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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

Issue 18 • Date Sept.15, 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • Front Cover

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1
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  • Journal of Lightwave Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2963 - 2964
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  • Performance Analysis of Selective Relaying in Cooperative Free-Space Optical Systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2965 - 2973
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (455 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a selective-relaying (SR) protocol that is suitable for cooperative free-space optical (FSO) communications with any number of relays. The SR strategy is based on transmitting all information symbols either along the direct link between the source and the destination or along one of the indirect links via the relays. We derive closed-form expressions of upper-bounds on the average error probability that can be achieved over Rayleigh and lognormal fading channels. We also provide an asymptotic analysis for quantifying the diversity gain and reduction in fading variance that can be realized by the cooperative scheme. The performance analysis shows the superiority of the SR scheme over the strategy that corresponds to activating all available links. View full abstract»

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  • The Design and Analysis of Monolithic Integration of CMOS-Compatible Plasmonic Waveguides for On-Chip Electronic–Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2974 - 2981
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plasmonic waveguides based on surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are highly complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible that they have been considered as a prospective basic element to implement future on-chip subwavelength electronic-photonic integrated circuits (EPICs). We propose the monolithic integration of CMOS-compatible plasmonic waveguides within CMOS architecture for the development of CMOS EPICs. Based on a preformed CMOS optoelectronic platform, several different types of plasmonic EPIC schematics are proposed. The vertical directional coupling characteristics of the proposed plasmonic EPICs are thoroughly investigated in detail at a telecom wavelength of 1.55 μm. By changing the geometrical parameters of the plasmonic waveguides, we identified the coupler configuration that provides optimal optical performance. We discussed the design and fabrication issues for further development of the proposed plasmonic CMOS EPICs and related microsystems. We concluded that the proposed monolithic integration platform would make first step forward to exploiting for plasmonic-based 3-D on-chip EPICs. View full abstract»

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  • Application of a Self-Sweeping Yb-Doped Fiber Laser for High-Resolution Characterization of Phase-Shifted FBGs

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2982 - 2987
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3230 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Application of a self-sweeping self-pulsing laser for high-resolution spectral analysis of π-shifted FBGs has been demonstrated for the first time. It is shown that the self-sweeping laser generates nearly single-frequency radiation during a single pulse. This fact allows us to characterize the shift-induced dip of 14 MHz width in the FBG reflection spectrum. Nonlinear deformation of the measured ultranarrow spectral structure with increasing incident power is observed. Sampling interval during the scan is shown to be limited by pulse to pulse frequency shift, which is equal to the cavity mode spacing of 6 MHz. The main feature of the applied technique is its simplicity due to the absence of special elements for frequency scanning. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Clock Recovery for a Gigabit POF Transceiver Implemented on FPGA

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2988 - 2993
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a clock recovery system implemented on field programmable gate array and integrated to the Gigabit Ethernet media converter for PMMA SI-POF developed within the framework of the POF-PLUS EU Project. We demonstrate timing synchronizing using only one sample per symbol from a highly distorted and attenuated 2-PAM signal without requiring any sort of preequalization. This is achieved by means of a hybrid analog-digital PLL with a timing error detector based on a modified version of the Müller and Mueller algorithm, a loop filter, and a VCXO. View full abstract»

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  • An Optimization Method of Asymmetric Resonant Cavities for Unidirectional Emission

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2994 - 2998
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we proposed a useful algorithm to optimize the shape of asymmetric resonant cavities (ARCs). At first, we studied the repeatability and accuracy of the ray simulation on one kind of ARCs (half-quadrupole-half-circle shaped cavity), and confirmed the robustness of the directionality under shape errors. Based on these, we proposed a hill-climbing algorithm to optimize the ARCs for unidirectional emission. Different evaluation functions of directionality were tested and we suggested using the function of energy contained in a certain angle for highly collimated and unidirectional emission. By this method, we optimized the ARCs to obtain about 0.46 of the total radiated energy in divergence angle of 40° in the far field. This optimization method is very powerful for the shape engineering of ARCs and could be applied in future studies of ARCs with specific emission properties. View full abstract»

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  • Core-Confined Beam Propagation Method for Guiding and Leaky Structures

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2999 - 3005
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (630 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a beam propagation method variant, which only requires the computational grid to span the core region of a waveguiding structure. Optical fields outside are accounted for through semitransparent boundary conditions. The method is fast, simple to implement, and accurate over a wide range of wavelengths. It is applicable to both guiding and leaky structures, with sufficiently strong contrast between refractive indices in the core, substrate, and cladding. View full abstract»

