Scheduled System Maintenance on May 29th, 2015:
IEEE Xplore will be upgraded between 11:00 AM and 10:00 PM EDT. During this time there may be intermittent impact on performance. We apologize for any inconvenience.
By Topic

Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 7 • Date July 2013

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • Front cover

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (49 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of Contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1513 - 1515
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Reflections of the Future

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1516 - 1517
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (179 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Emerging graphene-based electronic & photonic devices, circuits, and systems [Scannning the Issue]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1518 - 1521
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Carbon-Based Nanomaterials From a Historical Perspective

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1522 - 1535
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1502 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Carbon, an ancient element, is still fascinating us with its flexibility to be transformed into different materials via its different degrees of hybridization (sp, sp2, and sp3). After the structural identification in the beginning of the 20th century by John D. Bernal, graphite became a material of intense study. In the 1950s and 1960s, the physics and chemistry of graphite started to be developed from both theoretical and experimental perspectives. Soon after, graphite intercalation compounds and the synthesis of carbon microfibers became popular, and then in 1985, the era of nanocarbons started with the discovery of fullerenes (carbon cage molecules), followed by the structural identification of nanotubes and the isolation of graphene. Today, these three novel nanocarbons are being intensively studied and the physico-chemical properties are different among the three. This review intends to provide a historical perspective of these novel forms of carbon and their impact on electronics and other fields. We believe that, within a short time, commercial products based on any of these materials will be a reality but further experimental and theoretical research is still needed in some areas, as well as the development of low-cost production processes for commercial materials, devices, and products. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Graphene Growth and Device Integration

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1536 - 1556
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3169 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Graphene has been introduced to the electronics community as a potentially useful material for scaling electronic devices to meet low-power and high-performance targets set by the semiconductor industry international roadmap, radio-frequency (RF) devices, and many more applications. Growth and integration of graphene for any device is challenging and will require significant effort and innovation to address the many issues associated with integrating the monolayer, chemically inert surface with metals and dielectrics. In this paper, we review the growth and integration of graphene for simple field-effect transistors and present physical and electrical data on the integrated graphene with metals and dielectrics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Site-Selective Epitaxy of Graphene on Si Wafers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1557 - 1566
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1559 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The fusion of graphene with silicon may provide an effective solution to the problem of scale in electronic devices. This approach will allow the excellent electronic properties of graphene to be combined with known Si device technologies. We review the epitaxial growth of graphene on Si substrates (GOS) for fabricating transistors. GOS has been multifunctionalized by controlling the orientation of the Si substrate. The site-selective epitaxy of GOS has also been developed by controlling the base SiC thin films. These results demonstrate that GOS is suitable for integrated devices. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Graphene Transistors: Status, Prospects, and Problems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1567 - 1584
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1658 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Graphene is a relatively new material with unique properties that holds promise for electronic applications. Since 2004, when the first graphene samples were intentionally fabricated, the worldwide research activities on graphene have literally exploded. Apart from physicists, also device engineers became interested in the new material and soon the prospects of graphene in electronics have been considered. For the most part, the early discussions on the potential of graphene had a prevailing positive mood, mainly based on the high carrier mobilities observed in this material. This has repeatedly led to very optimistic assessments of the potential of graphene transistors and to an underestimation of their problems. In this paper, we discuss the properties of graphene relevant for electronic applications, examine its advantages and problems, and summarize the state of the art of graphene transistors. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Tunneling Transistors Based on Graphene and 2-D Crystals

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1585 - 1602
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1132 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As conventional transistors become smaller and thinner in the quest for higher performance, a number of hurdles are encountered. The discovery of electronic-grade 2-D crystals has added a new “layer” to the list of conventional semiconductors used for transistors. This paper discusses the properties of 2-D crystals by comparing them with their 3-D counterparts. Their suitability for electronic devices is discussed. In particular, the use of graphene and other 2-D crystals for interband tunneling transistors is discussed for low-power logic applications. Since tunneling phenomenon in reduced dimensions is not conventionally covered in texts, the physics is developed explicitly before applying it to transistors. Though we are in an early stage of learning to design devices with 2-D crystals, they have already been the motivation behind a list of truly novel ideas. This paper reviews a number of such ideas. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • High-Performance Graphene Field-Effect Transistors With Extremely Small Access Length Using Self-Aligned Source and Drain Technique

