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Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems Conference, 1989. Conference Record

Date 11-13 Sept. 1989

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 95
  • Vehicle location for route guidance

    Page(s): 11 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (415 KB)  

    The state of the art of the key technology areas associated with vehicle location for in-vehicle route guidance is assessed. The current and expected performance of available systems is compared with the wide range of operating requirements, supported by practical examples where possible. Consideration is also given to the costs associated with each system. Results are presented on the satellite, hyperbolic, dead reckoning, and map matching systems. It is suggested that there is a place for all types of route guidance systems, and that each is suited to the solution of particular congestion or routeing problems.<> View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of system components for mobile navigation applications

    Page(s): 17 - 21
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    A concept for the evaluation of navigation components with known system requirements and limitations makes use of modern structured analysis and design methods so that the requirements can be connected easily to efficient realizations. Design is divided into phases, each supported by and checked according to the previous phases or requirements. This method involves stepwise modeling of the application. The importance of each parameter is given by a normalized value selected by the designer. Components and subsystems to be used in navigation applications are modeled and evaluated. Results are shown as parameter weights. Selection of realization is done by comparing the evaluation matrices calculated for each choice. The evaluation of the total system estimates parameters such as accuracy, complexity, and cost. Some examples of applications are given including a delivery van, a wheel chair, and an automatically guided vehicle.<> View full abstract»

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  • A comparative analysis of Loran-C and GPS for land vehicle navigation in Canada

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    Summary form only given. Loran-C, to be completed in 1990, is expected to provide coast-to-coast coverage over an area containing some 90% of Canada's population, while the Global Positioning System is expected to provide worldwide navigation coverage by 1992. The fundamental signal propagation and measurement characteristics of the 100 kHz Loran-C and 1575.42 MHz GPS systems are described, together with their operating modes, accuracy, range, coverage, and reliability in the Canadian environment. Signal availability and interference in urban areas are discussed. The status of Loran-C and GPS user equipment is reviewed in terms of cost and suitability for land vehicle navigation.<> View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of map-matching techniques

    Page(s): 23 - 28
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    The authors describe a research and demonstration effort aimed at improving vehicular location accuracy. This effort used a wheel sensor, a gas-rate gyro, a map-matching technique, and beacon information to reduce accumulated errors. The demonstration model showed good location accuracy results in field tests over three courses (one was in an urban area, 10 km in length, while the others were in a suburban area, 30 to 50 km in length). The combined use of a rate gyro and a simple map-matching technique was shown to achieve high-level accuracy in determining current locations. It is concluded that for practical usage, map-matching techniques need more improvement and better evaluation for differing driving conditions. The general concept of a novel simulation system to optimize map-matching techniques with a higher degree of efficiency, one that will not require so many actual driving tests, is described.<> View full abstract»

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  • Multimodal navigation technology assessment

    Page(s): 29 - 32
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    The trends of specific technologies and their likely impact on navigation systems used in transportation during the next 25 years are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the Canadian situation. The research will contribute to Transport Canada objectives of exploring strategic technologies, fostering transportation research at universities, and promoting dialogue on long-term transportation technological developments. The following areas are discussed: inertial and satellite navigation systems, RF hardware technologies, computer technology, mobile digital communications, and prototypes and emerging systems.<> View full abstract»

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  • Human factor considerations of motorist navigation and information systems

    Page(s): 35 - 42
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    A number of important considerations are identified, and information on how they are being addressed by the Administration is presented. Seven basic human factors-related questions are used as a conceptual framework for identifying these considerations, and for describing how they might be addressed. These are: (1) Why do drivers need navigation information? (2) What information do they need? (3) When do they need it? (4) Where should it be located? (5) How should it be displayed and accessed? (6) Who are the users and what are their characteristics? (7) Can they use the systems effectively? It is concluded that it is important that government, private industry, electronics engineers, and human factors specialists work together to produce optimum systems configurations for the motoring public.<> View full abstract»

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  • The nature of navigation: some difficult cognitive issues in automatic vehicle navigation

    Page(s): 43 - 48
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    The author seeks to demonstrate that finding one's way from place to place while driving a car is a complex cognitive task, and that authentic computer-based assistance to drivers must come from devices and systems significantly different from the digital dashboard maps hitherto offered. She discusses the appropriate uses of electronic maps, the map as a way-finding tool, and roles for the computer beyond maps. It is concluded that computers are unlikely to replace human drivers in any significant way, but there are many ways to supplement the human driver's skills and knowledge. Particular attention is given to the development of databases containing significant amounts of destination-related data and software, particularly those that organize information by address (proximity).<> View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent route guidance: will the new horse be as good as the old?

