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Cognitive Technology, 1997. Humanizing the Information Age. Proceedings., Second International Conference on

Date 25-28 Aug. 1997

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  • Proceedings Second International Conference on Cognitive Technology Humanizing the Information Age

    Publication Year: 1997
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 279
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Technology and tertiary education

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):256 - 261
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)

    Paradigm shifts occur in industries with the development of technologies which change the economics of the industry. Tertiary education is on the verge of a radical change in the way it is organised and in the way instruction is delivered. There will be relatively little effect on the learning outcomes for students but there will be major changes in the working conditions of teachers in the indust... View full abstract»

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  • The role of interactive conceptions of intelligence and life in cognitive technology

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):33 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1152 KB)

    The paper addresses technology which aims at designing systems which are intelligent or show life like behaviour. The author views `intelligence' and `life' as concepts which are constructed and attributed by humans: a) in a certain context by the process of interaction and understanding, or b) between humans in processes of agreement and the social construction of conventions. Cognitive technolog... View full abstract»

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  • Cooperative learning in a virtual university

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):251 - 255
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)

    The computer-assisted learning and communication facilities of the Internet have resulted in a great deal of promise for the establishment of virtual universities worldwide. This paper reflects our vision of a future scenario for adult learners based around cooperative learning. We propose a way forward based around identifying teaching or learning problems and looking at the technology for a poss... View full abstract»

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  • Rethinking cognitive tools: from augmentation to mediation

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):31 - 32
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)

    When discussing computer tools it is common to say that these artefacts “augment” human cognition by the functionality that has been programmed in them. Augmentation is a powerful idea: the hypothesis is that a person becomes more capable when the functionality of a cognitive tool is added to his or her own cognitive functionality-in augmentation a new, more capable cognitive system em... View full abstract»

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  • Integrated cognitive engineering at the interface: a tool mediation perspective

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):238 - 250
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1336 KB)

    Because human experience accumulates in the structural properties of tools, the design and use of tools is a means by which social knowledge is transmitted. What happens then when a new tool, for which no widespread practices exist, is in the process of being iteratively designed? We present a case study of integrated system design and cognitive engineering of an innovative Web navigator named NES... View full abstract»

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  • Rosebud: a place for interaction between memory, story, and self

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):88 - 97
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (928 KB)

    The paper explores digital augmentation of “keepsake objects” in order to enhance their inherent emotional value for an individual. We define keepsake objects as objects which hold personal significance to an individual. In particular, we focus on their use as holders of stories, memories, and identity. We describe the cognitive, social, and psychological aspects of one design implemen... View full abstract»

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  • Information retrieval and database architecture for conventional Japanese character dictionaries

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):200 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1568 KB)

    The cycle of abstraction-reconstruction, which occurs as a fundamental principle in the development of culture and in cognitive processes, is described and analyzed. This approach leads to recognition of boundary conditions for and directions of probable development of cognitive tools. It is shown how the transition from a conventional Japanese-English character dictionary to a multi-dimensional l... View full abstract»

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  • Natural language and artificial technology-it ain't necessarily so

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):27 - 30
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)

    The paper takes its point of departure in issues that have been discussed previously by the author (H. Haberland, 1995; 1996, 1997). In these contributions, the author has tried to explore the implications of some obvious parallels between the linguistic discipline of pragmatics (H. Haberland and J.L. Mey, 1977; J. Verschueren, 1987) and the concept of cognitive technology as explicated by B. Gora... View full abstract»

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  • The Intelligent Room project

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):271 - 278
    Cited by:  Papers (61)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1196 KB)

    At the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, we have been working on technologies for an Intelligent Room. Rather than pull people into the virtual world of the computer, we are trying to pull the computer out into the real world of people. To do this, we are combining robotics and vision technology with speech understanding systems and agent-based architectures to provide ready-at-hand computat... View full abstract»

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  • Empirical modelling for educational technology

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):54 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1620 KB)

    The potential merits of empirical modelling (EM) as a new approach to generating software for educational use are examined. Connections between EM and the learning process are discussed. EM is proposed as a method of dealing with knowledge that is gained through experience of interaction with artefacts. The philosophical implications of this thesis are considered, with particular reference to the ... View full abstract»

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  • Enhancing perspicuity of objects in virtual reality environments

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):228 - 237
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1036 KB)

    In an information-rich virtual reality (VR) environment, the user is immersed in a world containing many objects providing that information. Given the finite computational resources of any computer system, optimization is required to ensure that the most important information is presented to the user as clearly as possible and in a timely fashion. In particular, what is desired are means whereby t... View full abstract»

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  • The prosthesis as partner: pragmatics and the human-computer interface

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):82 - 87
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)

    The computer can be regarded as a type of prosthesis: a device that extends the range of action of the human mind or can partly replace certain functions of an impaired human nervous system. Like other prostheses, however, computers are never fully equivalent replacements for human functions. It is argued that present computers extend our cognitive `reach', at the cost of partly paralyzing our emo... View full abstract»

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  • Recognition of Japanese characters by non-native learners through a support database system

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):190 - 199
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1072 KB)

    This paper presents a qualitative analysis of differences in the way that kanji are perceived by different users of Japanese language. Most non-native users of Japanese dictionaries find it difficult to use these dictionaries, because the data are organized in the conventional way, that is similar to dictionaries for native Japanese users. These present compilations are based on the assumption tha... View full abstract»

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  • A multifaceted Internet language environment for the hearing impaired

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (884 KB)

    Summary form only given. The paper explores the practical use of a tactile transducer to enhance speech communication for the hearing impaired utilizing a voice mail system. In spite of the recent technological developments in human machine interfaces, the world of the hearing impaired for speech perception and production hasn't had much improvement because of: 1) the lack of consensus and emphasi... View full abstract»

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  • Hominization of cognition, hominization of computer

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):164 - 172
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB)

    Hominization of the brain is the evolution of the human brain traits that discriminate the genus Homo from its primate ancestors. In the human's cognition, one of the characteristics of hominization is an evolutionary hierarchy of the information centers. Its ascending limbs consist of: the primary sensory cortices, higher order sensory cortical areas, the association cortices; and its descending ... View full abstract»

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  • Computer-aided language processing: using interpretation to redefine man-machine relations

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):136 - 146
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB)

    Focusing on the human computer interaction for natural language processing, we present a formal notion of interpretation, as a frame for the semantic analysis of texts. Moving away from classical automated processing, we define the role of the computer as a guide towards manual identification of semantic structures. We propose an interactive protocol in order to “extract” and explore a... View full abstract»

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  • Making internal processes external for constructive collaboration

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):119 - 123
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)

    Information technology has the potential to promote joint creation of new ideas. It has become widely recognized that the workings of human cognitive processes heavily rely on physical externalisation of the interaction of those processes with outside environments, including other people in those environments. Such externalization takes various forms, from conversation, written texts, sketches and... View full abstract»

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  • The cyborg's dilemma: embodiment in virtual environments

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):12 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1220 KB)

    The paper poses the question: how does the representation of the body in virtual environments affect the mind? The article considers how virtual reality interfaces are evolving to progressively embody the user. The effect of embodiment on the sensation of physical presence, social presence, and self presence in virtual environments is discussed. The effect of avatar representation on body image an... View full abstract»

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  • Designing the “Spatial Math Tutor”: a non-symbolic, on-line environment for teaching mathematical skills to dyslexic children

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):262 - 270
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB)

    New cognitive tools are needed to aid the human learner in overcoming barriers associated with diagnostically-identified cognitive deficits. This paper proposes the design of cognitive tools to enable more successful performance on specific mathematical tasks. The paper also considers the possible benefits of externalizing or spatializing the mental constructs underlying a cognitive task involving... View full abstract»

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  • Technology and perception: the contribution of sensory substitution systems

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):44 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (892 KB)

    The strong programme of research in the study and development of cognitive technologies today is based on the hypothesis that these technologies are not only technical means which enable us to enhance our calculating, memorising or perceptive abilities, but that they actually play a key role in the constitution of human experience. The aim of the article is to provide this hypothesis with experime... View full abstract»

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  • Storytelling systems: constructing the innerface of the interface

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):98 - 108
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1068 KB)

    Although recent years have seen an explosion in educational technology, there is still a lack of computational tools specifically designed to encourage exploration of identity and communication issues. Storytelling is a good medium for this type of exploration as it enables reflection about the inner world. The paper presents a novel approach to interactive storytelling: SAGE (Storytelling Agent G... View full abstract»

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  • Perception of affordances from dynamic displays

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):220 - 227
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (768 KB)

    We studied perception of affordances for the actions of other persons (actors) from kinematic displays. Observers judged the maximum and preferred sitting heights of tall and short actors. Judgments were scaled in centimeters, as proportion of the observer's leg length, and as a proportion of each actor's leg length. Only when judgments were scaled by actor leg length did they reflect the actual o... View full abstract»

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  • The cooperative show actions in TV conferencing

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):69 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (860 KB)

    This research studies the show actions to examine how participants integrate the three modalities of speech, camera control, and gesture during TV conferencing. After introducing some concepts of individual show action, the paper focuses attention on the cooperative show actions of two person collaboration. Message exchange TV conferencing was simulated to make observations on participants' free u... View full abstract»

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