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Industry Applications Conference, 1997. Thirty-Second IAS Annual Meeting, IAS '97., Conference Record of the 1997 IEEE

Date 5-9 Oct. 1997

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  • Conference Record Of The 1997 IEEE Industry Applications Conference Thirty-second Ias Annual Meeting

    Page(s): i - xxxiv
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Index of authors

    Page(s): 0_3 - 0_8
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    Presents an index of the authors whose papers are published in the conference. View full abstract»

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  • Long-term ozone generation from electrostatic air cleaners

    Page(s): 2037 - 2044 vol.3
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    Ozone is one of the indoor air pollutants which has received little attention. One of the primary sources which can generate a significant amount of ozone is an electrostatic air cleaner. In this paper, long-term ozone generation from two commercial electrostatic air cleaners were studied. The measurements included longitudinal and lateral distributions of ozone concentration downstream from the outlet of the air cleaner. In addition, effects of fan speed on ozone distribution were investigated. Finally, recommendations for a safer operation of air cleaners were provided View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatic manipulator for 300-mm wafers

    Page(s): 1990 - 1997 vol.3
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    This paper presents the developments in contactless mechanisms for use in the manufacturing process of semiconductor devices, an electrostatic manipulator for a 300-mm silicon wafer. The novel aspects of this manipulator are that not only can it directly levitate a wafer via electrostatic forces and then transport it by controlling the movement of electrodes, but it can also keep the net surface potential of the wafer near zero volts. As a result, if greatly reduces the contamination of the wafer surface by dust particles. In this paper, a brief review of the basic principle of electrostatic levitation is presented. It is followed by a description of the structure of the manipulator, including the electrodes pattern, position and orientation control method, voltage-application pattern, motion control of the levitation unit, and the operational procedure. Experimental results which demonstrate completely contactless handling of a 300-mm silicon wafer are also presented View full abstract»

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  • Design of a hybrid ballast with magnetic shunts: application to control of HID lamps

    Page(s): 2270 - 2275 vol.3
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    A procedure to design a lag ballast with magnetic shunts for HID lamps is proposed. A bidirectional semiconductor switch with phase angle control, connected in parallel to one of the ballast coils, acts on lamp power. The static switch control signal is provided by a power feedback loop that actuates on lamp current, compensating variations of the main voltage and/or lamp parameters. This system saves energy and extends lamp life. Measurements on a 70 W high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp prototype ballast are presented. The dependence of the inductances on the magnetic circuit parameters is emphasized. Power factor and total harmonic distortion of line current are comparable to a conventional lag ballast View full abstract»

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  • Fundamental study of an electrostatic chuck for silicon wafer handling

    Page(s): 1998 - 2003 vol.3
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    A mechanical holding system of a wafer might cause a serious problem in the semiconductor industry. Electrostatic wafer handling might be one of the possible solutions for such a problem. We have investigated the attractive force on a silicon wafer by using the electrostatic chuck which consists of interdigitated electrodes and a dielectric thin film. Electrostatic attractive force increases, as the applied voltage increases, and with thinner dielectric layer. The narrower width and spacing of interdigitated electrodes, the stronger electrostatic force is obtained. When the 1 mm width interdigitated electrodes and 50 μm thick film are used, the strongest force obtained was about 17 N in the vertical direction at 3.5 kV, for a 4" silicone wafer. When DC high voltage is used, some residual force remains even after the applied voltage is removed. This was overcome by using variable frequency AC high voltage View full abstract»

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  • Discharge and ozone generation characteristics of a ferroelectric-ball/mica-sheet barrier

    Page(s): 1829 - 1836 vol.3
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    Discharge and ozone generation characteristics of a ferroelectric-ball and mica-sheet double barrier were investigated to study fundamentals of the barrier discharges and find out the optimal condition for efficient control of the pollutant gases. Five kinds of ferroelectric-balls, of which the dielectric constants are 33, 150, 660, 1500 and 1000, were investigated in atmosphere with various pulse frequencies of 0.2~4.0 kHz. It is found that the double barrier has better discharge characteristics for ozone generation than those of a ferroelectric-ball single barrier and that ozone generation is greatly influenced by the dielectric constant of the ferroelectric-ball barrier and applied pulse frequency. As a result, there is an optimum condition of the dielectric constant and the applied pulse frequency to generate ozone effectively which are about Er=660 and frequencies higher than 4 kHz at the given experimental conditions View full abstract»