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1603 - 1608
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (654 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Self-aligned source/drain (S/D) graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) with extremely small access lengths were successfully fabricated using a simple device fabrication process without sidewall spacer formation. The self-aligned S/D GFET exhibits superior electrical characteristics, such as the intrinsic carrier mobility of 6100 cm2/Vs, the gate leakage current of 10-10-10-9 A and the contact resistance of 412 Ωμm. In particular, a cutoff frequency of 13 GHz was achieved with a rather large gate length (LG= 3 μm), which demonstrates the promising future of this self-aligned GFET. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Graphene Field-Effect Transistors Based on Boron–Nitride Dielectrics

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1609 - 1619
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (897 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two-dimensional atomic sheets of graphene represent a new class of nanoscale materials with potential applications in electronics. However, exploiting the intrinsic characteristics of graphene devices has been problematic due to impurities and disorder in the surrounding dielectric and graphene/dielectric interfaces. Recent advancements in fabricating graphene heterostructures by alternately layering graphene with crystalline hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), its insulating isomorph, have led to an order of magnitude improvement in graphene device quality. Here, recent developments in graphene devices utilizing boron-nitride dielectrics are reviewed. Field-effect transistor (FET) characteristics of these systems at high bias are examined. Additionally, existing challenges in material synthesis and fabrication and the potential of graphene/BN heterostructures for novel electronic applications are discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Graphene Electronics: Materials, Devices, and Circuits

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1620 - 1637
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1846 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Graphene is a 2-D atomic layer of carbon atoms with unique electronic transport properties such as a high Fermi velocity, an outstanding carrier mobility, and a high carrier saturation velocity, which make graphene an excellent candidate for advanced applications in future electronics. In particular, the potential of graphene in high-speed analog electronics is currently being extensively explored. In this paper, we discuss briefly the basic electronic structure and transport properties of graphene, its large scale synthesis, the role of metal-graphene contact, field-effect transistor (FET) device fabrication (including the issues of gate insulators), and then focus on the electrical characteristics and promise of high-frequency graphene transistors with record-high cutoff frequencies, maximum oscillation frequencies, and voltage gain. Finally, we briefly discuss the first graphene integrated circuits (ICs) in the form of mixers and voltage amplifiers. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Large-Area 2-D Electronics: Materials, Technology, and Devices

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1638 - 1652
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1012 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent experiments since the discovery of monolayer graphite or graphene have led to an exciting revival in the interest in the electronic applications for graphene, as well as other 2-D materials such as hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). These layered materials serve as an exciting new platform for flexible and transparent electronics where surfaces can be enriched with new functionality. This paper aims to provide an overview behind these new class of materials ranging upon important issues for electronic integration including synthesis all the way to current state-of-the-art circuits and devices made from these materials. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Multiscale Modeling for Graphene-Based Nanoscale Transistors

