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Date 22-24 June 1983

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 283
  • This Page Begins Volume I [Breaker page]

    Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Proceedings of the 1983 American Control Conference

    Page(s): 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Copyright notice]

    Page(s): 3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Sponsoring organization

    Page(s): 4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • ACC 1983 Program at a Glance

    Page(s): 5
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents and program

    Page(s): 6 - 25
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Foreword

    Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Mathematical Modeling and Computer Control of Lime Kilns

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (518 KB)  

    Lime kilns are used as part of the chemical and energy recovery cycle in the pulp and paper industries. The control strategy is sensor based and uses in addition to the usual sensors, a single sided infrared mud moisture sensor and a CO and CO2 flue gas analyzer for optimizing the kiln temperature profile, maximizing throughput, regulating the product quality and conforming to environmental regulations. A steady-state mathematical process model is also used to estimate the peak refractory temperature and predict the residual carbonate in the product. Control action is taken to prevent the peak refractory temperature from exceeding a preset limit, and to maintain the desired residual carbonate. The paper also discusses the simulation results from the mathematical model. View full abstract»

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  • Modern Control of a Catalytic Reformer in Distributed Control

    Page(s): 7 - 13
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    Within petroleum refineries, the catalytic reformer unit is the primary producer of high octane product (reformate) for unleaded gasoline blending. Accurate control of this unit results in decreased operating costs, higher product quality and increased flexibility of operations. Presented is a method of catalytic reformer control which employs a non-linear programming technique using a penalty function-gradient approach to handle constraints and control. This control method has previously been implemented in a process computer and is now configured in function blocks common to state-of-the-art microprocessor-based distributed control systems. View full abstract»

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  • An application of self-tuning controller in the steel industry

    Page(s): 14 - 17
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB)  

    When material is fed through a rolling mill, the rolls of the stand should exert a sufficient pressure on the material so as to reduce the thickness of the material by a certain amount while maintaining the interstand tension of the material at the desired level. An adaptive self-tuning controller for the control of a rolling mill is presented. The controller is designed on the basis of a time-series model in which the parameters are estimated recursively on the basis of the available information. The controller gains are determined at each sampling instant so that the outputs follow the desired values as closely as possible. The controller is in the form of a feedback controller, whose gains are calculated online. The basic time-series model which relates the inputs to the outputs of the system, and the controller algorithm are described. Preliminary simulation studies on the resulting system are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of Logic Circuits in Process Control using Interactive Computer Graphics

    Page(s): 18 - 23
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1038 KB)  

    The advent of relatively high speed computer graphics systems offers an attractive means by which the designer can more effectively perform his tasks. This paper describes an approach in designing and analysing logic control systems through the use of a VAX 11/780 mini-computer equipped with interactive graphic displays. The software primarily includes a logic circuit simulation program with various application processors which provide a communication link between the graphics, the data base and the simulation program itself. The system allows the user to create interactively on a colored graphic screen, a logic ladder diagram; the resulting information will be carried by the data base which provides necessary input to run the simulation program. The latter accepts logic input conditions imposed by the user to the control circuit then simulates appropriate component logic switchings and updates the data base accordingly. The user can also introduce various types of abnormal operating conditions into the system in order to verify the capability of the control circuit to satisfy the process safety requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Control of Multiple Drug Infusions

    Page(s): 22 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB)  

    Although various control schemes have been successful in controlling mean arterial blood pressure by infusing a vasoactive drug, the simultaneous control of cardiac output and blood pressure by multiple drug infusion has to-date received little attention. To this effect, this paper describes the design of an automated multiple drug delivery system. The proposed computer-based controller combines supervisory functions and adaptive control algorithms in a hierarchical structure. Given a set of measured cardiovascular parameters, the supervisor determines the underlying disordered physiology and initiates the relevant control mode. Each mode is a set of allowable drug types, set-point commands and single or multiple feedback loops. The feedback control laws are adapted to each patient's drug response. The adaptive scheme used here is based on pole-placement self-tuning algorithms. This design method accomodates constraints on maximum drug infusion and physiological response rates and, can deal with unknown varying time delays. Adaptive control appears to be better suited for this application because of the wide range of drug sensitivities among patients, time variations in parameters, unknown drug interaction and physiological distrubances. View full abstract»

