Proceedings Second International Conference on Cognitive Technology Humanizing the Information Age

25-28 Aug. 1997

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  • Proceedings Second International Conference on Cognitive Technology Humanizing the Information Age

    Publication Year: 1997
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • On why the blind leading the blind is a good idea

    Publication Year: 1997
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (89 KB)

    Summary form only given. The paper reports on a project which addresses the problems faced by blind people in negotiating novel spaces. Various technologically sophisticated schemes have been proposed to help the blind in such circumstances. These range from the use of GPS satellites combined with hand-held microcomputers so that the blind user can get an accurate fix on his or her location, to th... View full abstract»

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  • A multifaceted Internet language environment for the hearing impaired

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (978 KB)

    Summary form only given. The paper explores the practical use of a tactile transducer to enhance speech communication for the hearing impaired utilizing a voice mail system. In spite of the recent technological developments in human machine interfaces, the world of the hearing impaired for speech perception and production hasn't had much improvement because of: 1) the lack of consensus and emphasi... View full abstract»

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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 279
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Making internal processes external for constructive collaboration

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):119 - 123
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)

    Information technology has the potential to promote joint creation of new ideas. It has become widely recognized that the workings of human cognitive processes heavily rely on physical externalisation of the interaction of those processes with outside environments, including other people in those environments. Such externalization takes various forms, from conversation, written texts, sketches and... View full abstract»

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  • The Intelligent Room project

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):271 - 278
    Cited by:  Papers (67)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1196 KB)

    At the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, we have been working on technologies for an Intelligent Room. Rather than pull people into the virtual world of the computer, we are trying to pull the computer out into the real world of people. To do this, we are combining robotics and vision technology with speech understanding systems and agent-based architectures to provide ready-at-hand computat... View full abstract»

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  • Action and reaction: computer-mediated dialogues as a model for natural interfaces

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):109 - 118
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (868 KB)

    We describe a study which examined the relationship between certain textual/discursive cues during computer mediated dialogues and correlations of these cues with two measures of impression formation: 1) a global positivity of impressions questionnaire; and 2) perceptions of six personality dimensions. The study also examined discourse phenomena emergent in the conversations. Undergraduates partic... View full abstract»

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  • Information retrieval and database architecture for conventional Japanese character dictionaries

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):200 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1568 KB)

    The cycle of abstraction-reconstruction, which occurs as a fundamental principle in the development of culture and in cognitive processes, is described and analyzed. This approach leads to recognition of boundary conditions for and directions of probable development of cognitive tools. It is shown how the transition from a conventional Japanese-English character dictionary to a multi-dimensional l... View full abstract»

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  • Designing the “Spatial Math Tutor”: a non-symbolic, on-line environment for teaching mathematical skills to dyslexic children

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):262 - 270
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB)

    New cognitive tools are needed to aid the human learner in overcoming barriers associated with diagnostically-identified cognitive deficits. This paper proposes the design of cognitive tools to enable more successful performance on specific mathematical tasks. The paper also considers the possible benefits of externalizing or spatializing the mental constructs underlying a cognitive task involving... View full abstract»

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  • Storytelling systems: constructing the innerface of the interface

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):98 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1068 KB)

    Although recent years have seen an explosion in educational technology, there is still a lack of computational tools specifically designed to encourage exploration of identity and communication issues. Storytelling is a good medium for this type of exploration as it enables reflection about the inner world. The paper presents a novel approach to interactive storytelling: SAGE (Storytelling Agent G... View full abstract»

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  • Recognition of Japanese characters by non-native learners through a support database system

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):190 - 199
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1072 KB)

    This paper presents a qualitative analysis of differences in the way that kanji are perceived by different users of Japanese language. Most non-native users of Japanese dictionaries find it difficult to use these dictionaries, because the data are organized in the conventional way, that is similar to dictionaries for native Japanese users. These present compilations are based on the assumption tha... View full abstract»

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  • Technology and tertiary education

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):256 - 261
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)

    Paradigm shifts occur in industries with the development of technologies which change the economics of the industry. Tertiary education is on the verge of a radical change in the way it is organised and in the way instruction is delivered. There will be relatively little effect on the learning outcomes for students but there will be major changes in the working conditions of teachers in the indust... View full abstract»

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  • Rosebud: a place for interaction between memory, story, and self

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):88 - 97
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (928 KB)

    The paper explores digital augmentation of “keepsake objects” in order to enhance their inherent emotional value for an individual. We define keepsake objects as objects which hold personal significance to an individual. In particular, we focus on their use as holders of stories, memories, and identity. We describe the cognitive, social, and psychological aspects of one design implemen... View full abstract»

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  • Computer-aided language processing: using interpretation to redefine man-machine relations

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):136 - 146
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB)