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1653 - 1669
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2534 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The quest for developing graphene-based nanoelectronics puts new requirements on the science and technology of device modeling. It also heightens the role of device modeling in the exploration and in the early assessment of technology options. Graphene-based nanoelectronics is the first form of molecular electronics to reach real prominence, and therefore the role of single atoms and of chemical properties acquires more relevance than in the case of bulk semiconductors. In addition, the promising perspectives offered by band engineering of graphene through chemical modifications increase the role of quantum chemistry methods in the assessment of material properties. In this paper, we review the multiphysics multiscale (MS) approaches required to model graphene-based materials and devices, presenting a comprehensive overview of the main physical models providing a quantitative understanding of the operation of nanoscale transistors. We especially focus on the ongoing efforts to consistently connect simulations at different levels of physical abstraction in order to evaluate materials, device, and circuit properties. We discuss various attempts to induce a gap in graphene-based materials and their impact on the operation of different transistor structures. Finally, we compare candidate devices in terms of integrated circuit performance and robustness to process variability. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Variability Effects in Graphene: Challenges and Opportunities for Device Engineering and Applications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1670 - 1688
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2326 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Variability effects in graphene can result from the surrounding environment and the graphene material itself, which form a critical issue in examining the feasibility of graphene devices for large-scale production. From the reliability and yield perspective, these variabilities cause fluctuations in the device performance, which should be minimized via device engineering. From the metrology perspective, however, the variability effects can function as novel probing mechanisms, in which the “signal fluctuations” can be useful for potential sensing applications. This paper presents an overview of the variability effects in graphene, with emphasis on their challenges and opportunities for device engineering and applications. The discussion can extend to other thin-film, nanowire, and nanotube devices with similar variability issues, forming general interest in evaluating the promise of emerging technologies. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Plasmons in Graphene: Fundamental Properties and Potential Applications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1689 - 1704
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (878 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plasmons in graphene have intriguing fundamental properties and hold great potential for applications. They enable strong confinement of electromagnetic energy at subwavelength scales, which can be tuned and controlled via gate voltage, providing an advantage for graphene's plasmons over surface plasmons (SPs) on a metal-dielectric interface. They have been described for a large span of frequencies from terahertz up to infrared and even in the visible. We provide a critical review of the current knowledge of graphene plasmon properties (dispersion and linewidth) with particular emphasis on plasmonic losses and the competition between different decay channels, which are not yet fully understood. Plasmons in graphene provide an insight into interesting many-body effects such as those arising from the electron-phonon interaction and electron-electron interactions, including hybrid plasmon-phonon collective excitations (either with intrinsic or substrate phonons) and plasmarons. We provide a comparison of SPs on a metal-dielectric interface with plasmons in graphene and 2-D metallic monolayers. We finally outline the potential for graphene's plasmons for applications. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Graphene for Reconfigurable Terahertz Optoelectronics

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1705 - 1716
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1093 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we examine graphene as a material for reconfigurable terahertz (THz) optoelectronics. The ability of electrically tuning its optical properties in a wide range of THz frequencies, together with its 2-D nature and facile integration, leads to unique opportunities for inventing novel THz devices as well as for extending the performance of existing THz technologies. We first review progress in graphene THz active optoelectronic components to date, including large-area graphene, plasmonic, and metamaterial-based devices. Advanced designs and associated challenges are then discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Interaction of Light and Graphene: Basics, Devices, and Applications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1717 - 1731
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1967 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Graphene is a monolayer of carbon atoms arranged in a honey-comb lattice: atomically thin, light, flexible, mechanically strong, visually transparent, electrically tunable, and highly conductive if doped. Graphene also interacts with light strongly from the microwave range to the ultraviolet, spanning wavelengths of at least five orders of magnitude. Such strong light-graphene interaction, together with its exceptional electronic and mechanical properties, makes graphene a promising candidate for various photonic applications. The early part of this paper addresses the physics of light-graphene interaction under a single-electron approximation, followed by a discussion of light excitation of collective oscillations of the carriers, i.e., plasmons in graphene. A variety of photonic devices operating in different wavelength ranges based on the two different light-graphene interaction mechanisms discussed above, such as photodetectors, optical modulators, electromagnetic wave shieldings, notch filters, and linear polarizers are then covered. Finally, we discuss the future directions for graphene photonics research. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fully Transparent Resistive Memory Employing Graphene Electrodes for Eliminating Undesired Surface Effects

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1732 - 1739
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (967 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A ZnO-based transparent resistance random access memory (TRRAM) employs atomic layered graphene exhibiting not only excellent transparency (less than 2% absorptance by graphene) but also reversible resistive switching characteristics. The statistical analysis including cycle-to-cycle and cell-to-cell tests for almost 100 cells shows that graphene plays a significant role to suppress the surface effect, giving rise to the notable increase in the switching yield and the insensitivity to the environmental atmosphere. The resistance variation of high-resistance state of ZnO is greatly suppressed by covering graphene as well. The device reliability investigation, such as the endurance more than 102 cycles and the retention time longer than 104 s, reveals the robust passivation of graphene for TRRAM applications. The obtained insights show guidelines not only for TRRAM device design and optimization against the undesired switching parameter variations but also for developing practically useful applications of graphene. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Evaluation of the Potential Performance of Graphene Nanoribbons as On-Chip Interconnects