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  • High Temperature Wavelength Division Network for Avionic Applications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3006 - 3013
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Growth in demand for bandwidth within avionic systems has renewed interest in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) topologies. Within an Avionics context, systems are specified for operation from -55°C to 125°C. This increased operational temperature range exceeds the capability of commercial off the shelf components. Here, we have investigated the design and operation of a dense WDM network over an extended temperature range. The implementation uses spectrum sliced seed sources in combination with reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) end nodes. We report on the performance of a single polarization ridge waveguide RSOA with an Al containing quaternary active region. Two different designs of RSOA have been evaluated: a standard bulk heterostructure device and the single polarization ridge waveguide device design for high temperature operation. It has been shown that a SS-WDM network can be implemented using the RWG-RSOA and maintain a BER of 10-9 at 75 °C allowing for 6 dB excess loss to account for component and connector aging. This offers an extension of at least 20°C when compared to the standard bulk active RSOA. In addition, a novel passive cooling method, devised to compensate for short term excursions outside the maximum thermal operating envelope, has been investigated. This technique uses a phase change material as a passive, cooling mechanism. The performance of this method is contrasted against a thermoelectric cooler considering the influence of power consumption on fuel requirements for a Boeing 737-800. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of LPGs via Correlation Analysis of an Analytical Solution With Observed Transmission Spectra

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3014 - 3020
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we describe a technique to characterize long period fiber gratings (LPG) by use of a correlation between the measured transmission spectrum and a theoretical model. The model is robust enough to require only a-priori knowledge of the fiber design and the inscription period. We demonstrate the application of this technique on an example LPG resulting in the calculation of the dispersive core index, length, and strength of the grating to better than experimental error. The technique is further expanded to allow for the modeling of metal jacketed long period gratings by use of an extended version of Erdogan's model. View full abstract»

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  • BER Penalty Induced by Coherent MPI Noise in FTTH Optical Links

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3021 - 3031
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We measure the coherent multipath interference noise and the associated bit error rate (BER) penalty affecting an optical link in which a fraction of the signal is scattered from the fundamental into the first-order mode of a bend insensitive fiber, to mimic a situation that can be encountered in fiber to the home deployments. Our set up allows changing the relative weights and the phase difference between the two interfering modes, and measuring the BER in stationary and dynamical settings, namely with the interference conditions kept fixed or continuously varied during the measurement cycle, respectively. We show that the BER penalty detected in the dynamical measurements can be entirely ascribed to the stochastic variations of the received intensity, and we demonstrate a good agreement between the experimental data and the results of our numerical simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Toward Wireless Backhaul Using Circuit Emulation Over Optical Packet-Switched Metro WDM Ring Network

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3032 - 3042
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (984 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optical WDM metro-ring networks have been considered to be promising solutions for wireless backhaul. In this paper, we propose an integrated traffic control scheme (ITCS), which facilitates circuit emulation service (CES) for wireless backhaul over a previously proposed experimental optical packet-switched WDM metro-ring network, HOPSMAN. The ITCS seamlessly integrates variable-bit-rate (VBR) CES wireless with connection-less best-effort data, satisfying stringent QoS requirements and retaining maximal network throughput. The ITCS ensures efficient setup of CES connections by employing a simple mean-rate-based distributed admission control followed by a novel slot-marking reservation. The total connection setup delay is comprised of the setup queueing delay and slot-marking delay. While the slot-marking delay is nearly a ring time, the mean setup queueing delay is formally computed through an accurate approximation based on an M/G/m queueing analysis. We show simulation results to demonstrate that the ITCS accommodates remarkably high CES traffic loads while satisfying a wide range of delay requirements for wireless backhaul. Taking the background best-effort traffic into account, ITCS achieves exceedingly low delay, jitter, and delay bound for CES under various traffic loads and burstiness. View full abstract»

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  • A Quality-of-Transmission Aware Dynamic Routing and Spectrum Assignment Scheme for Future Elastic Optical Networks

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3043 - 3054
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1325 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a quality-of-transmission (QoT) aware dynamic routing, modulation level, and spectrum assignment scheme referred to as QoT-aware RSA. The proposed QoT-aware RSA has three stages: path computation with QoT-aware modulation level assignment, path selection, and spectrum assignment. Two schemes are presented in the path computation stage namely, modified Dijkstra and K-shortest-path algorithms. A closed-form expression is derived to model the fiber nonlinearity effects and the impairments of intermediate routers. This expression is utilized to estimate the network dependent QoT and the transmission reach of the modulation levels. We propose to select the best path in terms of optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) metric. Furthermore, the traffic-balancing spectrum assignment method is utilized to serve the incoming request. The proposed scheme is evaluated using extensive numerical simulations based on both random and deterministic traffic models. The results of simulation reveal that the path selection and spectrum assignment methods can affect the average OSNR performance. Furthermore, the results show that the proposed path selection and spectrum assignment schemes outperform other existing alternatives in the literature. View full abstract»

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  • Multimode Interference Reflectors: A New Class of Components for Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3055 - 3063
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multimode interference devices are very versatile components that are often used as components for power splitting or combining in larger circuits. In this paper, we present a new class of multimode interference couplers that are designed to reflect all or part of the light. The components can act as on-chip mirrors with partial out-coupling, or they can act as compact mirrors with full reflection. We present an overview of such devices, the basic theory and practical design guidelines. Their simple layout makes these devices easy to fabricate and tolerant to fabrication errors. We fabricated devices of several types and present the experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Complete Modeling of Nonlinear Distortion in OFDM-Based Optical Wireless Communication