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  • A novel real-time fuzzy-based diagnostic system of roll eccentricity influence in finishing hot strip mills

    Page(s): 2117 - 2124 vol.3
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    This paper proposes a method for the diagnosis of roll eccentricity influence on the strip thickness at the exit of a finishing hot strip mill (FHSM). Each exit strip thickness defect is related to one roll of the FHSM, allowing the implementation of an optimal policy for the substitution and maintenance of the rolls, while maintaining the required quality level of the strip. This policy allows the minimization of roll changes and the concentration of several changes at the same time, reducing production costs. Fuzzy logic is used to compare spectra, looking for common patterns, which enables a totally-automated diagnostic system. Likewise, as part of the solution, a novel estimate of roll eccentricity, based on a least-squares algorithm has been developed, which provides higher accuracy than classical algorithms as well as a drastic reduction in the time required to perform eccentricity tests View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of acoustic resonance in metal halide (MH) lamps and an approach to detect its occurrence

    Page(s): 2276 - 2283 vol.3
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    A method to detect the occurrence of the acoustic resonance based on lamp electrical parameters has been proposed. Extensive experiments are conducted on 70 W metal halide lamps from different manufacturers and a lamp acoustic resonance detection method based on ΔR/R variation is developed. A new topology for a smart ballast which selects the operating frequency for stable operation based on real time measurements is proposed View full abstract»

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  • Mine hoists: a study in control

    Page(s): 2098 - 2105 vol.3
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    The authors describe how mine hoisting technology has started down a high-technology computer-based path. This paper covers mine shaft instrumentation, mine hoist controls and the system-wide integration of process control View full abstract»

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  • Application guidelines for instantaneous trip circuit breakers in combination motor starters

    Page(s): 2252 - 2260 vol.3
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    This paper addresses the application of instantaneous trip, molded-case circuit breakers in combination with motor starters. These circuit breakers have been used widely in many industries for motor circuit protection. If not properly applied, situations of false tripping on motor starting and contact welding of contactors under low level faults may occur. High efficiency motors compound the issue of false tripping on motor starting. This paper discusses the components of combination starters, reviews testing requirements and provides examples of coordination with an analysis of application issues and solution options View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to advanced cold mill drive systems

    Page(s): 2125 - 2130 vol.3
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    This report describes an advanced 1000 kVA AC cold mill drive systems in a modern steel manufacturing facility. The presented systems consist of an AC-to-DC PWM power converter and two PWM inverters to drive each 700 kW induction motor, and all algorithms are implemented using a TMS 320C40 digital signal processor (DSP) system that provides high computing power by employing a high level of parallel processing. The displacement power factor of the input line current is always unity and total power factor including harmonics is higher than 98%. The common DC link voltage is regulated within 1% of its rated value regardless of input voltage fluctuation and output load transient. The system achieves 1:5 field weakening control range. The available speed control bandwidth of the motor is about 60 Hz and torque bandwidth is about 350 Hz. Since July 1997, it has been operating with full capacity at Pohang steel mill company (Posco) in Kwang-yang, Korea View full abstract»

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  • A unity power factor electronic ballast for fluorescent lighting

    Page(s): 2366 - 2371 vol.3
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    This paper describes a high power factor electronic ballast for fluorescent lamps. The converter offers a high power factor and high-frequency supply to the lamp. In spite of its simplicity an excellent performance concerning load and supply is achieved, ensuring a sinusoidal and in-phase supply current. High power factor is achieved by using a flyback converter operating in discontinuous-conduction mode. Operating principle, design equations, control characteristics, component stress, and efficiency are presented. Experimental results have been obtained for one 40 W fluorescent lamp operating at 50 kHz switching frequency and 220 V line voltage View full abstract»

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  • A neural network controls the galvannealing process

    Page(s): 2137 - 2143 vol.3
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    High quality galvanized steel strip is a need of today's manufacturers of various products. In particular, in the top quality section steel strips for the automotive, building and consumer goods industries only those steel producers will be successful who are applying state-of-the-art process technologies. For this reason, VOEST-ALPINE Industrieanlagenbau mbH (VAI) and VOEST-ALPINE Stahl Linz developed a new galvannealing control system to optimize this metallurgical process. As the latest improvement of the galvannealing control strategy, a neural network controller has been developed by VAI in Cooperation with the Vienna University of Technology Christian Doppler Laboratory for Intelligent Control Methods for Process Technologies. The paper describes the galvannealing process as far as it is necessary for the understanding of the controller functions, the controller structure and its essential functions. Furthermore, the neural network structure used and its integration into the controller system are explained. A discussion of simulation and practical operating results shows the improvements achieved by using a neural network controller in comparison to the conventional controller View full abstract»