    Page(s): 49 - 55
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    The human factors of intelligent automobile displays were investigated with emphasis on determining the need for design guidelines. The experiment was designed to examine the relationship between drivers' visual attention and performance under concurrent multitask conditions. Twenty young male and female students with normal vision and a minimum of three years' driving experience were assigned randomly to two groups in a mixed, three-factor experiment. Subjects drove in a moving-base simulator and performed cognitive tasks on a CRT display located on the instrument panel. A spatial perception task and a verbal memory task were designed to place differential demands on cognitive resources. Subjects were instructed to perform their best on the display and driving tasks, giving priority to the driving. Eleven dependent variables provided measures of driving performance, attentional behavior, display task performance, and workload. On-line eye movement sampling indicated whether the subject looked at the roadway or at the computer display. The results indicate that intelligent displays in vehicles can intrude on driving despite the mitigating influence of driver adaptation. Simulation was found to be a sensitive and valid technique for studying human factors issues related to the design of such displays. Intermediate attention variables, more sensitive to experimental manipulations than primary task measures, appear to provide a valid basis upon which ergonomic criteria could be developed.<> View full abstract»

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  • Simple in-car route guidance information from another perspective: modality versus coding

    Page(s): 56 - 60
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    A previous field study concerning electronic navigation aids showed the advantage, in terms of navigational errors, of auditory presentation of route guidance instructions as compared with visual instructions (see W.B. Verwey and W.H. Janssen, VTI Report No.342A, p.81-97 of 1988). In the present work, an experiment that tries to approach the issue of optimal route instructions in a more controlled environment is reported. Under conditions of severe perceptual-motor load, subjects were to interpret route instructions with slides depicting real-world junctions. The results showed the advantage of verbal over spatial information. No significant effect of presentation modality was found. Implications for presentation of route guidance instructions are given.<> View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of aging drivers' behaviors navigating with in-vehicle visual display systems

    Page(s): 61 - 67
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    A study was conducted to analyze the behavioral and visual strategies of drivers observed through videotape recordings which took into account subject gaze movements and field of view. Driver performance was evaluated in terms of the total time from starting point to destination and the number of navigational errors. Analysis showed that aging drivers modified their visual strategies under guidance. The duration and frequency of glances toward the navigational system were higher for the elderly in comparison with young adults, indicating a noticeable decrease in the time spent looking at the road. Compared with a paper map, the guidance system was found to lead to fewer navigational errors, less loss of time for environmental landmark search, and shorter route completion time.<> View full abstract»

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  • The experience of developing and providing driver route information systems

    Page(s): 71 - 75
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    The authors relate their experience in developing several such systems over a period of 10 years. They were concerned first with improving the information given on direction signs; this was followed by the development of systems for providing route information for individual journeys. Subsequently these developed into an autonomous in-vehicle route guidance system, and systems which have allowed automobile clubs to automate the route information services provided to members. The authors are involved in the Autoguide system trial in London and look forward to using the two-way communication features of this system for improving traffic control.<> View full abstract»

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  • Considerations for the application of a route guidance system in the Greater Toronto Area

    Page(s): 76 - 83
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    The feasibility of applying a route guidance system of the Q-route type is examined, and some system design aspects that one would have to consider before embarking on such a project are explored. The need for a comprehensive system that can deal consistently with all different types of dissemination media is emphasized. The development of a Central Traffic Information Clearance Center is proposed as a hub to link the various traffic control centres within the Area. Proposed configurations for the traffic/map/routeing database are presented, and the consequences of applying different communications systems for disseminating these data are explored.<> View full abstract»

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  • Information systems: an integral part of future vehicles

