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Networks, 2008. ICON 2008. 16th IEEE International Conference on

Date 12-14 Dec. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 104
  • [Title page]

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  • Table of contents

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  • Design analysis of wireless sensors in BAN for stress monitoring of fighter pilots

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (522 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is anticipated that wearable wireless sensors in body area network (BAN) will increase the functionality of lifestyle and health care devices to gradually match the needs of society by year 2010 and people will carry their personal Body Area Network. The applications in areas like lifestyle, assisted living, sports, entertainment functionalities, toxic levels in the lungs of a Fire-Fighter, radiation exposure in war zones etc are already being explored. View full abstract»

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  • FTEP: A fault tolerant election protocol for multi-level clustering in homogeneous wireless sensor networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (445 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wireless sensor network has potential to monitor stimulus around it. Sensor networks have severe energy constraints, low data rate with high redundancy, and many-to-one flows. Thus, data centric mechanisms that perform in-network aggregation of data are needed. Clustering is one of the data centric mechanisms in which various cluster heads perform in-network aggregation of data. Thus, there is more load on cluster heads than regular nodes. Therefore, for load balancing the role of cluster head should be rotated among other regular nodes. Moreover, cluster heads may fail and disrupt communication. Handling such faulty cluster heads is vital to correct and efficient working of these networks. In this paper, we propose a dynamic and distributed new cluster head election algorithm with fault tolerance capabilities based upon two-level clustering scheme. If energy level of current cluster head falls below a certain limit or any cluster head fails to communicate then election process is started. Based on energy levels, election process appoints a cluster head and a back-up node to handle cluster head failure. Back-up node automatically takes over the role of cluster head once it detects failure of current cluster head. All sensors are homogeneous in nature and working in dual mode. Simulation results show significant energy savings when compared with other clustering scheme like energy efficient multi-level clustering (EEMC). View full abstract»

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  • Ants-in-Mesh routing protocol for Wireless Mesh Network

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    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have recently gained a lot of popularity due to their rapid deployment and instant communication capabilities. However, as a key technology for next-generation wireless networking, WMNs lack suitable routing metrics and protocol for new features. Currently, AODV is the routing protocol used in WMNs. This paper proposes an ants-in-mesh (AIM) routing protocol for wireless mesh networks, which is based on ideas from the nature-inspired ant colony optimization (ACO) framework. AIM agent distributes forward ants on demand to search for the routes to the destination and then activates corresponding backward ants to confirm the routes and update the pheromone. AIM enables only the destination to choose k multiple paths based on ants pheromone, which is based on several link-relevant quality of service (QoS) metrics. AIM agent maintains status of local links by exchanging hello messages periodically. Simulation results show that AIM outperforms AODV in terms of packet delivery ratio and total end-to-end delay. View full abstract»

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  • Dual radio based cooperative caching for wireless sensor networks

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    In this paper, we propose a caching scheme for wireless sensor networks which exploits cooperation among various sensor nodes in a zone formed around few sensor nodes. Zones are created by using dual radio mode of sensor nodes i.e. high and low power transmission ranges define zone size. In order to realize much larger cumulative cache, a node along with its own storage utilizes storage of sensor nodes in zone formed around it. Zone size is taken such that all nodes in a zone communicate with each other in single-hop using low power radio and hence conserves energy in cumulative cache management. Considering multiple and mobile sinks in sensor field, we develop unique token based cache admission control, cache discovery and least importance based item replacement policy. Proposed caching scheme is applied to two-tier data dissemination (TTDD) approach and newly proposed dual radio based data dissemination (DRDD) approach. Simulation results show significant gains in energy efficiency when cooperative caching is used in both approaches as compared to scenarios when these dissemination schemes do not employ caching. View full abstract»

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  • Clustering approach to data aggregation in wireless sensor networks