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  • Model Identification in Exercise Physiology

    Page(s): 27 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB)  

    Model identification for respiratory control during exercise motivates a modeling perspective concerning input design, structure identification and statistical justification. From this perspective, a functional model is proposed and initially tested in two "quiet breathers" and two "noisy breathers" using a pulse input in cycle ergometer work-rate. The results indicate that an input design that yields a higher signal to noise ratio is needed to justify the model in the "noisy breathers." Implications for alternative input designs are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Noise Models in Respiration

    Page(s): 31 - 35
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB)  

    The physiologically based fluctuations observed in experiments involving the human ventilatory response to inhaled carbon dioxide are incorporated in a number of stochastic models. Least squares is compared with maximum likelihood methods for different noise models. Multiple local maxima observed in the maximum likelihood technique motivate the development of a new method to detect the global maximum. Computation of parameter variances by a modification of the bootstrap method is developed as a check on the Cramer-Rao lower bound presently used. View full abstract»

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  • Optimality Principle in Respiratory Control

    Page(s): 36 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB)  

    A classical dilemma in the physiological control of human respiration is that the increase in respiratory ventilation during muscular exercise is normally sustained despite little increase in the intensities of chemical stimulation to breathing. To account for this phenomenon, it has recently been suggested that the control law governing the ventilatory output may be an optimization rather than reflex process; the response in effect being set by the balance between the chemical drive to breathe and the natural tendency to reduce the work of breathing (Poon, C.S., in Modelling and Control of Breathing, Elsevier, 1983). The purpose of this paper is to extend the previous approach to include a general analysis of both respiratory ventilation and pattern responses to CO2 inhalation and exercise. The results suggest that, under the optimality hypothesis, a consistent prediction of all respiratory responses is possible. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Inputs for the Study of Gas Exchange in the Lung

    Page(s): 41 - 45
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (406 KB)  

    This paper discusses the pulmonary washout tests and some of the considerations involved in applying optimal experimental design theory to these tests. Optimal inputs are described as binary sequences. For a given set of parameters the optimal input is determined by minimizing the determinant of the covariance matrix (J). Optimal inputs for a given set of parameters are determined using a modified random search procedure. The optimal input to deliver in the case where the parameters are unknown is determined by mimimizing a linear combination of the J's of several parameter sets which to span the range of interest. Individual J's are weighted by apriori probabilities and by associated costs. For the conditions studied in this work, the optimal inputs involved delivering tracer on breath 7 of a 10 breath test, 12,14,15 and 20 for a 20 breath test, 20,22,23,24 and 30 on a 30 breath test and breaths 23,25,26,32,34,35,40 of a 40 breath test. Implementation of these optimal inputs is also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of Cardiopulmonary Parameters using Quasi-Optimal Inputs

    Page(s): 46 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (434 KB)  

    The present study demonstrates that accurate estimates of cardiac output and other related cardiopulmonary parameters can be obtained noninvasively from respiratory data by driving the system with an appropriately designed ventilatory input. This input consists of a sequence of 3 larger-than-normal breaths and a 12-second breathhold performed 3 times in succession over a total duration of 1 minute. Close attention is given to modeling and computational details in order to minimize the effects of random and systematic errors. The estimated total error is less than 9 percent in all the parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Modular modeling system code development and nuclear applications

    Page(s): 52 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (418 KB)  

    The development of MMS (modular modeling system) by EPRI is reported. The purpose was to supplement existing transient-analysis codes like RETRAN and RELAP by providing an efficient, economical, user-friendly code to be used by utility engineers for long-term and scoping safety analysis of both fossil and nuclear power plants. As a result of extensive validation and trial user-group experience, it is claimed that MMS has met these objectives. It is concluded that with extensive documentation in place, and a well organized and supported user group, MMS can be expected to be used for a wide variety of utility analyses. View full abstract»

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  • Control Analysis and Design Features of EASY5

    Page(s): 58 - 63
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (587 KB)  