    Page(s): 85 - 88
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    It is suggested that the driving experience might be improved by information brought on-board by compact disc and transmitted to and from the vehicle through appropriate communication links. Three possible feature sets-cellular telephone enhancements, travel assistance, and business/professional-are suggested. Several travel assistance features are offered as solutions to anticipated traffic congestion problems. It is contended that the historic solution of additional roadway construction will not be possible. The need for cooperation between the automotive industry, electronic component companies, and government traffic agencies is stressed in order that the most cost-effective solutions be implemented.<> View full abstract»

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  • Surveying commuter behavior as a basis for designing motorist information systems

    Page(s): 93 - 100
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    A motorist information survey was conducted by University investigators as part of a project sponsored by the Washington State Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration. This survey gathered information about motorist activities and behaviors, particularly the potential for changing these behaviors through the design and delivery of motorist information. Of particular interest were the commuter-based methodology designed to allow application of multivariate techniques to data analysis, and the use of cluster analysis to determine discrete groups of commuter types. The design and administration of the survey, the cluster analysis methodology and its preliminary results are described.<> View full abstract»

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  • Information requirements for real-time motorist information systems

    Page(s): 101 - 104
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    A motorist information survey (ibid., p.93-100) has identified Seattle commuter types, behaviors and decision-making processes. This information can be used to design motorist information systems intended to impact and modify commuter behavior by increasing the efficiency with which existing transportation facilities are used. Central to the design of these systems is the targeting of susceptible commuter subgroups and the tailoring of information to lead these targeted audiences to modify their commuting behavior. A description is given of the general approach of using advanced driver information systems to alleviate urban congestion, and a specific strategy for designing real-time motorist information to impact commuter behavior and decision-making.<> View full abstract»

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  • The ADVISE traffic information display system

    Page(s): 105 - 112
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    The City of Melbourne has a new experimental system which helps the motorist's progress through a sequence of traffic lights, reducing the number of stops, saving fuel, and promoting a safe and vigilant approach to driving. After 18 months of ADVISE operation, the number of accidents and tow-truck calls has fallen. The development of the ADVISE system is outlined, and a performance analysis is presented. Attention is given to such features as the information display signs, the traffic control system, and the ADVISE computer and algorithms. Speeds, especially those excessively higher than the speed limit, have shown a small decrease. According to instrumented vehicle data, fuel consumption is reduced 3 to 4%, stops are down, and travel time is not significantly changed. An increase in the use of the road has been observed.<> View full abstract»

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  • User perceptions and safety implications of in-vehicle navigation systems

    Page(s): 113 - 116
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    Researchers at the University are engaged in two projects related to the testing of in-vehicle navigation systems. One project is concerned with the interrelationship between the given route guidance information, the driver's belief or anticipation, and the route choice made by the driver. Additionally, the impact of alternative route guidance schemes (information content and the format of information transfer) is being tested to see how they affect driver's route choice. The second project is concerned with safety consequences of in-vehicle navigator usage. The study examines the implications of navigation system use through a series of realistic experiments using a driving simulator equipped with a 160 degrees field-of-view screen on which computer-generated images are projected. These images include straight road segments, horizontal and vertical curves, traffic control devices, and, most importantly, the car ahead in the traffic stream. The conceptual underpinnings and methodologies used in each study are described.<> View full abstract»

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  • Architectures for in-vehicle navigation systems displaying real time traffic condition information

    Page(s): 119 - 124
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    A number of dynamic in-vehicle navigation and route guidance system architectures are described and their properties classified. Five typical architectures for exogenous systems, and three endogenous system architectures are described. The functional capability and design complexity of exogenous systems are shown to vary over a wide range. These systems depend on basic external information sources which define the physical network over which the system operates. They require only one-way communication using existing channels and media. Endogenous systems do not have an externally defined network limitation. The infrastructure or bandwidth requirements are usually extensive and this, along with the requirements for common data formats and transmission standards, implies extensive government participation. A minimum number of vehicles is required on the network for effective operation.<> View full abstract»

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  • AVLN 2000 automatic vehicle location and navigation system

    Page(s): 126 - 130
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    This prototype system is being tested at the University. The positioning component consists of a GPS Trimble TANS (Trimble Advanced Navigation System) receiver, a pair of Nu-Metrics odometers, and a map-matching module, all integrated by a seven-parameter state vector Kalman filter to yield continuous positioning of the vehicle. An on-board GRiDCase EXP microcomputer is used for real-time computations and display. The system is being field-tested in a route network in the northwest quadrant of the City of Calgary. Enhanced area master files from Statistics Canada are used to produce the road network database.<> View full abstract»