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    The high cost of communication vis-a-vis computation cost necessitates efficient aggregation in wireless sensor networks. This paper proposes and evaluates two different clustering techniques, FAMNN and DBA. The first approach based on adaptive resonance theory whereas the second approach is based on density based clustering of data. The first technique, FAMNN is based on fuzzy ART and fuzzy ARTMAP neural network. Fuzzy ART works in offline phase with stored data while ARTMAP is employed in the cluster heads to segregate outliers or form new clusters whenever new data arrives from the sensors. The second method works on DBA algorithm which is based on density of points within the clusters. It uses two parameters, minimum points for the clusters and distance between the data within clusters. The small number of data clusters eliminates the need to transfer large amounts of data. The testing of both approaches was done on synthetic sensor data with different parameters generated through tool close to real world sensor data. Simulation results indicate that FAMNN is able to identify the natural clusters and map new data to existing clusters or form new clusters to drastically reduce the amount of data required to be sent to the sink. DBA is able to generate the initial clusters but the number of data points that are marked as noise is significant. FAMNN is able to cluster form fresh clusters as per the requirements of sink whereas, DBA does not cluster outliers till their number is high escalating the communication cost. View full abstract»

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  • Tree-based key management scheme for heterogeneous sensor networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (494 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless sensor networks are used in many applications like battlefield, patient monitoring, emergence response information and environmental monitoring. To achieve security in WSN, it is important to be able to encrypt the messages sent between sensor nodes. It is required to agree upon a common key before encrypting the messages. The key management task is challenging due to resource constrained nature of WSN. In this paper we are proposing a tree based key management scheme for heterogeneous sensor networks. The proposed scheme handles various events like node addition, node compromise and key refresh at regular intervals. The scheme supports revocation of the compromised nodes and the energy efficient rekeying. View full abstract»

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  • A dynamic balanced-energy sleep scheduling scheme in heterogeneous wireless sensor network

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    In energy constrained wireless sensor networks, it is very important to conserve energy and prolong active network lifetime while ensuring proper operations of the network. To extend the lifetime of a sensor network, one common approach is to dynamically schedule sensors¿ work/sleep cycles (or duty cycles). In our work we have considered cluster based heterogeneous wireless sensor network, by deploying a large number of low power sensor nodes and a small number of more powerful, special nodes to serve as cluster heads (CHs). We propose a sleep scheduling scheme on our heterogeneous network for balancing energy consumption rates in low power sensor nodes. We consider three factors contributing to the nodes scheduling decision - distance of node from CH, residual energy of the nodes and backlog-information-buffer-queue . We have used a multiple criteria decision making method to optimize the sleep scheduling process. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is effective in prolonging active lifetime of the network. View full abstract»

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  • Calculating a next-hop metric in multiradio networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (820 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the proliferation of multiple radio devices, simply choosing to send all traffic over the one next-hop radio link with the lowest metric is foolish. Unfortunately, this behavior is what exists today. In this paper, we describe how to combine multiple radio links¿ metrics to a particular next-hop device. The combined next-hop metric allows a multiple radio device to choose the best next-hop device for traffic considering all the radio opportunities available. By considering all radio opportunities, performance may be improved significantly. View full abstract»

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  • HiOPS overlay - efficient provision of multicast in peer-to-peer systems

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (619 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During the last few years the application scope of peer-to-peer systems has been notably extended. While the problems of scalable data localization have been exhaustively addressed, one may notice that the problem of multicast cost and latency delays in very large, global scale peer-to-peer networks still remains inadequately considered. Many large scale applications will suffer from this multicast cost if the number of users increases. In order to address this problem, we introduce HiOPS - a hierarchical two tier peer-to-peer system which provides a reasonable tradeoff between minimization of multicast cost and latency delays and reduction of maintenance and management cost. Because of its properties and characteristics HiOPS can be considered as a basic infrastructure for a wide range of peer-to-peer applications. View full abstract»

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  • RRNS-Convolutional encoded concatenated code for OFDM based wireless communication