    EASY5 is the result of a development effort of more than 10 years duration. Analysts at Being perceived the need for a single software tool to support both nonlinear simulation and linearized analysis of dynamic systems. Prior to the development of EASY5 it was necessary to build and maintain two models of a dynamic system: a linearized model used for controls analysis and design and a nonlinear model used to verify the linearized design. Use of EASY5 allows the analyst to prepare a single model of the system to be analyzed. Not only does this reduce the time required to build and maintain models but it allows the linearized analysis methods of EASY5 to be applied to verification of the model itself before design work begins. One of the major applications of EASY5 has been in support of EPRI's SysteMMS, a modular modeling system for simulation and analysis of fossil and nuclear power plants. Under the sponsorship of EPRI, Boeing Computer Services (BCS) developed a library of models which facilitates the use of EASY5 as part of SysteMMS. This paper presents an overview of the capabilities of EASY5, a brief description of the EASY5/SysteMMS library, and an example of application of EASY5 to designing a controller for a deaerator. View full abstract»

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  • An Investigation of MMS Application to Qualify and Improve Training Simulator Models

    Page(s): 64 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)  

    Notwithstanding the existence of a standard power plant training simulator acceptance criteria document (1), there is a continuing industry dialogue on the needs and merits of various improvements in simulator qualification. One recurring theme addresses the need to correlate model qualification requirements with training requirements. The basic objective of this project is the development of such an improved model qualification methodology, and identification of model development needs, based on this training objective perspective. View full abstract»

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  • Fossil Plant Control Systems Applications with the Modular Modeling System Code

    Page(s): 67 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (511 KB)  

    A dynamic model of the MSUS standard coal-fired unit was developed using EPRI's Modular Modeling System (MMS) code. A simplified control system model was used to help reveal the need for more sophisticated control strategies. The control system was also designed for operation in either a constant throttle pressure or a sliding throttle pressure control mode. Transient results showed that reheat steam temperature and drum level deviations from setpoint exceeded control system preliminary design specifications in both control modes. Further studies are needed to determine if these results were due to control system tuning, control system structure, or plant capacity limitations. A number of other areas for potential applications of MMS were cited. View full abstract»

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  • An Engine Model for Dynamic Engine Control Development

    Page(s): 73 - 78
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (506 KB)  

    This paper describes a dynamic model of a carbureted spark-ignition engine. The model responds to throttle, air/fuel, EGR, spark advance, and load torque inputs to provide manifold pressure, exhaust air/fuel, brake torque, and engine speed outputs. The dynamic aspects of the model are due to time delays and integration. Nonlinear relationships are incorporated to predict engine performance over a broad operating range. View full abstract»

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  • Modern control applications in idle speed control

    Page(s): 79 - 85
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (581 KB)  

    The automotive engine idle-speed regulation problem is one which lends itself to the application of a variety of control theory techniques. The process is distributed and nonlinear with a combination of continuous and discrete elements. There are known and unknown disturbances with both periodic and random process noise. The process is time varying over both short and long time intervals. This paper discusses the application of modern and classical control techniques to the idle speed regulation problem. The use of nonlinear simulation, discrete identification and in-vehicle control synthesis provides a framework for systematic control system design tradeoffs. View full abstract»

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  • The Use of Wave Filter Design in Kalman Filter State Estimation of the Automatic Steering Problem of a Tanker in a Seaway

    Page(s): 86 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (529 KB)  

    The problem of automatic steering control of a large tanker in a seaway is formulated within the framework of linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control theory. Wave disturbance are characterized by shaping filters, and Kalman filters are designed using these disturbance noise models. LQG controllers are designed to minimize a performance criterion commonly thought to be representative of propulsion losses due to steering. Performance of the controllers is determined by simulation results, which apply for deep water and are based on data from scale model tests. View full abstract»

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  • Wind Shear Estimation by Frequency-Shaped Optimal Estimator

    Page(s): 92 - 96
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (387 KB)  

    This paper presents a formulation of the frequency shaped optimal estimator and investigates the role of the measurement noise shaping function in this estimator. This shaping function creates transmission zeros and affects the singular values of the estimator transfer matrix, which can be used to improve control system robustness. The resulting estimator design technique has been applied to the estimation of wind shear on-board an airplane, and its performance has been simulated and compared with a reference Kalman filter. View full abstract»

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