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Proceedings Second International Conference on Cognitive Technology Humanizing the Information Age

25-28 Aug. 1997

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  • Proceedings Second International Conference on Cognitive Technology Humanizing the Information Age

    Publication Year: 1997
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • On why the blind leading the blind is a good idea

    Publication Year: 1997
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (89 KB)

    Summary form only given. The paper reports on a project which addresses the problems faced by blind people in negotiating novel spaces. Various technologically sophisticated schemes have been proposed to help the blind in such circumstances. These range from the use of GPS satellites combined with hand-held microcomputers so that the blind user can get an accurate fix on his or her location, to th... View full abstract»

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  • A multifaceted Internet language environment for the hearing impaired

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (978 KB)

    Summary form only given. The paper explores the practical use of a tactile transducer to enhance speech communication for the hearing impaired utilizing a voice mail system. In spite of the recent technological developments in human machine interfaces, the world of the hearing impaired for speech perception and production hasn't had much improvement because of: 1) the lack of consensus and emphasi... View full abstract»

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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 279
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Supervised self-organization of user's Kansei model for image retrieving

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):185 - 189
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)

    We propose a Kansei-oriented system dedicated to image retrieval. By “Kansei”-oriented, it is understood that the user is at the center of a system sensitive to and actively using his/her cognitive abilities as well as his/her sensitivity. The definition of this sensitivity is very difficult to elicit even for the user him/herself and therefore should emerge from his/her interaction wi... View full abstract»

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  • Technology and tertiary education

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):256 - 261
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)

    Paradigm shifts occur in industries with the development of technologies which change the economics of the industry. Tertiary education is on the verge of a radical change in the way it is organised and in the way instruction is delivered. There will be relatively little effect on the learning outcomes for students but there will be major changes in the working conditions of teachers in the indust... View full abstract»

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  • Cooperative learning in a virtual university

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):251 - 255
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)

    The computer-assisted learning and communication facilities of the Internet have resulted in a great deal of promise for the establishment of virtual universities worldwide. This paper reflects our vision of a future scenario for adult learners based around cooperative learning. We propose a way forward based around identifying teaching or learning problems and looking at the technology for a poss... View full abstract»

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  • Rethinking cognitive tools: from augmentation to mediation

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):31 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)

    When discussing computer tools it is common to say that these artefacts “augment” human cognition by the functionality that has been programmed in them. Augmentation is a powerful idea: the hypothesis is that a person becomes more capable when the functionality of a cognitive tool is added to his or her own cognitive functionality-in augmentation a new, more capable cognitive system em... View full abstract»

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  • Technology and perception: the contribution of sensory substitution systems

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):44 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (892 KB)

    The strong programme of research in the study and development of cognitive technologies today is based on the hypothesis that these technologies are not only technical means which enable us to enhance our calculating, memorising or perceptive abilities, but that they actually play a key role in the constitution of human experience. The aim of the article is to provide this hypothesis with experime... View full abstract»

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  • Integrated cognitive engineering at the interface: a tool mediation perspective

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):238 - 250
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1336 KB)

    Because human experience accumulates in the structural properties of tools, the design and use of tools is a means by which social knowledge is transmitted. What happens then when a new tool, for which no widespread practices exist, is in the process of being iteratively designed? We present a case study of integrated system design and cognitive engineering of an innovative Web navigator named NES... View full abstract»

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  • Perception of affordances from dynamic displays

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):220 - 227
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (768 KB)

    We studied perception of affordances for the actions of other persons (actors) from kinematic displays. Observers judged the maximum and preferred sitting heights of tall and short actors. Judgments were scaled in centimeters, as proportion of the observer's leg length, and as a proportion of each actor's leg length. Only when judgments were scaled by actor leg length did they reflect the actual o... View full abstract»

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  • Natural language and artificial technology-it ain't necessarily so

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):27 - 30
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)

    The paper takes its point of departure in issues that have been discussed previously by the author (H. Haberland, 1995; 1996, 1997). In these contributions, the author has tried to explore the implications of some obvious parallels between the linguistic discipline of pragmatics (H. Haberland and J.L. Mey, 1977; J. Verschueren, 1987) and the concept of cognitive technology as explicated by B. Gora... View full abstract»

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  • Hominization of cognition, hominization of computer

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):164 - 172
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB)

    Hominization of the brain is the evolution of the human brain traits that discriminate the genus Homo from its primate ancestors. In the human's cognition, one of the characteristics of hominization is an evolutionary hierarchy of the information centers. Its ascending limbs consist of: the primary sensory cortices, higher order sensory cortical areas, the association cortices; and its descending ... View full abstract»

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  • Cognition, situatedness, and situated design

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):124 - 135
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1080 KB)