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (698 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The modern telecommunication industry demands higher capacity networks with high data rate. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique for high data rate wireless communications at reasonable complexity in wireless channels. OFDM has been adopted for many types of wireless systems like wireless local area networks such as IEEE 802.11a, and digital audio/video broadcasting (DAB/DVB). The proposed research focuses on a concatenated coding scheme that improve the performance of OFDM based wireless communications. It uses a redundant residue number system (RRNS) code as the outer code and a convolutional code as the inner code. The bit error rate (BER) performances of the proposed system under different channel conditions are investigated. These include the effect of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), multipath delay spread, peak power clipping and frame start synchronization error. The simulation results show that the proposed RRNS-convolutional concatenated coding (RCCC) scheme provides significant improvement in the system performance by exploiting the inherent properties of RRNS. View full abstract»

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  • A genetic algorithm based approach for traffic grooming, routing and wavelength assignment in optical WDM mesh networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (558 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In wavelength routed optical networks, each optical link is capable of carrying traffic using several wavelengths and each wavelength as well as lightpath support traffic in the Gbps range. On the other hand, the traffic requested by individual connection is still in the Mbps range. Therefore, to utilize the network resources (bandwidth, transceivers, etc.) effectively, several low-speed traffic streams have to be efficiently groomed or multiplexed into a high-speed lightpath. In this work, we have investigated the traffic grooming problem with the objective of maximizing the network throughput for wavelength routed mesh networks. We have proposed an algorithm to handle general multi-hop static traffic grooming based on genetic algorithm. The efficacy of our approach has been established through extensive simulation on different sets of traffic demands under different network topologies and compared with an efficient heuristics proposed in the literature. View full abstract»

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  • pathWave: Combined estimation of network link capacity and available bandwidth using statistical signal processing

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (615 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Network link capacity (lc) and available bandwidth (av-bw) are recently considered as importance for various network domains. Consequently, several lc and av-bw measurement techniques and tools have been proposed, where empirical experience, performance comparison and foundational understanding of lc/av-bw measurement have been focused. Many heuristic or non-probabilistic statistical algorithms have been used to estimate lc/av-bw in this literature. However, stochastic analysis indicates that improved understanding of the fundaments of bandwidth estimation could lead to more accurate and effective methods. In this paper, we model network lc/av-bw measurement as a stochastic signal state detection and signal parameter estimation problem. We present a novel approach to measure network lc/av-bw, using packet-pair dispersion technique and our extended self-induced congestion principle based on statistical signal processing theory. We validate the affectivity of our lc/av-bw measurement tool, pathWave in NS-2 simulation environment and evaluate its performance in test bed by comparing with other representative tools. According to the analytical, simulative, and experimental result, we can demonstrate that our statistical signal processing is a more efficient approach for lc/av-bw measurement. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and analysis of voice/data call admission control scheme in CDMA cellular network for variation in soft handoff threshold parameters

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (469 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In CDMA cellular networks the variation in soft handoff coverage area can be taken as the parameter influencing the performance of the system. In this paper, an analytical model is developed and analyzed for the concerned target cell in CDMA cellular network. The model proposed in this paper is for integrated data and voice services. It is based on reservation for handoff voice and data calls along with call queuing scheme for handoff data calls. Preemptive priority scheme is used for handoff voice calls over ongoing data calls. Upper channel limits are set for new voice as well as data calls to give priority to handoff calls. Two dimensional Markov birth-death process is used for modeling the problem. The data handoff queue capacity is considered as function of soft handoff coverage area which depends on the two soft handoff threshold parameters T_ADD and T_DROP. Variation in these threshold parameters is stated in term of variation in handoff data call queue capacity. The performance parameters of the model mainly new voice and data call blocking probabilities and handoff voice and data dropping probabilities are analyzed for variation in upper channel limit for new voice call and handoff data call queue capacity. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced AODV routing protocol for Ad hoc networks

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (518 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes with no fixed infrastructure such as base station or mobile switching centers. In this paper we present the study and simulation of a new protocol for routing in ad hoc networks. The new proposed protocol is an Enhancement of Ad hoc on demand Distance Vector (EAODV) routing protocol which offers quick adaptation to dynamic link conditions, low processing overhead and low network utilization. As in AODV each Mobile Host acts as a router and routes are obtained on demand with little or no periodic advertisements. It uses destination sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom at all times. EAODV reduces hop count, Latency time and enhances throughput, packet delivery ratio of packets in ad hoc networks. It maintains more than one route to the required destination. Also, the shortest route is selected to send the data packets to the destination. View full abstract»