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1740 - 1765
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Interconnects are considered as one of the grandest challenges that gigascale and terascale integrations face because of the delay they add to critical paths, the power they dissipate, the noise and jitter they induce on one another, and their vulnerability to electromigration. Recent studies on novel computational state variables such as electron spin have demonstrated that interconnects will continue to be an ever-growing challenge, even for post-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) switches. The novel 2-D carbon-based material graphene has demonstrated remarkable electrical properties that make it a viable candidate to implement interconnects in both electrical and spintronic domains. In this paper, physical models of the electron transport parameters such as electron mean free path (MFP), diffusion coefficient, mobility, and resistance per unit length are presented for both bulk (2-D) and narrow (1-D) graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) as a function of the interconnect dimensions, edge roughness, and Fermi-energy shift. The potential of multilayer GNR (ML-GNR) as electrical interconnects is explored by taking into account the finite interlayer resistivity between the multiple layers within the ML-GNR stack. The spin-relaxation length in graphene is obtained using some theoretical estimates on the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) introduced due to ripples in graphene. It is found that, in pure graphene, the spin-relaxation length could be longer than 10 μm; however, the presence of adatoms limits the spin-relaxation length in graphene to only 1-2 μm at room temperature. The models developed in this paper are used to benchmark graphene interconnects against their conventional copper/low- κ interconnects in both electrical and spintronic domains. The results offer important insights about the advantages and limitations of graphene interconnects and provide guidelines for technology development for this emerging interconnect technology. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Graphene nanoelectromechanical systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1766 - 1779
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2658 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Graphene possesses a combination of properties that make it extremely well suited for use in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Its exceptional mechanical properties include high stiffness and low mass, which lead to high resonant frequencies; and ultrahigh strength, which allows for strain tuning of frequency over a wide range. Its optical properties and high electronic mobility enable robust optical and electrical transduction, while its chemical inertness enables atomically thin devices. This paper reviews the basic properties of graphene NEMS, and recent work toward exploring device properties, readout techniques, and applications. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Graphene Transistors for Bioelectronics

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1780 - 1792
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1483 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper provides an overview on graphene solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFETs) and their applications in bioelectronics. The fabrication and characterization of arrays of graphene SGFETs is presented and discussed with respect to competing technologies. To obtain a better understanding of the working principle of solution-gated transistors, the graphene-electrolyte interface is discussed in detail. The in vitro biocompatibility of graphene is assessed by primary neuron cultures. Finally, bioelectronic experiments with electrogenic cells are presented, confirming the suitability of graphene to record the electrical activity of cells. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Market Uptake Potential of Graphene as a Disruptive Material

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1793 - 1800
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2460 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The unique properties of graphene render it with the potential to bring about radical changes to product portfolios and product functionalities in numerous industries and markets. In this paper, a number of product and technological applications are reviewed where graphene may offer competitive advantage over incumbent materials. Also, its overall potential for market uptake is assessed. Afterwards, the paper addresses a number of variables that exert an influence on the eventual uptake of graphene for commercial applications. Finally, the paper reviews two measures that can be indicative for the potential and the speed with which an industrial uptake of graphene can become a reality. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Maxwell's equations [Scanning Our Past]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1801 - 1805
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (966 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Maxwell's equations provide a complete description of electromagnetic phenomena and underpin all modern information and communication technologies. They are named after James Clerk Maxwell, the Scottish physicist whose pioneering work unified the theories of electricity, magnetism, and light. Today, Maxwell's equations are the essential tool of electrical engineers, used to design all electrical and electronic equipment from cell phones to satellites, televisions to computers, and power stations to washing machines. The theory of electromagnetism was built on the discoveries and advances of many scientists and engineers, but the pivotal contribution was that of Maxwell, who during the second half of the 19th century made the huge conceptual leaps that would enable the great advances in electrical technology throughout the 20th century. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

The most highly-cited general interest journal in electrical engineering and computer science, the Proceedings is the best way to stay informed on an exemplary range of topics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University