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  • DeNOx process in flue gas combined with nonthermal plasma and catalyst

    Page(s): 1942 - 1949 vol.3
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    Catalysts were used to enhance NOx removal reactions by the nonthermal plasma from the room temperature to high temperature, 500°C. NOx removal rate was significantly affected by the type of the catalyst or the gas temperature. When the conventional 3 way catalyst for an automobile was activated at 500°C, nonthermal plasma was not effective in removing NOx. When hydrocarbons (ethylene) were added to the synthetic flue gas, zeolite catalyst became very active at high temperature. Combination effect of nonthermal plasma and catalyst was confirmed below 200°C. More than 80% NOx was removed from synthetic flue gas by combination of zeolite catalyst and hydrocarbons without nonthermal plasma discharge at 500°C. Nonthermal plasma treatment could be useful even at high temperature where catalytic reaction were dominant View full abstract»

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  • Design of shunt capacitor circuits for power factor compensation in electrical systems supplying nonlinear loads: a probabilistic approach

    Page(s): 2205 - 2212 vol.3
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    An optimization criterion is presented which allows proper calculation of reactive power steps in a power factor compensation installation consisting of capacitors and/or filters. Optimization minimizes power losses on supply transformer and cables. The criterion is based on mean value estimation of load reactive power, which is enabled by sampling measurements performed on the examined electrical plant, as well as by probabilistic processing of data. Even the aspect of harmonic pollution is considered in the optimization process, determining the choice between filters and capacitors View full abstract»

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  • Water cooled end-point boundary temperature control of hot strip via dynamic programming

    Page(s): 2109 - 2116 vol.3
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    This paper presents a system for end-point boundary temperature control approach, for run out table (ROT) cooling, used in hot strip mills. The system relies on a linearized model for describing heat radiated to the environment and heat transferred to cooling water. A conventional feedforward control design to control the temperature at the end boundary point, the only measurable controlled parameter, is first presented. A modified control scheme, which minimizes the temperature error, at the end boundary point via dynamic programming, is then discussed in detail. System performance analysis via simulation is presented for both control schemes. Simulation results show that temperature error minimization by dynamic programming improves system performance View full abstract»

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  • The ReGeneration Project [copper leaching]

    Page(s): 2067 - 2073 vol.3
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    One of the highest costs associated with in situ leaching of copper is electric power. The ReGeneration Project addressed this cost issue with a research and development project for BHP Copper. The project involved the installation of a reverse pump/turbine for the removal of excessive fluid pressure and the production of useful electric power. The motivation for the project was that a reverse pump/turbine unit could not only remove the excess hydraulic pressure, but when connected to an induction generator would produce electric power, which could be easily connected to the local power grid, thus reducing operating costs. The project was successful in removing excess fluid pressure and producing electricity. The unit is operating today, producing useful 2300 volt power at a rate of approximately 128 kilowatts View full abstract»

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  • A new continuous input current charge pump power factor correction (CIC-CPPFC) electronic ballast

    Page(s): 2299 - 2306 vol.3
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    A continuous input current charge pump power factor correction (CIC-CPPFC) electronic ballast is proposed in this paper. Circuit derivation and unity power factor condition using the charge pump concept are derived and analyzed. The power switch only deals with the resonant load current which is the same as the two-stage approach. The developed electronic ballast has continuous input line current so that a small line input filter can be used. The proposed CIC-CPPFC electronic ballast was implemented and tested. It is shown that switching current stress is only half of the integrated single stage electronic ballast. 0.992 power factor and 10.5% THD can be achieved with two 45-watt fluorescent lamps View full abstract»

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  • VAI's new efficient solution for controlling the mechanical properties of hot rolled strip

    Page(s): 2131 - 2136 vol.3
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    The system of VOEST-ALPINE Industrieanlagenbau GmbH (VAI) for Computer Aided Quality Prediction and Control (CAQP/C) allows the accurate online prediction of the quality parameters of hot rolled steel strip. It was developed in close cooperation with one of Europe's best steel producers VOEST-ALPINE STAHL LINZ (VASL) and is in the implementation stage at the hot strip mill (HSM) of VASL. The system calculates the quality parameters for strip segments by means of physical and metallurgical models of the hot rolling process. The input parameters for the CAQP/C are the actual production conditions, which are continuously tracked and recorded. The system covers the HSM process steps from the reheating furnaces to the coiling with an interface to the steel making. The predicted quality parameters comprehend the most relevant mechanical properties such as yield stress, tensile strength etc.. So far the focus is on low carbon and microalloyed steel grades. The motivation for this future oriented technological development was reduction of sampling costs, quality prediction for the entire strip length, thickness and width and the optimization of the production conditions. The extension of the system for the fully automatic online control and correction of the quality parameters is the target of the next step, which is already scheduled View full abstract»

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  • The electric corona discharge in the triode system

    Page(s): 1817 - 1822 vol.3
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    In this paper, the charge density, electric field and corona current distributions in the corona triode are calculated using a hybrid technique: the finite element method and the boundary element method are combined with the method of characteristics. The characteristic lines are traced backwards from points of the analyzed domain to the corona wire. The current density, electric field and space charge density distributions can be controlled by changing the configuration of the system. The voltage applied to the grid plays an important role in controlling the corona current. Results of calculations in a number of different cases show the influence of different parameters on the characteristics of the corona triode View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the self-oscillating series resonant inverter for electronic ballasts

    Page(s): 2291 - 2298 vol.3
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    In this paper, we examined the self-oscillating series resonant inverter for electronic ballast applications from a system point of view. By considering the discharge lamp as a linear resistor in steady state, we derived a time-domain closed form expression of the circuit state variables. Importantly, we observed that the self-oscillating series resonant inverter with lamp loads can be naturally modeled as a relay system. Based on this formulation, the self-oscillating frequencies of the inverter for variable lamp impedance conditions are found via the Tsypkin's locus. The stability of the self-oscillating frequencies is determined in a sampled-data system framework View full abstract»

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  • Ripple-free, single-stage electronic ballasts with dither-booster power factor corrector

    Page(s): 2372 - 2379 vol.3
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    A general approach to synthesizing single-stage inverters (SSIs) with power factor correction is first presented and an application example of electronic ballast with dither boost is then addressed in the paper. The proposed method is based on the concept of dither-effect from which eligible power factor corrector (PFC) cells can be generated. Existing inverters associated with proper PFC cells to form SSIs can fulfil power factor correction and its original function. In particular, many families of SSIs are developed, which have not been discussed in literature. To further reduce the system cost and size, a coupling inductor is employed to achieve ripple-free input current. A typical application of an electronic ballast with the proposed ripple-free PFC is analyzed. Simulation and measured results from the system with four GE TBX 26 W compact fluorescent lamps have demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed approach to single-stage electronic ballast applications View full abstract»

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  • Design of electrostatic fog generator using a reverse field modelling technique

    Page(s): 1784 - 1789 vol.3
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    The paper presents the results of a research study on developing and constructing an induction charging electrode arrangement in an electrostatic spraying nozzle for green house application. A twin fluid nozzle specially constructed for generation of very fine water based pesticides spray was used in this study. The electrode arrangement was optimised with respect to charging efficiency of spray droplets. A reverse field modelling technique was used to establish the influence of position and shape of the electrodes on spatial distribution of electric field required to charge the spray to a desired level of specific charge. A finite element computer software ALGOR was utilised for this purpose. The size distribution as well as charge-to-mass ratio of the spray generated by the nozzle was measured under various operating conditions. The result of the preliminary experimental study confirmed that the improved design enhanced the deposition characteristic of the charged spray View full abstract»

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  • A single-stage electronic ballast with power factor correction and low crest factor for fluorescent lamps

    Page(s): 2307 - 2312 vol.3
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    A new single-stage power factor correction electronic ballast using the charge pump concept is proposed in this paper. Circuit derivation, principle of operation and the conditions for achieving unity power factor are discussed. The proposed electronic ballast is implemented and tested. It is shown that 0.987 power factor, 13% THD, and 1.6 crest factor can be obtained with two 40-watt fluorescent lamps in series. The lamp power variation range is automatically limited within ±15% for ±10% line input voltage variation without any feedback control, and the maximum DC bus voltage across the bulk capacitor during the preheat and start-up modes is less than 415 V for 220 V line input so that a 450 V rated bulk capacitor can be used View full abstract»

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