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  • Probability based routing for Ad Hoc networks in a building

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    Ad Hoc networks are gaining popularity day by day and their presence is expanding into every field, soon they will be part of our day to day life. In the proposed method, a scenario of an office building is taken with `n¿ nodes and `m¿ floors. A routing algorithm is proposed for the above scenario taking into consideration, the probabilities of each node to be present on a particular floor. The routing algorithm is thus dynamic in nature and also proves to be efficient even in case of nodes moving to different floors. The aim is to optimize the number of data transfers between various nodes while sending the data from source to the destination. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a hybrid protocol for identification of a maximal set of node-disjoint paths in mobile Ad hoc networks

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    In this paper, we analyze a protocol that is hybrid of an incremental protocol and a protocol that tries to identify multiple node-disjoint paths in a single route discovery. We prove that the hybrid protocol preserves the guarantee inherited from the incremental protocol about the identification of a maximal set of node-disjoint paths. In our analysis, we focus on the following parameters: (i) communication and computational overheads, and (ii) route failure time. View full abstract»

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  • On the prevention of collusion attack in OLSR-based Mobile Ad hoc Networks

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    A particularly severe attack on routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is the collusion attack, in which a pair of colluding attackers prevent routes to a specific node (targeted node) from being established. This attack has devastating impact on Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol which is one of the standard routing protocols for MANETs. When there is a collusion attack in the network, the simulation results show that the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) drops to 0% for the targeted node. In this paper, we present an efficient protocol to prevent the collusion attack, by incorporating an information theoretic trust framework in OLSR. This protocol tries to ascertain the presence of the colluding attackers by evaluating and quantifying their trust values based on their uncertainty measures. Entropy functions have been used to represent the uncertainty involved in a node¿s behavior. We call the proposed protocol as Collusion Attack Prevention-OLSR (CAP-OLSR). In CAP-OLSR, the targeted node requests neighbor nodes to make recommendations on doubtful attackers based on the nature of the attack. For this purpose two new messages called Trust Request (TREQ) and Trust Reply (TREP) have been added to the OLSR protocol. Simulation results show that CAP-OLSR can efficiently detect the colluding attackers and significantly improve the PDR of the nodes in the network. Our protocol has several advantages since it does not require any time synchronization or location information and shows significant improvement in PDR under various scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • Capability aware routing algorithm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network in workplace

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (541 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the present scenario, mobile communication is being widely used in the areas where infrastructure-based telecommunication systems are unavailable or to deploy one is not cost effective. However, often users suffer due to the fact that mobile devices have very low computational capability and thus are incapable of executing many applications with higher resource requirements. In a mobile adhoc network (MANET) environment, when a node (a mobile device) is unable to accomplish a job, the job may be transferred to other nodes, which can fulfill its requirements in terms of resources. In ad-hoc network-based environments, such nodes should be found on demand, i.e. an algorithm should reach every node and match the requirements of a job with the capability of each node. Movements of the nodes result in change of routes, requiring some mechanism to determine the routes to such node every time a job is submitted. This paper particularly emphasizes on the potentials of using PDAs or laptops of users within an office or in a meeting place. Users can submit their job requirements and then the request will pass through the MANET in order to search for a suitable node that would be able to respond back to the user. This paper proposes a capability aware ad-hoc routing algorithm (CAODV) for using in such scenario. CAODV gathers information regarding the capability of a node during route discovery and uses this information in selecting the node and the best route to that node. A modification of this algorithm to reduce the search for already searched routes is also presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of PBANT (PBANT: Position based ANT Colony Routing algorithm for MANETs)

