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Proceedings of 1997 Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics

19-22 Oct. 1997

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  • Proceedings of 1997 Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics

    Publication Year: 1997
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (40 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A pitch-based approach to time-delay estimation of reverberant speech

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)

    Generalized cross-correlation (GCC) has been the traditional method for estimating the relative time-delay associated with speech signals received by a pair of microphones in a reverberant, noisy environment. The filtering criterion employed is either focussed on the signal degradations due to additive noise or those due exclusively to multipath channel effects. There has been relatively little su... View full abstract»

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  • Single-ended spatial enhancement using a cross-coupled lattice equalizer

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB)

    A stereophonic enhancement system is described which expands the perceived width of the stereo sound image. The system accepts electrical audio signals comprising a two-channel (left and right) stereo pair and produces enhanced left and right stereo signals for use with conventional two-channel audio recording and playback systems. The system includes control circuitry which monitors the dissimila... View full abstract»

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  • Superdirective microphone array for a set-top videoconferencing system

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB)

    In set-top videoconferencing, the complete videoconferencing system fits unobtrusively on top of the television. The microphone sound pickup system is one of the most important functional blocks with constraints of small size, high performance, and low cost. Persons speaking several feet away from the system must be picked up satisfactorily while noise generated internally in the system by the coo... View full abstract»

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  • Auditory segregation of vowel-like sounds with static and dynamic spectral properties

    Publication Year: 1997
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the extent to which a fundamental frequency or formant frequency transition influenced segregation of a simultaneous pair of single-formant harmonic complexes. Results showed that even a minute transition facilitated segregation. The effect was larger for formant frequency than fundamental frequency transitions. It is concluded that dynamic aspects of speech... View full abstract»

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  • Removal of low frequency transient noise from old recordings using model-based signal separation techniques

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)

    This paper is concerned with the removal of low frequency transient noise from old gramophone recordings and film sound tracks. Low frequency transients occur as a result of large breakages or discontinuities in the recorded medium which excite a long-term resonance in the playback apparatus. We present a signal separation-based approach to this problem. Audio signals and noise transients are mode... View full abstract»

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  • Sound localization of concurrent and continuous speech sources in reverberant environment

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB)

    This paper presents a model-based method for sound localization of concurrent and continuous speech sources in a reverberant environment. A new algorithm adopted from the echo-avoidance model of the precedence effect was used to detect the echo-free onsets by specifying a generalized pattern of impulse response. Fine structure time differences were calculated from the zero-crossing points in diffe... View full abstract»

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  • Modeling the Haas effect: a first step for solving the CASA problem

    Publication Year: 1997
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB)

    Auditory scene analysis and its older cousin, the Haas/precedence effect both involve the same acoustic and auditory phenomena. In each case it is necessary to explain the ear's ability both to hear and pay attention to sources within a background of reverberations. Thus, a successful model of the Haas effect should be capable of being extended to CASA applications. We present a model based on a v... View full abstract»

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  • Head tracked 3-D audio using loudspeakers

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB)

    Existing loudspeaker 3-D audio systems suffer from a fixed listening location. This paper proposes using a head tracker to steer the equalization zone to the position of the tracked listener. Sound localization experiments show that this strategy greatly improves localization when the listener is displaced from the ideal listening location, and also enables dynamic localization cues View full abstract»

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  • Mixed nearfield/farfield beamforming: a new technique for speech acquisition in a reverberant environment

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB)

    In designing a microphone array for speech acquisition in a reverberant room, one is often faced with a mixed nearfield/farfield design problem, i.e., design a beamformer which can focus on a nearfield source, but which simultaneously can cancel room reverberation (which is typically modeled as isotropic farfield interference). This paper presents a new technique to solve such a problem. Using the... View full abstract»

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  • Warped filters and their audio applications

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)

    An inherent property of many DSP algorithms is that they tend to exhibit uniform frequency resolution from zero to the Nyquist frequency. This is a direct consequence of using unit delays as building blocks; a frequency independent delay implies uniform frequency resolution. In audio applications, however, this is often an undesirable feature since the response properties are typically specified a... View full abstract»

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  • Pulse tracking with a pitch tracker

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)

    A comparison of two models for processing sound is presented: the perceptually-based pitch model of Meddis and Hewitt (1991), and a vocoder model for rhythmic analysis by Scheirer. Similarities in the methods are noted, and it is demonstrated that the pitch model is also adequate for extracting the tempo of acoustic signals. The implications of this finding for perceptual models and signal process... View full abstract»

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  • Design of a broadside array for a binaural hearing aid

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB)

