-law model presented by J.A. Barnes et al. in 1971, it is known that the precise-clock noise can be regarded as the sum of five independent noise components. However, it is difficult to describe these noise components (especially flicker noise) clearly in time-domain, as the time-domain relationship between the noise component and other familiar random process such as white n... View full abstract»

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