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Industry Applications Conference, 1997. Thirty-Second IAS Annual Meeting, IAS '97., Conference Record of the 1997 IEEE

Date 5-9 Oct. 1997

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  • Conference Record Of The 1997 IEEE Industry Applications Conference Thirty-second Ias Annual Meeting

    Page(s): i - xxxiv
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Index of authors

    Page(s): 0_3 - 0_8
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    Presents an index of the authors whose papers are published in the conference. View full abstract»

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  • The study on NOx removal by superimposing barrier discharges

    Page(s): 1950 - 1955 vol.3
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    Recently, air pollution has been a serious problem; photochemical smog and acid rain are typical phenomena. NOx is one of these air pollution substances and is a poisonous gas. A reduction in NOx emissions is therefore desirable. However, the density of NOx in the atmosphere remains at a stable level or worsens. The authors propose a new reactor whose that gap area is filled with glass beads, allowing surface and silent discharges to be generated simultaneously in the same space. In this paper, the removal of NOx from a dry NO/N2 mixed gas by barrier discharge among the glass beads in the reactor is experimentally investigated. The experiments are carried out at a frequency of 50 Hz, applied voltage from 0 to 20 kVpp and gas flow rate from 0.4 to 1.4 L/min View full abstract»

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  • Plasma-assisted chemical reactor for NOx decomposition

    Page(s): 1956 - 1960 vol.3
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    Nonthermal plasma technologies have been investigated for the control of NOx flue gas emissions. Previous results have shown that nonthermal plasma is able to reduce NO but cannot convert NO 2 effectively. In addition, part of the NO2 is reduced by N to form N2O. Several hydrocarbon additives, catalysts and water film combined with the nonthermal plasma process, have been investigated to enhance NOx reduction, but NOx reduction has been limited to the 70% range. As an alternative technology, the plasma-assisted chemical reactor was investigated plasma to convert NO to NO2 and the chemical reduction process to convert NO2 to N2. Three types of plasma reactors were investigated and nearly 100% NOx decomposition was achieved with minimum N2O formation View full abstract»

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  • Application guidelines for instantaneous trip circuit breakers in combination motor starters

    Page(s): 2252 - 2260 vol.3
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    This paper addresses the application of instantaneous trip, molded-case circuit breakers in combination with motor starters. These circuit breakers have been used widely in many industries for motor circuit protection. If not properly applied, situations of false tripping on motor starting and contact welding of contactors under low level faults may occur. High efficiency motors compound the issue of false tripping on motor starting. This paper discusses the components of combination starters, reviews testing requirements and provides examples of coordination with an analysis of application issues and solution options View full abstract»

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  • Multiple-needle corona electrodes for electrostatic processes application

    Page(s): 1811 - 1816 vol.3
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    Corona from high-voltage electrodes is employed in various electrostatic installations, such as: ozonizers, air filters, powder sprayers, separators. Multiple-needle electrode designs are preferred whenever low corona onset voltage and good resistance to mechanical shocks are required. The present work aims at identifying a simple solution to overcome the main drawback of this type of electrode: the nonuniformity of the generated space-charge. The experiments were carried out with various models of electrodes, having one or several rows of stainless steel needles. A current probe, consisting of an enameled copper wire (diameter: 0.4 mm), was embedded in the center of a plane collecting electrode. For a given inter-electrode distance (5 to 50 mm) and a fixed position of the multiple-needle electrode, the collecting plate was translated along two orthogonal directions, so that the current probe could scan a 75 mm×75 mm square. The results depended on the inter-electrode distance and on the high-voltage level. An explanation is given to some observations made on a roll-type electrostatic separator provided with two models of multiple-needle corona electrodes. An improved electrode design was proposed for the industrial installations View full abstract»

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  • Triboelectric separation of granular materials

    Page(s): 1724 - 1729 vol.3
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    Triboelectric separation of granular materials is based on either the difference in electrical resistivity of the materials or on the difference in their effective work functions. We discuss here triboelectric separation based on different work functions of the materials. In this case, two granular materials to be separated from each other must acquire electrostatic charges of opposite polarity when tribocharged against a surface of a third material. While triboelectric separation of materials has been well documented in literature, the fundamental mechanisms of electrostatic charging and separation remain poorly understood primarily because of our lack of understanding of the electronic surface structures of particulate materials. The molecular orbital structures of the surface atoms of insulating and semiconducting powders exposed to moisture and contaminants are often unpredictable; as a result, experimental studies are needed to determine charging characteristics of the materials under different ambient conditions. We present here results of our studies on separating coal particles from mineral impurities for coal powders charged in a copper static charger. A parallel plate-separator was used for beneficiation of coal and experimental data are presented on the sulfur content of the powder samples taken from the “clean plate” and the “refuse plate”. The effects of moisture content and exposure to oxygen on the charging level are discussed with experimental data View full abstract»