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3064 - 3076
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1565 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a complete analytical framework for modeling memoryless nonlinear effects in an intensity modulation and direct detection optical wireless communication system based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. The theory employs the Bussgang theorem, which is widely accepted as a means to characterize the impact of nonlinear distortions on normally distributed signals. This paper proposes a new method to generalize this approach, and it describes how a closed-form analytical expression for the system bit error rate can be obtained for an arbitrary memoryless distortion. Major distortion effects at the transmitter stage such as quantization and nonlinearity from the light emitting diode are analyzed. Four known orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing-based modulation schemes for optical communication are considered in this paper: direct-current-biased optical OFDM, asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM, pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone modulation, and unipolar orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. View full abstract»

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  • Scalable, Low-Energy Hybrid Photonic Space Switch

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3077 - 3084
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (643 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A scalable monolithically integrated photonic space switch is proposed which uses a combination of Mach-Zehnder modulators and semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) for improved crosstalk performance and reduced switch loss. This architecture enables the design of high-capacity, high-speed, large-port count, low-energy switches. Extremely low crosstalk of better than -50 dB can be achieved using a 2 × 2 dilated hybrid switch module. A “building block” approach is applied to make large port count optical switches possible. Detailed physical layer multiwavelength simulations are used to investigate the viability of a 64 × 64 port switch. Optical signal degradation is estimated as a function of switch size and waveguide induced crosstalk. A comparison between hybrid and SOA switching fabrics highlights the power-efficient, high-performance nature of the hybrid switch design, which consumes less than one-third of the energy of an equivalent SOA-based switch. The significantly reduced impairments resulting from this switch design enable scaling of the port count, compared to conventional SOA-based switches. View full abstract»

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  • Feasibility Study on a Scheme for Coexistence of DSP-Based PON and 10-Gbps/λ PON Using Hierarchical Star QAM Format

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3085 - 3092
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2607 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a downlink scheme that permits the coexistence, on a passive optical network branch, of future DSP-based optical network units (ONUs) that can receive advanced modulation signals and legacy ONUs that can receive only on-off keying (OOK) signals. In the proposed scheme, the two types of signals, advanced modulation signals and OOK signals, are multiplexed by using a hierarchical star quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) format and transmitted simultaneously on a single carrier. The design criteria and the feasibility of the proposal are discussed. The coexistence of 10G-class ONUs and DSP-based ONUs using hierarchical star 8-QAM format is numerically analyzed and experimentally evaluated. The results confirm that a 10-Gbps OOK signal and 30-Gbps star 8-QAM signal can be received with 30.5-dB loss budget by an APD and intradyne detector with DSP, respectively. The ability of the proposed approach to expand the coverage area is also introduced. View full abstract»

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  • Plasmonic Slot Nanoresonators Embedded in Metal-Coated Plasmonic Microfibers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3093 - 3103
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1403 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have studied plasmonic slot nanoresonators (PSNRs) embedded in a gold-coated microfiber. Light is coupled from the plasmonic waveguide into the PSNR, showing strong localization in three dimensions. Single bow-tie and rectangular PSNRs, as well as cascades of multiple bow-tie PSNRs, have been considered. The intensity enhancement and the resonance wavelength depend on both the PSNR and microfiber dimensions. The PSNRs embedded in plasmonic microfibers could find wide range of applications, such as surface enhanced Raman scattering, optical filtering, bio-sensing, and spectroscopy. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Network Design for Stochastic Traffic Demands

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3104 - 3116
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (866 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the problem of logical topology design for optical backbone networks subject to stochastic traffic demands. The network design problem is broken into three tasks: traffic routing, capacity allocation, and link placement. While the routing and capacity allocation subproblem can be formulated using convex optimization, it is prohibitive to add the link placement component to the nonlinear formulation since the link placement problem involves integer variables. To address this issue, we develop a linear formulation for the routing and capacity allocation subproblem by applying tools from robust optimization. We show that this linear formulation performs comparably to the optimal nonlinear formulation. Our formulation can then be used to solve the link-placement subproblem for stochastic traffic. We show that optimal logical topologies for deterministic traffic demands are not necessarily optimal for stochastic traffic demands. We develop algorithms for finding logical topologies optimized for stochastic traffic. View full abstract»

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  • Rocking Long Period Gratings in Single Mode Fibers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3117 - 3122
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report novel rocking long period gratings (R-LPGs) made by introducing permanent periodic twist along a standard single mode fiber. Very high coupling efficiency of 32.5 dB was achieved with 23 periods and a 2° rocking angle. The responses of R-LPGs to temperature, strain, and torsion were tested. Compared with a normal LPG written under the same conditions, the R-LPGs were found to have a similar sensitivity to temperature, five times smaller sensitivity to strain, and insensitive to twist. View full abstract»

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    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3123 - 3124
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  • 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3125
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3126
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • EDS Guide to State-of-the-Art Electron Devices [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3127
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The Journal of Lightwave Technology contains articles on current research, applications and methods used in lightwave technology and fiber optics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Peter J. Winzer
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs