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Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition

18-20 Aug. 1997

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  • Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):III - XX
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • CONFERENCE REPORT: ICDAR '97

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 1112
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):A1 - A7
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A psychomotor method for tracking handwriting

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):528 - 531 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)

    The paper proposes a model for tracking handwriting based on curvature minimization. Aiming at recovering stroke sequences from words written in the past, the problem is formulated as a graph theoretical question. The solution does not require mathematical functions. In particular loops are considered elementary basic strokes and are not approximated with functions. Recovering stroke sequences is ... View full abstract»

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  • A new method for segmenting unconstrained handwritten numeral string

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):524 - 527 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)

    A new segmentation method for segmenting an unconstrained handwritten numeral string with an unknown number of digits is proposed, which is mainly based on recognition-based segmentation, combined with the dissection and holistic methods. The authors proposed an approach that gives a simple, effective way of selecting candidate segmentation positions by finding the start points and end points of l... View full abstract»

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  • Optical character recognition without segmentation

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):483 - 486 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)

    A segmentation-free approach for off-line optical character recognition is presented. The proposed method performs the recognition by extracting the characters from the whole word, avoiding the segmentation process. A control point set which includes position and attribute vectors is selected for the features. In the training mode, each sample character is mapped to a set of control points and is ... View full abstract»

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  • A Kalman approach for stroke order recovering from off-line handwriting

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):519 - 522 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)

    Non-constrained handwriting recognition is still faced with very difficult problems. However, on-line recognition methods exhibit better results than off-line methods which lose all temporal information. The aim of the work is to recover the strokes ordering from static 2-D images as it is inherently available from on-line systems. The approach is innovative because it uses extensively gray-level ... View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear shape normalization methods for gray-scale handwritten character recognition

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):479 - 482 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB)

    Proposes nonlinear shape normalization methods for gray-scale handwritten characters in order to minimize the loss of information caused by binarization and to compensate for the shape distortions of characters. A 2D linear interpolation technique has been extended to nonlinear space and the extended interpolation technique has been adopted in the proposed methods to enhance the quality of the nor... View full abstract»

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  • Handwritten ZIP code recognition

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):766 - 770 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)

    The encoding of delivery point code (DPC) for a handwritten address is one of the most complex problems of the US mail delivery automation. This paper describes a real-time system intended to recognize the 5-digit ZIP code part of DPC. To increase the system performance the results of ZIP code recognition are cross-validated with those of city and state name recognition. The main principles of the... View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of Gaussian distribution and polynomial classifiers in a hidden Markov model based system for the recognition of cursive script

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):515 - 518 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)

    Handwriting recognition systems based on hidden Markov models commonly use a vector quantizer to get the required symbol sequence. In order to get better recognition rates semi-continuous hidden Markov models have been applied. Those recognizers need a soft vector quantizer which superimposes a statistical distribution for symbol generation. In general, Gaussian distributions are applied. A disadv... View full abstract»

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  • An Image Consulting Framework for document analysis of Internet graphics

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):819 - 822 vol.2
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)

    A new system approach for image understanding, called the Image Consulting Framework, is proposed. It allows for the validation of image properties. The kinds of image properties considered are textual, textural, hierarchical, color and symbolic. Its main application field is information filtering from images used in World Wide Web documents. The Image Consulting Framework consists of four stages:... View full abstract»

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  • Low quality string recognition for factory automation

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):475 - 478 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)

    Describes a method for dot-printed character string recognition on a piece of steel for factory automation. Our scanned string consists of alphanumerics and the `-' character, and the number of characters is variable from 6 to 12 characters. We propose a new recognition procedure for low-quality strings. The procedure includes image emphasis with a Gaussian Laplacian filter, the extraction of the ... View full abstract»

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  • From acquisition to modelisation of a form base to retrieve information

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):762 - 765 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB)

    This article deals with the description of a module for information structure extraction. This module is applied to forms which are used by the CAF, the French National Family Allowance Department, Caisse d'Allocations Familiales. The aim of this module is to create a base of information structures (models) defining their forms and their content so as to be able to deal with them automatically. Th... View full abstract»

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  • Two-dimensional extension of nonlinear normalization method using line density for character recognition

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):511 - 514 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB)

    Some of the authors previously proposed a few nonlinear normalization methods using line density for handwritten characters and it was verified that those nonlinear methods were more effective than a linear method. Those nonlinear methods, however, could not use two-dimensional information of the line density, because the line density was projected onto the axes of coordinates. The paper proposes ... View full abstract»