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  • Control of byproduct distributions in plasma chemical processing of hazardous air pollutants

    Page(s): 1961 - 1968 vol.3
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    Plasma chemical behavior of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (Cl 2C=CCl2, Cl2C=CHCl, Cl3C-CH 3, Cl2CH-CH2Cl, CH3Cl, and CH3Br), their molecular probes (CH4, CH3-CH3, and CH2=CH2), and the carbon oxides was investigated with a ferroelectric packed-bed plasma reactor to obtain information on the formation of carbon oxides and N2O. If has been shown that the oxidation of CO to CO2 is a slow reaction in plasma, and that CO and CO2 mainly result from different precursors. The control of COx selectivities is rather difficult at this stage. The process of N 2O formation is affected by HAP structures and oxygen concentration. In the decomposition of olefinic HAPs such as Cl2 C=CCl2 and Cl2C=CHCl, residence time reduction is effective in suppressing N2O formation. In the cases of CH3Cl and CH3Br, low specific energy density operations could be necessary to reduce N2O concentrations. The yields and selectivities of CO, CO2, and N2O change drastically by adding only 2% of oxygen to N2 and oxygen concentration is not a good factor to control these inorganic oxides View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatic actuation of liquid droplets for micro-reactor applications

    Page(s): 1867 - 1873 vol.3
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    A device for the electrostatic actuation of liquid droplets on a solid surface is developed. Arrays of electrodes are micro-fabricated on a substrate, which is covered by a hydrophobic layer. Wafer droplets, typically μl in volume, takes a spherical shape on the surface, and are actuated dielectrophoretically by switching the voltage applied to the electrode array. Transportation of droplets, deflecting a droplet in either of the bifurcating paths, and the mixing of two droplets by collision are experimentally demonstrated. The device can be used for a micro chemical reactor where transport, sorting and mixing of reagents constitute basic unit-operations View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of two-stage type electrostatic precipitator reentrainment phenomena under diesel flue gases

    Page(s): 1737 - 1743 vol.3
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    One electrostatic precipitator (ESP) application is cleaning the air and increasing the visibility index in highway tunnels. The main particles found in highway tunnels are made of carbon. ESP collection efficiency of a certain particle diameter is often negative when the ESP collects carbon particles of low resistance. This means that the number of particles downstream is greater than that of the number of particles upstream of the ESP. Generally, this phenomenon is explained by the reentrainment of particles. In this work, experiments were performed to investigate the cause of the ESP negative particle collection efficiency. Experimental results show that the ESP negative particle collection efficiency is caused by a reentrainment of particles during ESP operation. The effect of gas flow velocity on the ESP collection efficiency was also investigated to clear the cause of reentrainment phenomena. The result shows that the reentrainment may depend on gas flow velocity, because the ESP collection efficiency for the larger particles increases with increasing gas flow velocity View full abstract»

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  • Experimental study and modeling of static electrification in power transformers

    Page(s): 1920 - 1926 vol.3
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    Static electrification has been suspected to be responsible for failures in power transformers (electric “tree” paths, “worm holes”...). The phenomenon consists of preferential adsorption of negative ions from the oil (impurities) into the pressboard. This yields on one hand a space charge in the oil which can relax in contact with grounded metallic walls and on the other hand a space charge in the pressboard which can accumulate depending on the leakage paths. As part of a research program at Electricite de France in the field of static electrification in transformers, an experiment has been carried out, at the University of Poitiers, to study the most constrained parts in a transformer with regard to this phenomenon: the insulated pressboards close to the oil inlet. For all that the experimental loop consists in impinging an immersed oil jet on a pressboard target in which annular insulated electrodes have been inserted to determine the charge in the pressboard. Considering the scale effect, the equipment involves taking oil from an operating transformer and making it possible to study the influence of the flow velocity and the length of the free jet. From a first modeling compared to our experimental results it seems that the local wall current coming from the pressboard is proportional to the local wall shearing stress. On the other hand, considering the magnitude of the process, it finally turned out that this flow configuration increases greatly the charge generation process in comparison to a flow parallel to the pressboard View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to advanced cold mill drive systems