    Focusing on the human computer interaction for natural language processing, we present a formal notion of interpretation, as a frame for the semantic analysis of texts. Moving away from classical automated processing, we define the role of the computer as a guide towards manual identification of semantic structures. We propose an interactive protocol in order to “extract” and explore a... View full abstract»

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  • Putting the horse before the cart: formulating and exploring methods for studying cognitive technology

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):2 - 9
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB)

    The First International Conference on Cognitive Technology (CT'95, Hong Kong, 1995) explored a radically new way of thinking about the impact computer technology has on humans, especially on the human mind. Our main aim at that time was a consideration of these effects with respect to rendering the interface between people and computers more humane. And we exemplified our approach by pointing to e... View full abstract»

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  • Supervised self-organization of user's Kansei model for image retrieving

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):185 - 189
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)

    We propose a Kansei-oriented system dedicated to image retrieval. By “Kansei”-oriented, it is understood that the user is at the center of a system sensitive to and actively using his/her cognitive abilities as well as his/her sensitivity. The definition of this sensitivity is very difficult to elicit even for the user him/herself and therefore should emerge from his/her interaction wi... View full abstract»

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  • Cooperative learning in a virtual university

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):251 - 255
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)

    The computer-assisted learning and communication facilities of the Internet have resulted in a great deal of promise for the establishment of virtual universities worldwide. This paper reflects our vision of a future scenario for adult learners based around cooperative learning. We propose a way forward based around identifying teaching or learning problems and looking at the technology for a poss... View full abstract»

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  • The prosthesis as partner: pragmatics and the human-computer interface

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):82 - 87
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)

    The computer can be regarded as a type of prosthesis: a device that extends the range of action of the human mind or can partly replace certain functions of an impaired human nervous system. Like other prostheses, however, computers are never fully equivalent replacements for human functions. It is argued that present computers extend our cognitive `reach', at the cost of partly paralyzing our emo... View full abstract»

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  • Cognition, situatedness, and situated design

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):124 - 135
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1080 KB)

    In the rationalistic perspective, the human expert is seen as a data processing system having properties similar to computers. As a consequence, the design of man machine interfaces, workplaces, and organizational procedures has been mainly driven by technological advances, focusing on replacing humans rather than supporting their actual needs. A more appropriate explanation of human cognition is ... View full abstract»

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  • Perception of affordances from dynamic displays

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):220 - 227
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (768 KB)

    We studied perception of affordances for the actions of other persons (actors) from kinematic displays. Observers judged the maximum and preferred sitting heights of tall and short actors. Judgments were scaled in centimeters, as proportion of the observer's leg length, and as a proportion of each actor's leg length. Only when judgments were scaled by actor leg length did they reflect the actual o... View full abstract»

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  • Algebraic models for understanding: coordinate systems and cognitive empowerment

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):147 - 162
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1384 KB)

    We identify certain formal algebraic models affording understanding (including positional number systems, conservation laws in physics, and spatial coordinate systems) that have empowered humans when we have augmented ourselves using them. We survey how, by explicit mathematical constructions, such algebraic models can be algorithmically derived for all finite state systems and give examples illus... View full abstract»

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  • The cyborg's dilemma: embodiment in virtual environments

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):12 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1220 KB)

    The paper poses the question: how does the representation of the body in virtual environments affect the mind? The article considers how virtual reality interfaces are evolving to progressively embody the user. The effect of embodiment on the sensation of physical presence, social presence, and self presence in virtual environments is discussed. The effect of avatar representation on body image an... View full abstract»

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  • Enhancing perspicuity of objects in virtual reality environments

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):228 - 237
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1036 KB)

    In an information-rich virtual reality (VR) environment, the user is immersed in a world containing many objects providing that information. Given the finite computational resources of any computer system, optimization is required to ensure that the most important information is presented to the user as clearly as possible and in a timely fashion. In particular, what is desired are means whereby t... View full abstract»

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  • Hominization of cognition, hominization of computer

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):164 - 172
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB)

    Hominization of the brain is the evolution of the human brain traits that discriminate the genus Homo from its primate ancestors. In the human's cognition, one of the characteristics of hominization is an evolutionary hierarchy of the information centers. Its ascending limbs consist of: the primary sensory cortices, higher order sensory cortical areas, the association cortices; and its descending ... View full abstract»

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  • Natural language and artificial technology-it ain't necessarily so

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):27 - 30
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)

    The paper takes its point of departure in issues that have been discussed previously by the author (H. Haberland, 1995; 1996, 1997). In these contributions, the author has tried to explore the implications of some obvious parallels between the linguistic discipline of pragmatics (H. Haberland and J.L. Mey, 1977; J. Verschueren, 1987) and the concept of cognitive technology as explicated by B. Gora... View full abstract»

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