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  • The retrieval of document images: a brief survey

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):945 - 949 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB)

    The economic feasibility of creating large databases of document images has left a tremendous need for robust ways to access the information these images contain. Printed documents are often scanned for archiving or an an attempt to move toward a paper-less office and stored as images, but without adequate index information. In order to make full use of the capabilities of traditional database ind... View full abstract»

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  • An architecture for musical score recognition using high-level domain knowledge

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):813 - 818 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)

    Proposes an original approach to musical score recognition, a particular case of high-level document analysis. In order to overcome the limitations of existing systems, we propose an architecture which allows for a continuous and bidirectional interaction between high-level knowledge and low-level data, and which is able to improve itself over time by learning. This architecture is made of three c... View full abstract»

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  • A probabilistic framework for combining multiple classifiers at abstract level

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):870 - 874 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB)

    Most previous studies assumed that classifiers behave independently. Such an assumption degrades and biases classification performance in the case of adding highly dependent classifiers. In order to overcome such a weakness, one should consider combining multiple classifiers in a probabilistic framework using a Bayesian formalism without the assumption. The probabilistic combination of K classifie... View full abstract»

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  • Handwritten numeral recognition using MFNN based multiexpert combination strategy

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):471 - 474 vol.2
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)

    A novel unconstrained numeral recognition system using an MFNN (multilayered feedforward neural net)-based multi-expert combination strategy is proposed. Taking advantage of every method's confidence value as well as its output label, this strategy can improve the system's performance significantly with as few as two experts. Another novel feature of the system is that the multi-expert combination... View full abstract»

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  • Form registration: a computer vision approach

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):758 - 761 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB)

    In this paper, a technique for extracting the distortion parameters in filled-in forms is presented. The technique determines the transformations that are required to convert a filled-in form to match a known master and then extracts filled-in information. The method involves determining corresponding lines and key points between the master and the filled-in form and using the correspondence to de... View full abstract»

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  • Structural character recognition using simulated annealing

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):507 - 510 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB)

    The authors propose a structural character recognition method using simulated annealing, where the dissimilarity between an input and a reference pattern is evaluated by matching stroke and loop objects extracted from these patterns. This method can compute the matching at a high-speed. It can also avoid an incorrect matching problem when a object is divided into several objects in a broken charac... View full abstract»

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  • On-line recognition of Renqun's handwritten shorthand

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):941 - 944 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB)

    A computer-based transcription system of Chinese Renqun shorthand is introduced in this paper. Shorthands are inputted from a writing tablet, after preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and coarse classification, artificial intelligence (AI) and dynamic programming (DP) methods are used to recognize the shorthands. Test results show that the development of a computer transcription system... View full abstract»

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  • Singularities and regularities on line pictures via symmetrical trapezoids

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):809 - 812 vol.2
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)

    An algorithm that decomposes a line image into singular and regular regions is presented. We define a contour trapezoid as the building block for the regular regions, and postulate a maximal trapezoid set as the core of the regular regions. Then, we describe an algorithm that calculates a maximal trapezoid set of a polygon and show how to use it to find a skeleton of a polygonal approximation of a... View full abstract»

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  • Machine and human recognition of segmented characters from handwritten words

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):866 - 869 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB)

    Handwritten character recognition by human readers, a statistical classifier, and a neural network is compared to know the required accuracy for handwritten word recognition. Sample characters extracted from postal address words on mail pieces collected by USPS were used to evaluate human and machine performance. Experimental results show that: 1) when the characters are segmented from words and a... View full abstract»

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  • Disconnected handwritten numeral image recognition

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):467 - 470 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB)

    Describes a method for numeral character recognition. Initially, the image of an unknown numeral is pre-processed, and two feature sets are compiled and used for numeral character recognition. The first feature set is compounded by topological characteristics and by characteristics obtained from a pictorial distribution analysis of numeral images. The second feature set is the proper set of numera... View full abstract»

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  • On distributed representation of output layer for recognizing Japanese Kana characters using neural networks

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):600 - 603 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)

    The paper presents an automatic coding scheme for representing the output layer of a neural network. Compared to local representation where the number of output unit is p, the number of output unit required for the proposed representation is close to logp. The output of seven different printers were used for evaluating the performance of the system. The proposed automatic representation gave the a... View full abstract»

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