    Page(s): 2125 - 2130 vol.3
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    This report describes an advanced 1000 kVA AC cold mill drive systems in a modern steel manufacturing facility. The presented systems consist of an AC-to-DC PWM power converter and two PWM inverters to drive each 700 kW induction motor, and all algorithms are implemented using a TMS 320C40 digital signal processor (DSP) system that provides high computing power by employing a high level of parallel processing. The displacement power factor of the input line current is always unity and total power factor including harmonics is higher than 98%. The common DC link voltage is regulated within 1% of its rated value regardless of input voltage fluctuation and output load transient. The system achieves 1:5 field weakening control range. The available speed control bandwidth of the motor is about 60 Hz and torque bandwidth is about 350 Hz. Since July 1997, it has been operating with full capacity at Pohang steel mill company (Posco) in Kwang-yang, Korea View full abstract»

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  • VAI blast furnace automation-a powerful solution for highest production economy

    Page(s): 2182 - 2186 vol.3
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    Permanently increasing cost pressure in the iron and steel industry means that cost-optimized operation and highest production quality along the entire process route are the key factors for competitive and profitable production. This is particularly true in the blast furnace sector where hot metal production costs are determined by the factors of: productivity; fuel consumption; selection of raw materials; and hot metal quality. Because these factors have an inverse effect upon each other, improvements in one area generally mean less favorable results in the other areas. It is also obvious that the overall operational objectives, the market, existing blast furnace equipment as well as operational know how additionally play an important role in defining the production strategy. It is therefore only through the application of an optimized automation system that the maximum potential for cost savings in blast furnace operation can be achieved. The VAI blast furnace process automation solution is introduced, which allows for simultaneous cost reductions and/or improvements in all of the above four areas, i.e. higher blast furnace productivity, lower fuel consumption, lower raw material costs and improved hot metal quality View full abstract»

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  • A unity power factor electronic ballast for fluorescent lighting

    Page(s): 2366 - 2371 vol.3
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    This paper describes a high power factor electronic ballast for fluorescent lamps. The converter offers a high power factor and high-frequency supply to the lamp. In spite of its simplicity an excellent performance concerning load and supply is achieved, ensuring a sinusoidal and in-phase supply current. High power factor is achieved by using a flyback converter operating in discontinuous-conduction mode. Operating principle, design equations, control characteristics, component stress, and efficiency are presented. Experimental results have been obtained for one 40 W fluorescent lamp operating at 50 kHz switching frequency and 220 V line voltage View full abstract»

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  • Fundamental study of an electrostatic chuck for silicon wafer handling

    Page(s): 1998 - 2003 vol.3
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    A mechanical holding system of a wafer might cause a serious problem in the semiconductor industry. Electrostatic wafer handling might be one of the possible solutions for such a problem. We have investigated the attractive force on a silicon wafer by using the electrostatic chuck which consists of interdigitated electrodes and a dielectric thin film. Electrostatic attractive force increases, as the applied voltage increases, and with thinner dielectric layer. The narrower width and spacing of interdigitated electrodes, the stronger electrostatic force is obtained. When the 1 mm width interdigitated electrodes and 50 μm thick film are used, the strongest force obtained was about 17 N in the vertical direction at 3.5 kV, for a 4" silicone wafer. When DC high voltage is used, some residual force remains even after the applied voltage is removed. This was overcome by using variable frequency AC high voltage View full abstract»

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  • Destruction of volatile organic compounds in air by a superimposed barrier discharge plasma reactor and activated carbon filter hybrid system

    Page(s): 1969 - 1974 vol.3
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    The superimposed barrier discharge and activated carbon filter hybrid systems are used to remove toluene and trichloro-ethylene (TCE) from air streams. The superimposed barrier discharge consists of silent and surface discharges. Experiments are conducted for the gas flow rate from 1 to 10 L/min., applied power from 0 to 7 W and toluene and TCE initial concentration from 0 to 2,000 ppm for 60 Hz AC applied voltage conditions. Discharge byproducts are measured by FTIR, GC and TLV VOC detector. The results shows that: (1) toluene decomposition rate monotonically increases with increasing applied power; (2) approximately 90% of toluene is removed by plasma reactors alone and up to 98% is removed by hybrid systems; (3) TCE removal rate by hybrid system is 90% and up to 50% is removed by a discharge reactor alone; (4) the pressure drop of the reactor and carbon filter increase with increasing gas flow rate; (5) TCE decomposition to form CO2, H2O and Cl2 and except CO2 and H2O these discharge byproducts are absorbed in activated carbon filters; (6) no COCl2, HCl, CO, NOx and O3 are observed in a discharge byproducts for the present range of experiments; and (7) the energy yield for toluene decompositions is up to 30 g/kWh, and up to 15 g/kWh for TCE decompositions View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatic effects on first pass transfer efficiency in the application of powder coatings

    Page(s): 1697 - 1704 vol.3
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    Two important process conditions desired in most powder coating applications are: a high first pass transfer efficiency (FPTE) and uniformity of the powder layer covering the surface to be coated. Both of these desired outcomes are influenced by the electrostatic properties of powder and electrostatic parameters involved in the spraying process. An FPTE, greater than 90 percent may eliminate the need for recycling of the overspray in some applications, thereby, permitting fast color changes. Many industries are unable to switch from solvent based coatings to powder coatings because of the long color-change time required in current powder coating processes, To obtain a high FPTE, a clear understanding of the electrostatic phenomena involved in the process is desired, but the complexity of the process, particularly such conflicting requirements between high FPTE and strong adhesion of the powder layer, between high current density for charging and elimination of back corona require optimization of the process based on theoretical and experimental investigations. This paper describes relationships between FPTE and (1) ion current density and (2) particle size distribution (PSD). Theoretical relationships between process parameters and electrostatic effects and how process conditions can be optimized for a high FPTE and uniformity of the powder layer are discussed with experimental results. Possible empirical steps that can be used to optimize FPTE are presented View full abstract»

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  • The effect of corona wire heating and geometry on ozone generation in a negative ion air cleaner

    Page(s): 1744 - 1749 vol.3
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    The effect of corona wire surface temperature and geometry on the ozone generation and negative ion emission in a negative ion air cleaner is studied experimentally. The results show that corona wire heating can suppress the ozone generation; however, this increases the corona current. A trade-off effect of corona wire surface temperature and corona current exists; the specific value of ozone concentration against negative ion current is affected by the wire surface temperature and geometry and decreases with an increase in wire surface temperature, the size of grounded screen holes and electrodes space and a reduction in wire diameter View full abstract»

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  • Collection efficiency of ultrafine particles by an electrostatic precipitator under DC and pulse operating modes

    Page(s): 1730 - 1736 vol.3
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    High particle collection efficiency in terms of particle weight volume mg/m3 is well achieved by a conventional electrostatic precipitator (ESP). However, the collection efficiencies in terms of number density for the ultrafine (particle size between 0.01 to 0.1 μm) or submicron particles by a conventional ESP are still relatively low. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the collection efficiency for ultrafine particles. In this work, attempts have been made to improve the ultrafine particle collection efficiency using the short pulse energizations. The present version of ESP consists of three sets of wire plate type electrodes. For ESP under DC operation modes, experimental results show that the collection efficiency for DC applied voltage decreases with increasing dust loading when particle density is larger than 2.5×1010 part/m3. For ESP under pulse operating modes, the particle collection efficiency increases with increasing pulse peak voltage until 25 kV then decreases with increasing pulse peak voltage. The ultrafine particle collection efficiency based on particle density by DC energizations is much higher compared with pulse energizations without DC bias may be due to the reentrainments of ultrafine particles View full abstract»

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  • Electrical characteristics of an electrostatic valve used for bulk transport of agricultural seeds

    Page(s): 1927 - 1933 vol.3
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    In an electrostatic valve used for bulk transport of agricultural seeds the inter particulate electroclamping forces can be established by applying electric potential gradient between a separated pair of conducting electrode grids placed perpendicularly across the flow. The flow control of particulate material is thus achieved using no moving parts. When an electric field is applied, several types of electric field forces are generated depending on the bulk and surface resistivities of the particles, the geometry of the electrodes, the applied field and the geometry and the conductivity of the materials used for the transport channel. In this study the current-voltage characteristics of the valve was experimentally investigated for different flow control parameters. The triboelectrification of turnip seeds caused by the frictional contact on the channel walls was investigated and compared with the valve current. A range of wall liner materials with different electrical properties conductive to insulating were tested. The materials used for the wall liner did not significantly influence the current characteristics of the electrostatic valve. The effect of pulse duration of the applied potential on charge-to-mass ratio of the discharged material was studied. The results obtained show that the level of net charge acquired by the particles could be controlled by controlling the duty cycle of the electroclamping field View full abstract»