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  • Recognition of vehicle's location for navigation

    Page(s): 131 - 138
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    The use of signpost navigation, map-matching, and satellite navigation as methods for correcting the accumulated errors of dead-reckoning is described. Also considered are ways to obtain accurate and continuous car location by combining those methods with dead-reckoning. The merits, demerits and feasibility of each method are discussed. It is confirmed that accurate and continuous car location is achievable by a method combining dead-reckoning via the geomagnetic sensor, map-matching, and signpost navigation. This combination is highly feasible in a small country like Japan. A method combining dead-reckoning via terrestrial magnetism and GPS (Global Positioning System) is expected to make accurate and continuous car location possible even in a large country and areas where signposts are not yet installed.<> View full abstract»

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  • Automobile navigation system using beacon information

    Page(s): 139 - 145
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    A navigation and communication system utilizing roadside beacons is under development. The functions and infrastructure of the Road/Automobile Communication System are outlined, the in-vehicle equipment is described and the results of field tests conducted in the Tokyo/Yokohama area are reported. The system provides the driver with such information as present location and traffic conditions, plots optimum and alternative routes to destination, and enables limited two-way communication to be made. Field testing indicates that the navigation and route-search functions are of great benefit to drivers in an unfamiliar area. However, route-search calculation time must be reduced, especially for route revision in response to incoming data.<> View full abstract»

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  • The Back Seat Driver: real time spoken driving instructions

    Page(s): 146 - 150
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    An automobile navigation aid that uses synthetic speech to give instruction to the driver of a car in real time is described. The advantage of speech is that it leaves the driver's eyes free for driving; however, it also poses special problems. The strategies employed by the Back Seat Driver to use speech successfully are described. The linguistic abilities are discussed, and the problems encountered because of the exclusive use of speech are described. The way in which these problems were overcome is described.<> View full abstract»

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  • Test results of a precise, short range, RF navigational/positional system

    Page(s): 151 - 155
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    A navigational system that has a range of several miles and an accuracy of several inches has been developed at the University. Several positions are calculated every second and the system can be used for navigating vehicles or for finding positions. The system achieves a fix by measuring the range to two or three stationary beacons, and is classified as a range/range system. A description is given of the system, its limitations, and its potential impact on industries such as surveying, open pit mining, and farming.<> View full abstract»

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  • Radionavigation/location requirements for surface users in Canada: present and forecasted equipment uses

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    Summary form only given, as follows. The authors estimate the present extent of uses of radionavigation/location equipment and forecast the extent of use by the year 2000. Systems included in this report were grouped into three major types: active satellite systems represented by the GEOSTAR example; passive satellite systems represented by the Global Positioning System example; and ground based systems represented by the Loran-C example. The methodology comprised five phases: documentation review and expert interviews; development of interview guidelines; development of alternative radionavigation-systems-evolution scenarios; interviews with current and potential ground surface users; and data synthesis. Radionavigation systems development scenarios were the object of a number of in-depth interviews with experts. Estimates and forecasts were grouped as follows: public service, goods movements, private, military, agriculture, and other ground surface users.<> View full abstract»

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  • GeoRoute: an interactive graphics system for routeing and scheduling over street networks

    Page(s): 161 - 163
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    The system components, computer configuration, and databases of a multi-purpose graphical tool for applications requiring a network representation of streets in urban and rural areas are described. The underlying data structure is adapted to routeing and scheduling problems for various types of delivery and public works vehicles requiring information about street-to-street connectivity, one-way streets, street types, and illegal turns at intersections. GeoRoute includes the functions required to keep the geographical database up-to-date, locate items on the street network, automatically and/or interactively generate optimized vehicle routes, and produce color maps using standard plotting devices. The street database is stored using an original street segment coding scheme; links are exploded when required for maps or displays. This structure allows large urban networks to be treated globally on standard personal computers running MS-DOS. GeoRoute is being used in a variety of situations, including trip planning for transit customers (based on both planned and real-time schedules), route optimization for armored cars, milk pick-up in rural areas, and public works planning.<> View full abstract»

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