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Industry Applications Conference, 1997. Thirty-Second IAS Annual Meeting, IAS '97., Conference Record of the 1997 IEEE

Date 5-9 Oct. 1997

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  • Conference Record Of The 1997 IEEE Industry Applications Conference Thirty-second Ias Annual Meeting

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): i - xxxiv
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Index of authors

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 0_3 - 0_8
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    Presents an index of the authors whose papers are published in the conference. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a hybrid ballast with magnetic shunts: application to control of HID lamps

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 2270 - 2275 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    A procedure to design a lag ballast with magnetic shunts for HID lamps is proposed. A bidirectional semiconductor switch with phase angle control, connected in parallel to one of the ballast coils, acts on lamp power. The static switch control signal is provided by a power feedback loop that actuates on lamp current, compensating variations of the main voltage and/or lamp parameters. This system saves energy and extends lamp life. Measurements on a 70 W high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp prototype ballast are presented. The dependence of the inductances on the magnetic circuit parameters is emphasized. Power factor and total harmonic distortion of line current are comparable to a conventional lag ballast View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatic effects on first pass transfer efficiency in the application of powder coatings

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1697 - 1704 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Two important process conditions desired in most powder coating applications are: a high first pass transfer efficiency (FPTE) and uniformity of the powder layer covering the surface to be coated. Both of these desired outcomes are influenced by the electrostatic properties of powder and electrostatic parameters involved in the spraying process. An FPTE, greater than 90 percent may eliminate the need for recycling of the overspray in some applications, thereby, permitting fast color changes. Many industries are unable to switch from solvent based coatings to powder coatings because of the long color-change time required in current powder coating processes, To obtain a high FPTE, a clear understanding of the electrostatic phenomena involved in the process is desired, but the complexity of the process, particularly such conflicting requirements between high FPTE and strong adhesion of the powder layer, between high current density for charging and elimination of back corona require optimization of the process based on theoretical and experimental investigations. This paper describes relationships between FPTE and (1) ion current density and (2) particle size distribution (PSD). Theoretical relationships between process parameters and electrostatic effects and how process conditions can be optimized for a high FPTE and uniformity of the powder layer are discussed with experimental results. Possible empirical steps that can be used to optimize FPTE are presented View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of acoustic resonance in metal halide (MH) lamps and an approach to detect its occurrence

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 2276 - 2283 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (30)  |  Patents (1)
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    A method to detect the occurrence of the acoustic resonance based on lamp electrical parameters has been proposed. Extensive experiments are conducted on 70 W metal halide lamps from different manufacturers and a lamp acoustic resonance detection method based on ΔR/R variation is developed. A new topology for a smart ballast which selects the operating frequency for stable operation based on real time measurements is proposed View full abstract»

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  • Application guidelines for instantaneous trip circuit breakers in combination motor starters

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 2252 - 2260 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper addresses the application of instantaneous trip, molded-case circuit breakers in combination with motor starters. These circuit breakers have been used widely in many industries for motor circuit protection. If not properly applied, situations of false tripping on motor starting and contact welding of contactors under low level faults may occur. High efficiency motors compound the issue of false tripping on motor starting. This paper discusses the components of combination starters, reviews testing requirements and provides examples of coordination with an analysis of application issues and solution options View full abstract»

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  • A novel plasma reactor for NOx control using photocatalyst and hydrogen peroxide injection

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1937 - 1941 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    The authors have developed a new type of plasma reactor combining discharge plasma with photocatalyst (TiO2) which can improve the performance of NOx removal. We also find that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very effective additive in this plasma catalytic reactor. NOx was effectively oxidized to HNO3 on TiO2 catalyst and trapped on the catalyst surface. Specific energy consumption of this de-NOx process is significantly reduced especially with the injection of H2O2 View full abstract»

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  • Design of shunt capacitor circuits for power factor compensation in electrical systems supplying nonlinear loads: a probabilistic approach

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 2205 - 2212 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    An optimization criterion is presented which allows proper calculation of reactive power steps in a power factor compensation installation consisting of capacitors and/or filters. Optimization minimizes power losses on supply transformer and cables. The criterion is based on mean value estimation of load reactive power, which is enabled by sampling measurements performed on the examined electrical plant, as well as by probabilistic processing of data. Even the aspect of harmonic pollution is considered in the optimization process, determining the choice between filters and capacitors View full abstract»

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  • A new continuous input current charge pump power factor correction (CIC-CPPFC) electronic ballast

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 2299 - 2306 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    A continuous input current charge pump power factor correction (CIC-CPPFC) electronic ballast is proposed in this paper. Circuit derivation and unity power factor condition using the charge pump concept are derived and analyzed. The power switch only deals with the resonant load current which is the same as the two-stage approach. The developed electronic ballast has continuous input line current so that a small line input filter can be used. The proposed CIC-CPPFC electronic ballast was implemented and tested. It is shown that switching current stress is only half of the integrated single stage electronic ballast. 0.992 power factor and 10.5% THD can be achieved with two 45-watt fluorescent lamps View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the self-oscillating series resonant inverter for electronic ballasts

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 2291 - 2298 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    In this paper, we examined the self-oscillating series resonant inverter for electronic ballast applications from a system point of view. By considering the discharge lamp as a linear resistor in steady state, we derived a time-domain closed form expression of the circuit state variables. Importantly, we observed that the self-oscillating series resonant inverter with lamp loads can be naturally modeled as a relay system. Based on this formulation, the self-oscillating frequencies of the inverter for variable lamp impedance conditions are found via the Tsypkin's locus. The stability of the self-oscillating frequencies is determined in a sampled-data system framework View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of DC corona discharge along an electrically conductive flat plate with gas flow

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1803 - 1810 vol.3
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    The development of a corona discharge was evaluated numerically over a region of a semi-infinite flat plate having small (Ohmic) surface conductivity with a flowing gas. The model simulates a positive corona discharge (ionic wind) generated by two parallel wires mounted flush with the surface of the plate and directed with the free-stream gas flow. The deposition and removal of ions at the surface are permitted. Five coupled partial differential equations govern the gas phase model together with empirical equations for electrical discharge (Φ-I characteristics). Two voltage bias case studies were considered: first, the two electrodes have the same potential but are of opposite sign, and second, the positive electrode carries the full potential with the remaining electrode grounded. Several interesting effects relating to the voltage and current distributions, surface potential, and free-stream velocity are observed. Boundary layer development and surface shear are also discussed View full abstract»

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  • Discharge and ozone generation characteristics of a ferroelectric-ball/mica-sheet barrier

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1829 - 1836 vol.3
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    Discharge and ozone generation characteristics of a ferroelectric-ball and mica-sheet double barrier were investigated to study fundamentals of the barrier discharges and find out the optimal condition for efficient control of the pollutant gases. Five kinds of ferroelectric-balls, of which the dielectric constants are 33, 150, 660, 1500 and 1000, were investigated in atmosphere with various pulse frequencies of 0.2~4.0 kHz. It is found that the double barrier has better discharge characteristics for ozone generation than those of a ferroelectric-ball single barrier and that ozone generation is greatly influenced by the dielectric constant of the ferroelectric-ball barrier and applied pulse frequency. As a result, there is an optimum condition of the dielectric constant and the applied pulse frequency to generate ozone effectively which are about Er=660 and frequencies higher than 4 kHz at the given experimental conditions View full abstract»

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  • Dilution effect with inert gas in direct methanol synthesis from methane using nonthermal plasma

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 2027 - 2031 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Direct methanol synthesis from CH4 and O2 has been experimentally studied using pulsed discharge plasma in a concentric-cylinder-type reactor. The methanol production was enhanced by dilution of source gas with inert gas, such as Ar, He. The methanol production became about 2.5 times larger at the dilution ratio of 2.5, and gradually decreased with increase of the dilution ratio, resulting in decrease of O2 partial pressure. C2H6 was formed as one of the by-products, and its concentration increased with increase of the dilution ratio. This tendency was the same for Ar and He. Where the partial pressure of O2 was kept constant, on the other hand, the methanol production increased and saturated the increasing the dilution, but concentration of C2H6 stayed at about the same level. Reaction selectivity of the methanol synthesis depended on the dilution ratio of the inert gas View full abstract»

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  • Water cooled end-point boundary temperature control of hot strip via dynamic programming

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 2109 - 2116 vol.3
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    This paper presents a system for end-point boundary temperature control approach, for run out table (ROT) cooling, used in hot strip mills. The system relies on a linearized model for describing heat radiated to the environment and heat transferred to cooling water. A conventional feedforward control design to control the temperature at the end boundary point, the only measurable controlled parameter, is first presented. A modified control scheme, which minimizes the temperature error, at the end boundary point via dynamic programming, is then discussed in detail. System performance analysis via simulation is presented for both control schemes. Simulation results show that temperature error minimization by dynamic programming improves system performance View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatic propulsion motor for tiny vessels

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1874 - 1878 vol.3
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    Pumps utilizing electric traveling waves as the conveyor of liquids have already been presented in various publications. In those considerations, a dielectric liquid has been chosen as the media to propel. Inversely, it is conceivable to use pumps as propulsion motors for tiny vessels. Hereinafter, the proposed electrostatic propulsion motor is based on the electric tube device which has been introduced in an earlier paper by the first author for the task of particle mass transportation. The device is made by winding six parallel and insulated wires onto a cylindrical tube. The employed wires have a diameter in the range of 56 μm-236 μm. Upon the application of multi-phase voltages to the monolayer-electrodes, the created traveling electric field wave carries the charged liquid in the same direction. Various electrostatic propulsion motors have been fabricated and optimized through a series of experiments. Optimizing parameters involve electrode dimensions, fabrication materials, applied voltages and frequencies. As evaluative parameters, the propulsion pressure and the rate of liquid flow are determined. Constant and precise liquid propulsion is achieved. It is further shown that this tube structure has a high potential for miniaturization View full abstract»

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  • A single-stage electronic ballast with power factor correction and low crest factor for fluorescent lamps

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 2307 - 2312 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    A new single-stage power factor correction electronic ballast using the charge pump concept is proposed in this paper. Circuit derivation, principle of operation and the conditions for achieving unity power factor are discussed. The proposed electronic ballast is implemented and tested. It is shown that 0.987 power factor, 13% THD, and 1.6 crest factor can be obtained with two 40-watt fluorescent lamps in series. The lamp power variation range is automatically limited within ±15% for ±10% line input voltage variation without any feedback control, and the maximum DC bus voltage across the bulk capacitor during the preheat and start-up modes is less than 415 V for 220 V line input so that a 450 V rated bulk capacitor can be used View full abstract»

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  • Finite difference quasi-static and dynamic models for pulse-powered electrostatic precipitators in presence of dust

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1750 - 1755 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB)  

    This paper describes an accurate model and a new procedure for the numerical computation of the electric field, current and charge density in a pulse powered electrostatic duct-type precipitator, in the presence of dust. The proposed model is compared with the classical steady-state model, used in the past: while the old model shows nonphysical bumps and discontinuity, the new approach predicts the natural transient behaviour of electrical quantities. The partial differential equations governing the transient phenomena are solved by means of an implicit-explicit FDTD method, which ensures a fast computation. The obtained results, compared with experimental values, show a good accuracy of the presented method View full abstract»

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  • Aero-dynamical motion of charged droplets ejected from the 26 μm nozzle [continuous jet printing]

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1845 - 1850 vol.3
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    Although bubble jet and some other on-demand type ink jet printers have become popular, the continuous jet printing system has more wide applicability in droplet handling systems. The authors have investigated this type of ink jet system with a 39 μm nozzle. Since smaller droplets are preferable for color and/or gradation printing, they stepped into the use of 26 μm nozzles. The experimental system is basically the same as the 39 μm system and the aerodynamical behaviour of droplets was examined by changing various parameters such as frequency, pressure, vibration voltage to nozzle and charging voltage. As the tip of jet should stay within the region of the charging electrode and the droplet train has to be stable, a vibrating frequency of 80 kHz and a voltage of 20 Vp-p were chosen, The pressure applied to the reservoir was 300 kPa or 350 kPa. Experimental results revealed that the aerodynamic effect on droplets is much stronger than those of the 39 μm nozzle View full abstract»

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  • Dielectrophoretic force measurements in yeast cells by the Stokes method

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 2012 - 2018 vol.3
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    A chamber and method for the measurement of dielectrophoretic (DEP) force in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is described. The physical method uses the Stokes drag force and a V-shaped chamber. Velocity measurements were induced over the frequency range of between 50 kHz and 5 MHz for a suspending medium of 2.2 mS/m in conductivity. Average values of DEP force and effective polarizability have been determined from the velocity measurements. Experimental data with single cells confirm the theoretical expression for the axial profile of the electric field. The results show that this method-and-chamber system is an accurate tool for measuring of DEP force over single cells. Population data of 129 cells confirm the theory showing that the DEP velocity distribution density of the population is similar to the cellular “square radius” View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Joule heating on EHD-enhanced natural convection in an enclosure