    In the rationalistic perspective, the human expert is seen as a data processing system having properties similar to computers. As a consequence, the design of man machine interfaces, workplaces, and organizational procedures has been mainly driven by technological advances, focusing on replacing humans rather than supporting their actual needs. A more appropriate explanation of human cognition is ... View full abstract»

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  • Storytelling systems: constructing the innerface of the interface

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):98 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1068 KB)

    Although recent years have seen an explosion in educational technology, there is still a lack of computational tools specifically designed to encourage exploration of identity and communication issues. Storytelling is a good medium for this type of exploration as it enables reflection about the inner world. The paper presents a novel approach to interactive storytelling: SAGE (Storytelling Agent G... View full abstract»

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  • Recognition of Japanese characters by non-native learners through a support database system

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):190 - 199
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1072 KB)

    This paper presents a qualitative analysis of differences in the way that kanji are perceived by different users of Japanese language. Most non-native users of Japanese dictionaries find it difficult to use these dictionaries, because the data are organized in the conventional way, that is similar to dictionaries for native Japanese users. These present compilations are based on the assumption tha... View full abstract»

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  • Designing the “Spatial Math Tutor”: a non-symbolic, on-line environment for teaching mathematical skills to dyslexic children

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):262 - 270
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB)

    New cognitive tools are needed to aid the human learner in overcoming barriers associated with diagnostically-identified cognitive deficits. This paper proposes the design of cognitive tools to enable more successful performance on specific mathematical tasks. The paper also considers the possible benefits of externalizing or spatializing the mental constructs underlying a cognitive task involving... View full abstract»

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  • The role of interactive conceptions of intelligence and life in cognitive technology

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):33 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1152 KB)

    The paper addresses technology which aims at designing systems which are intelligent or show life like behaviour. The author views `intelligence' and `life' as concepts which are constructed and attributed by humans: a) in a certain context by the process of interaction and understanding, or b) between humans in processes of agreement and the social construction of conventions. Cognitive technolog... View full abstract»

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  • Empirical modelling for educational technology

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):54 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1620 KB)

    The potential merits of empirical modelling (EM) as a new approach to generating software for educational use are examined. Connections between EM and the learning process are discussed. EM is proposed as a method of dealing with knowledge that is gained through experience of interaction with artefacts. The philosophical implications of this thesis are considered, with particular reference to the ... View full abstract»

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  • Putting the horse before the cart: formulating and exploring methods for studying cognitive technology

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):2 - 9
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB)

    The First International Conference on Cognitive Technology (CT'95, Hong Kong, 1995) explored a radically new way of thinking about the impact computer technology has on humans, especially on the human mind. Our main aim at that time was a consideration of these effects with respect to rendering the interface between people and computers more humane. And we exemplified our approach by pointing to e... View full abstract»

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  • Enhancing perspicuity of objects in virtual reality environments

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):228 - 237
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1036 KB)

    In an information-rich virtual reality (VR) environment, the user is immersed in a world containing many objects providing that information. Given the finite computational resources of any computer system, optimization is required to ensure that the most important information is presented to the user as clearly as possible and in a timely fashion. In particular, what is desired are means whereby t... View full abstract»

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  • Computer-aided language processing: using interpretation to redefine man-machine relations

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):136 - 146
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB)

    Focusing on the human computer interaction for natural language processing, we present a formal notion of interpretation, as a frame for the semantic analysis of texts. Moving away from classical automated processing, we define the role of the computer as a guide towards manual identification of semantic structures. We propose an interactive protocol in order to “extract” and explore a... View full abstract»

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  • Action and reaction: computer-mediated dialogues as a model for natural interfaces

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):109 - 118
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (868 KB)

    We describe a study which examined the relationship between certain textual/discursive cues during computer mediated dialogues and correlations of these cues with two measures of impression formation: 1) a global positivity of impressions questionnaire; and 2) perceptions of six personality dimensions. The study also examined discourse phenomena emergent in the conversations. Undergraduates partic... View full abstract»

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  • Information retrieval and database architecture for conventional Japanese character dictionaries

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):200 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1568 KB)

    The cycle of abstraction-reconstruction, which occurs as a fundamental principle in the development of culture and in cognitive processes, is described and analyzed. This approach leads to recognition of boundary conditions for and directions of probable development of cognitive tools. It is shown how the transition from a conventional Japanese-English character dictionary to a multi-dimensional l... View full abstract»

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  • The Intelligent Room project

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):271 - 278
    Cited by:  Papers (67)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1196 KB)

    At the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, we have been working on technologies for an Intelligent Room. Rather than pull people into the virtual world of the computer, we are trying to pull the computer out into the real world of people. To do this, we are combining robotics and vision technology with speech understanding systems and agent-based architectures to provide ready-at-hand computat... View full abstract»

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