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a binaural directional hearing aid. This hearing aid consists of a microphone array of five directional microphones integrated into the front of a pair of spectacles. The signals of the microphones are processed with the aid of double beamforming into a left-ear and a right-ear signal. The directivity pattern of the left-ear signal has its main... View full abstract»

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  • A combined approach for broadband noise reduction

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)

    This paper deals with broadband noise reduction for the restoration of audio recordings. The signals are processed in the frequency domain using the short-time Fourier transform. A method based on non-linear spectral subtraction is presented. To prevent the annoying phenomenon of musical noise which is caused by the noise suppression process, over-subtraction is applied to the degraded signal spec... View full abstract»

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  • Voice source localization for automatic camera pointing system in videoconferencing

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)

    This paper describes the voice source localization algorithm used in the PictureTel automatic camera pointing system (LimeLightTM , dynamic speech locating technology). The system uses an array of 46 cm wide and 30 cm high, which contains 4 microphones, and is mounted on top of the monitor. The three dimensional position of a sound source is calculated from the time delays of 4 pairs of... View full abstract»

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  • Filter bank constraints for subband and frequency-domain adaptive filters

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB)

    For many years now, subband and frequency-domain adaptive filtering techniques have been proposed for the cancellation of long acoustic echoes. Classical LMS based algorithms are less attractive as their computation load is higher and the convergence behaviour for coloured far-end inputs is worse. We specify 3 realization conditions for DFT modulated subband schemes. Standard subband adaptive filt... View full abstract»

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  • Modeling binaural auditory scene analysis by a temporal fuzzy cluster analysis approach

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)

    The psychophysical based modeling approach of computational auditory scene analysis helps to understand the human auditory system and contributes to the improvement of technical acoustical systems, e.g. hearing aids and hands free telephony. In the present paper the primitive auditory scene analysis (Bregman 1990) is characterized as a cluster analysis problem. This leads to a system based on a te... View full abstract»

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  • Efficient blind separation of convolved sound mixtures

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB)

    We present an extension to recent approaches to blind source separation. Bell and Sejnowski (see Neural Computation 7, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA., 1996) proposed a robust algorithm for separating instantaneous mixtures. Extensions were proposed by Torkkola (see IEEE Workshop on Neural Networks for Signal Processing, Kyoto, Japan, 1996) and Lee et al. (See Advances in Neural Information Processing S... View full abstract»

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  • Compression circuit of a multiband analog system for hearing aid

    Publication Year: 1997
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a circuit which performs the compression of narrow-band signals within a multiband analog system for a hearing aid. The system has twelve narrow-band modules. Each module is formed by four stages. The first stage is a band-pass filter which selects the bandwidth of the module. The second stage, the object of this paper, is a compression circuit whi... View full abstract»

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  • Range-dependence of the HRTF for a spherical head

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB)

    This paper examines the range dependence of the head-related transfer function (HRTF) for a simple spherical model of the head in both the time-domain and the frequency domain. The variation of low-frequency interaural level difference (ILD) with range is shown to be significant for ranges smaller than five times the sphere radius. The impulse response explains the source of the ripples in the fre... View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary processes in speech production

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)

    Several techniques used in the analysis of dynamic nonlinear systems are applied in order to evidence and analyse some of the short-term nonlinear nonstationary characteristics of speech signal production. A new method of speech signal decomposition is introduced View full abstract»

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  • Optimum near-field response for microphone arrays

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)

    This paper describes the effects of optimizing the weights of an arbitrary microphone array for near-field target locations. Optimum near-field weights are shown to provide increased gain for near-field sources when compared to a uniformly weighted delay-and-sum beamformer. Practical improvements in array gain due to constrained optimization are shown to be greatest at locations close to the array... View full abstract»

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  • The one-filter Keefe clarinet tonehole

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)

    Two “one-filter” scattering junctions are derived which provide very accurate models of woodwind toneholes in the context of a digital waveguide model. Because toneholes in the clarinet possess only one resonance and/or anti-resonance within the audio band, a second-order digital filter suffices View full abstract»

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  • Some properties of tail-canceling IIR filters

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB)

    Infinite impulse response (IIR) recursive linear digital filters are widely used because of their low computational cost and low storage overhead requirements. Finite impulse response (FIR) filters, on the other hand, allow the possibility of implementing linear-phase linear digital filters which have constant group delay across all frequencies. The tradeoff is that to achieve similar magnitude tr... View full abstract»

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  • Virtual-loudspeakers-based multichannel sound system

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB)

    We investigate the 3D virtual-loudspeakers-based multichannel sound system. This system uses the HRTFs (head related transfer functions) as the directional perception cues and makes the transmission paths transparent by using the crosstalk cancellers. We propose both the forward and feedback types of crosstalk cancellation systems and compare their complexities and performance such as equalization... View full abstract»

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