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1851 - 1858 vol.3
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    Electrohydrodynamically enhanced natural convection in an enclosure is numerically examined in this paper with a particular interest on the effects of Joule heating. Attention has also been focused on the stability of the flow and temperature fields under the influence of an electric field. Calculations have covered a wide range of parameters, i.e., 10⩽V0⩽17.5 kV and 109⩽Ra⩽106. Results which include the transient variation of isotherm and streamline patterns as well as a parameterization of the Nusselt vs. Rayleigh number relation in terms of the electrical field conditions are presented View full abstract»

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  • The effect of measuring system accuracy on power quality measurements in electrical arc furnaces

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 2151 - 2155 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    With more stringent power quality requirements imposed by electric utilities on electrical furnace operators, the accurate measurement of electrical parameters becomes more important. The overall performance of a power quality measurement system is a function of the accuracy of all of its transducers. This paper, through the use of measured electrical arc furnace data, investigates the sensitivity of power quality calculations to the dynamics of instrument transformers and sampling devices. Improved accuracy in measurements with real-time digital compensating filters is demonstrated using the furnace data View full abstract»

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  • A novel real-time fuzzy-based diagnostic system of roll eccentricity influence in finishing hot strip mills

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 2117 - 2124 vol.3
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    This paper proposes a method for the diagnosis of roll eccentricity influence on the strip thickness at the exit of a finishing hot strip mill (FHSM). Each exit strip thickness defect is related to one roll of the FHSM, allowing the implementation of an optimal policy for the substitution and maintenance of the rolls, while maintaining the required quality level of the strip. This policy allows the minimization of roll changes and the concentration of several changes at the same time, reducing production costs. Fuzzy logic is used to compare spectra, looking for common patterns, which enables a totally-automated diagnostic system. Likewise, as part of the solution, a novel estimate of roll eccentricity, based on a least-squares algorithm has been developed, which provides higher accuracy than classical algorithms as well as a drastic reduction in the time required to perform eccentricity tests View full abstract»

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  • The impact of the air conditioning load on the economy of electric power systems

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 2224 - 2229 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    This paper addresses the energy efficient technologies as applied to power system economy, together with their direct impact on the environment. It deals with the simulation of the daily load curve of electric power networks in the presence of an air conditioning load, taking into account the power system's peak load, its load factor, the magnitude and the starting time point of the A/C load as well as its duration. If combined with an assumed fuel characteristic of the power network, the daily fuel consumption cost can be obtained. By means of a detailed parameter study on a sample power system, the impact of the air conditioning load component on the system's daily cost is illustrated and discussed. Moreover, the economic feasibility of applying two suggested control strategies of the air-conditioning load aiming at reducing the system's fuel consumption, is investigated View full abstract»

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  • Safety issues and the use of software-controlled equipment in the mining industry

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 2084 - 2090 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB)  

    Equipment control functions that were once hardwired are being implemented with software and very large scale integrated (VLSI) devices. Often this transition has resulted in increased flexibility, improved quality and decreased costs. At the same time, it has created new concerns and challenges concerning worker safety. The visible and well-defined ladder diagram for relay-logic has been replaced by programs in which the exact outcome for varied inputs can be more obscure. In the coal mining industry, efforts to automate longwall mining systems have resulted in semiautonomous machines operating within the same space as workers. This paper describes an effort initiated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to identify the safety issues related to the use of processor-controlled equipment in mining. Specific findings in the areas of human factors, hardware and software safety are presented in this paper, and a brief description of a plan to address identified weaknesses is given View full abstract»

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  • Multiple-needle corona electrodes for electrostatic processes application

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1811 - 1816 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Corona from high-voltage electrodes is employed in various electrostatic installations, such as: ozonizers, air filters, powder sprayers, separators. Multiple-needle electrode designs are preferred whenever low corona onset voltage and good resistance to mechanical shocks are required. The present work aims at identifying a simple solution to overcome the main drawback of this type of electrode: the nonuniformity of the generated space-charge. The experiments were carried out with various models of electrodes, having one or several rows of stainless steel needles. A current probe, consisting of an enameled copper wire (diameter: 0.4 mm), was embedded in the center of a plane collecting electrode. For a given inter-electrode distance (5 to 50 mm) and a fixed position of the multiple-needle electrode, the collecting plate was translated along two orthogonal directions, so that the current probe could scan a 75 mm×75 mm square. The results depended on the inter-electrode distance and on the high-voltage level. An explanation is given to some observations made on a roll-type electrostatic separator provided with two models of multiple-needle corona electrodes. An improved electrode design was proposed for the industrial installations View full abstract»

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