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    A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes which communicate over radio. These kinds of networks are very flexible and thus they do not require any fixed infrastructure or central administration. Therefore, mobile ad-hoc networks can be deployed easily and used as temporary communication links. The biggest challenge in these kinds of networks is to find a path between the communication end points, which is aggravated through the node mobility. Ant-colony-based routing algorithm (ARA) is an on-demand routing algorithm for mobile, multi-hop ad-hoc networks. The protocol is based on swarm intelligence and especially on the ant colony based meta heuristic. These approaches try to map the solution capability of swarms to mathematical and engineering problems. ARA can find routing paths that are close to the shortest paths even if the nodes in the networks have different transmission ranges. But the algorithm overhead and delay for establishing a path from source to destination is much more for ARA. The position details of the nodes (position of the node, the position of its neighbors, and the position of the destination) can be obtained by positioning instruments such as GPS receiver. If the position details are known, ARA can find out routes with lesser overhead and delay. PBANT is basically ARA where position details of the nodes are known. Here the performance of PBANT is evaluated in terms of delivery rate, delay and control messages needed, for different values of the algorithm parameters. View full abstract»

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  • CPN model for a Hierarchical Fault Tolerance Protocol for Mobile Agent systems

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    A mobile agent (MA) is an autonomous and identifiable software process that travels through a network of heterogeneous machines and acts autonomously on behalf of the user. Improving the survivability of MA in presence of various faults is the major issue concerned with implementation of MA. This paper presents a hierarchical fault tolerance protocol (HFTP) for mobile agents, which can tolerate host failure, system failure as well as link failure by grouping the hosts within a network and rear guard based migration of MA in the global network. It also presents Colored Petri Net (CPN) based architectural modeling of HFTP, which includes systematic specification, design and implementation of components of the system. Various useful results have been drawn by simulation as well as data collector and monitoring tools. We also present a formal analysis of the protocol. View full abstract»

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  • MASLKE: Mobile Agent Based Secure Location aware Key Establishment in sensor networks

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    Key establishment is a fundamental prerequisite for secure communication in wireless sensor networks (WSN). In this regard, symmetric key cryptography is very attractive in WSN. In this paper, we have proposed Mobile Agent (MA) Based Secure Location aware Key Establishment (MASLKE). In MASLKE, MAs find the location of sensor nodes and this information is used for key generation and distribution. MASLKE provides secure key exchange in intra and inter domain of the network and achieves high connectivity in WSN. Simulation results show that MASLKE is quite effective in achieving the goal of secure key distribution in large scale WSN. View full abstract»

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  • Chain based Conical Clustering (CCC) framework for data gathering in WSNs

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    Non uniform energy consumption of the nodes is a major area of concern in cluster based data gathering architectures proposed for wireless sensor networks in the literature and is an active area of research over recent past years. The solutions suggested in the literature, for uniform distribution of energy consumption, require rotation of clusterhead role among sensor nodes but every such rotation needs reclustering of the nodes in the network. The overhead associated with such reclustering are not actual part of data gathering activities and consume energy unnecessarily only for creating and maintaining the clusters. To avoid such unnecessary wastage of energy, due to forced reclustering associated with the clusterhead role rotation, a new hybrid clustering framework, chain based conical clustering (CCC) scheme, is proposed in this paper. CCC keeps the cluster stable and rotates the clusterhead role among the cluster members using layered chains of these cluster members. It is proved, theoretically, that CCC is expected to outperform the scheme used as a benchmark, in the clustered data gathering performance comparison, in wireless sensor network literature. View full abstract»

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  • A power-aware wireless sensor network based bridge monitoring system

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    Recent proliferation of sensor networks in diverse applications has made the low-power wireless sensor network an important design issue. Structural health monitoring is one of the important applications of the wireless sensor network. A robust wireless structural monitoring strategy requires appropriate choice of the wireless network topology as well as some suitable protocols. This paper presents a power-aware sensor network, which can be used for the monitoring of bridges. Event-driven data communication protocols have been used to minimize energy drawn from the battery. All the sensor nodes remain in low-power sleep mode unless triggered either by a base station or by another sensor node in the neighborhood. Two ways of collecting data have been proposed and their performances in terms of the number of motes versus network lifetime have been compared. View full abstract»

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