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  • A new model for high-frequency electronic ballast design

    Page(s): 2334 - 2339 vol.3
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    A new simple model has been developed which allows for rapid design and component selection for the output stage of high-frequency electronic ballasts. The model predicts pre-heat, ignition and running conditions based on fluorescent lamp manufacturer's specifications. This approach is presently being used to design commercial high-frequency electronic ballasts View full abstract»

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  • VAI's new efficient solution for controlling the mechanical properties of hot rolled strip

    Page(s): 2131 - 2136 vol.3
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    The system of VOEST-ALPINE Industrieanlagenbau GmbH (VAI) for Computer Aided Quality Prediction and Control (CAQP/C) allows the accurate online prediction of the quality parameters of hot rolled steel strip. It was developed in close cooperation with one of Europe's best steel producers VOEST-ALPINE STAHL LINZ (VASL) and is in the implementation stage at the hot strip mill (HSM) of VASL. The system calculates the quality parameters for strip segments by means of physical and metallurgical models of the hot rolling process. The input parameters for the CAQP/C are the actual production conditions, which are continuously tracked and recorded. The system covers the HSM process steps from the reheating furnaces to the coiling with an interface to the steel making. The predicted quality parameters comprehend the most relevant mechanical properties such as yield stress, tensile strength etc.. So far the focus is on low carbon and microalloyed steel grades. The motivation for this future oriented technological development was reduction of sampling costs, quality prediction for the entire strip length, thickness and width and the optimization of the production conditions. The extension of the system for the fully automatic online control and correction of the quality parameters is the target of the next step, which is already scheduled View full abstract»

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  • Frequency and duration of voltage sags and surges at industrial sites-Canadian National Power Quality Survey

    Page(s): 2189 - 2196 vol.3
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    The occurrence of voltage sags and surges originating on the primary and secondary sides of industrial facilities can disrupt continuous and noncontinuous industrial computer processes, a costly issue for society. This paper attempts to answer several questions concerning the frequency and duration of voltage sags and surges posed by industrial customers. The answers to these questions are based on Canadian national survey results of the frequency and duration of voltage sags and surges at industrial sites monitored at their utilization voltage levels (e.g., 120, 347 V) and on the utility primary side of their facilities. The survey results provide a knowledge base for monitoring, designing and utilizing voltage sag and surge mitigating technologies View full abstract»

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  • Ripple-free, single-stage electronic ballasts with dither-booster power factor corrector

    Page(s): 2372 - 2379 vol.3
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    A general approach to synthesizing single-stage inverters (SSIs) with power factor correction is first presented and an application example of electronic ballast with dither boost is then addressed in the paper. The proposed method is based on the concept of dither-effect from which eligible power factor corrector (PFC) cells can be generated. Existing inverters associated with proper PFC cells to form SSIs can fulfil power factor correction and its original function. In particular, many families of SSIs are developed, which have not been discussed in literature. To further reduce the system cost and size, a coupling inductor is employed to achieve ripple-free input current. A typical application of an electronic ballast with the proposed ripple-free PFC is analyzed. Simulation and measured results from the system with four GE TBX 26 W compact fluorescent lamps have demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed approach to single-stage electronic ballast applications View full abstract»

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  • Photocell enhanced technique for measuring starting electrode temperatures of fluorescent lamps

    Page(s): 2313 - 2333 vol.3
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    This report discusses a photocell enhanced technique which evaluates the lamp-ballast compatibility relationship during the starting and operating scenario of fluorescent lamps. This technique, which fundamentally uses the dynamic RH/RC protocol, can certainly be used for preheat and rapid start type circuitry with either low frequency electromagnetic or high frequency electronic ballasts. It may also be used to evaluate instant start type circuits by analyzing the start time and sputtering characteristics of the starting signatures. The signatures of the F40T12 lamp using the conventional two-lamp rapid start ballast are discussed along with the signatures of other linear and CFL type fluorescent lamps using high frequency electronic ballasts. Examples of good and bad waveshapes are discussed with an explanation of why they are so interpreted View full abstract»

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